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rr^r s*~ - 







Fro. I. 

FIG. 2. 

FIG. 3. 


FIG. 5. 

FIG. 6. 



cf. Imhoof-Blumer und Keller, PI. xxi, 14). 

FIG. 2. TETRADRACHM OF ERETRIA (B. M. Cat., Central Or., 
PI. xxiii, i). 

Both these subjects represent a bird on a bull's (or cow's) back, in my 
opinion the pleiad in relation to the sign Taurus (vide infra, p. 31). In 
Fig. 2 the bull is turning round, to symbolize the tropic ; in Fig. r it is in 
the conventional kneeling attitude of the constellation Taurus, as Aratus 
describes it (Ph. 517) 

Tavpov 5f ateeXfcov oaarj irepityaiveTai oK\a, 
or in Cicero's translation 

' Atque genu flexo Taurus connititur ingens.' 

Compare also, among other kindred types, the coins of Paphos, showing 
a bull with the winged solar disc on or over his back {Rev. Num., 1883, 
p. 355; Head, H. Numorum, p. 624, &c.). 

H. Niimorum, p. 105). Aquila, which is closely associated with 
Capricorn (cf. Manil. i. 624), sets as Cancer rises : it may figure, 
therefore, as a solstitial sign. 


H. Numorum, p. 125 ; cf. infra, p. 26). 

CRESCENT MOON (Head, p. 312; cf. infra, p. 46). 

FIG. 7 (on title]. DECADRACHM OF AGRIGENTUM. Cf. Aesch. Agam. 
1 10-120 (vide infra, p. 8). The reverse of the coin shows Cancer 
associated with the solar Quadriga. 





















N role HAAAioTc, onep ef TIC BoyAHGem QYNAfAreTN, eic 

AN MHKOC 6KTei'N6l TON AOfON. - NEMES., De Nat. 


THIS book contains materials for research in greater 
measure than it presents the results of it ; and, accordingly, 
it is not my purpose to preface it with an extended summary 
of the many wide generalizations to which the assemblage 
of fact and legend here recorded may seem to lead. This 
book indeed includes only a small part of the notes I have 
gathered together since I began years ago, as an under- 
graduate, ignorant of the difficulties of the task, to prepare 
the way for a new edition of the Natural History of the 
Philosopher. Three points, however, in my treatment of 
the present subject deserve brief explanation here. 

Instead of succeeding in the attempt to identify a greater 
number of species than other naturalist-commentators, dealing 
chiefly with the Aristotelian birds, have done, I have on the 
contrary ventured to identify a great many less. This limita- 
tion on my part is chiefly due to the circumstance that I have 
not ventured to use for purposes of identification a large class 
of statements on which others have more or less confidently 
relied. A single instance may serve to indicate the state- 
ments to which I allude. In the Historia Animalium 
(especially in the Ninth Book, great part of which seems 
to me to differ in character and probably in authorship from 
all but a few isolated passages of the rest of the work), in 
the works of such later writers as Pliny, Aelian and Phile, 
and scattered here and there in earlier literary allusions, 
we find many instances recorded of supposed hostility or 
friendship between different animals. When we are told, 


for example, that avOos is hostile to anavOk and to the Horse, 
that TTITTW is hostile to iroutA.1?, to Kopi>5coi>, to \Xapevs and to 
epooSto's, that one Hawk is hostile to the Raven and another 
to the Dove, and one Eagle to the Goose or to the Swan, 
we try at first to use these statements as best we can in 
unravelling the probable identification of the respective 
species. But when we find, for instance, among the rest 
that the Owl is hostile to the Crow, and when we recognize 
in that statement the ancient Eastern fable of the War of 
the Owls and Crows, we are tempted to reject the whole 
mass of such statements and to refuse them entry into the 
domain of Zoological Science. While former commentators 
have, with greater or less caution, rejected many fables, 
they have often rashly accepted many others. And I fear 
for my part that I in turn, while rejecting a much greater 
number, have perhaps also erred in ascribing a fabulous or 
mystical meaning to too few. 

For many such statements, and for others equally unin- 
telligible in the terms of Natural History, I offer a novel 
and, at first sight, a somewhat startling explanation : to wit, 
that very many of them deserve not a zoological but an 
astronomical interpretation. 

In the spring of 1894 I read to the Royal Society of 
Edinburgh a paper (which I have not yet printed) on * Bird 
and Beast in Ancient Symbolism'. In that essay I sought 
to demonstrate the astronomic symbolism of certain ancient 
monuments, especially of the great bas-relief of Cybele in 
the Hermitage Museum 1 ; secondly, of the beast and bird- 
emblems of classical coinage 2 ; and lastly, of certain fables 
or myths of the philosophers and poets. 

1 This monument, a figure of which is accessible in Miss J. E. Harrison's 
Mythology of Ancient Athens, represents, according to my view, the ancient 
tropics of Leo and Aquarius, with Taurus and Leo in symbolic combat in the 
frieze below. 

2 The identical theory, in so far as it applies to numismatic emblems, was pro- 
mulgated a few months afterwards by M. Jean Svoronos in a learned and scholarly 
paper, to be found in the Bulletin de Correspondence Hellenique for 1894; but 
the theory was not so novel as M. Svoronos and I supposed it to be. In con- 
nexion with coins or gems, it is explicitly and admirably stated by Gorius, De 


Many illustrations of this theory of mine will be found 
in the pages of this Glossary 1 . Suffice it to say here, in 
briefest illustration, that the Eagle which attacks the Swan 
and is in turn defeated by it, is, according to my view, the 
constellation Aquila, which rises in the East immediately 
after Cygnus, but, setting in the West, goes down a little 
while before that more northern constellation ; that Haliaetus 
and Ciris are the Sun and Moon in opposition, which rise 
and set alternately, like the opposite constellations of Scorpio 
and Orion with which the poet compares them. 

Among many other opinions and testimonies to the same 
effect, let us listen to the words of a Father of the Church : 
' The ancients believed that the legends about Osiris and 
Isis, and all other mythological fables [of a kindred sort], 
have reference either to the Stars, their configuration, their 
risings and their settings, or to the wax and wane of the 
Moon, or to the cycle of the Sun, or to the diurnal and 
nocti-diurnal hemispheres V 

The proof and the acceptance of such a theory as this 
are linked with considerations far-reaching in their interest. 
The theory has its bearing on our new knowledge of the 
orientation of temple-walls; it helps to explain what Quintilian 
meant when he said that acquaintance with Astronomy was 
essential to an understanding of the Poets ; the wide-spread 
astronomic knowledge which it presupposes may account for 
the singular interest in and admiration of the didactic poem 
of Aratus, the poem translated by Germanicus and Cicero 
and quoted by St. Paul ; and the whole hypothesis points to 
a broad distinction between two great orders of Myth. 

Myths are spontaneous or literary, natural or artificial. 
Some come to us from the Childhood of Religion and the 
Childhood of the World ; dream-pictures as it were from 
the half-opening eyes of awakening intelligence, archaic traces 
of the thoughts and ways of primitive and simple men ; these 

Gemmis Astriferis, 1750 ; and a kindred but exaggerated development, in regard to 
legend, of the same hypothesis forms the method of Dupuis. 

1 Cf. pp. 8, 28, 31, 63, 107, 121, 132, 192, &c. 

3 Euseb, Pr. Ev. iii. c. 4. 


are the folk-lore tales and customs that are presented to 
us by the school of Mannhardt. But others, and these for 
the most part are astronomic myths, belonging to a relatively 
later age, were artificially invented of the wise, to adorn, 
preserve, or conceal their store of learning ; they had their 
birth in cultured homes of deep religion, of treasured science, 
of exalted poetry. Both orders of Myth come to us with 
the glamour of antiquity, and each has for us a diverse but 
perennial interest : 

d <TTa<pv\\s <TTa(j)is eVri, KOI ov p68ov avov oXemu. 

The distinction between these two orders of Myth was 
pointed out long ago by an ancient critic l ; he drew the dis- 
tinction clearly, but the tales of folk-lore, puerile in his eyes, 
found no echo of sympathy in the old scholar's heart. We, on 
the other hand, have learned nowadays to say with the poet : 

y AK\cir)s ode p.dvris 6? ovS' ocra Traidcs 

The great Signs of the Heavens are as old as our knowledge 
of the months and years, and about them poet-watchers of the 
stars wove an imperishable web of imagery. Of this kind are 
the Voyage in quest of the Golden Fleece 3 , and the Twelve 
Labours of the Hero-God 4 ; and I have attempted to show 
how into the same fabric are woven tales of Aetos and 
Haliaetos, of Halcyon and Ciris, of Stymphalian perhaps also 

1 Oi JAW yap TUV aotywv pvOoi ire pi aiSicav flat irpay^drcav, ol 5e ru>v iraiSow ire pi 
tyxpovuv KOI fffJUKpwv KOI ol fj.ev voepdv fx ovffl T *l v dXrjQaav, of 8e x a A 7rT '7 < 
ovSw vibrjXov krteuarvftbnyr : Procl. in Plat. Tim. Cf. also Porph. V. Pythag. (41) 42, 
Iambi. V. Pythag. 23, and other commentators on the Pythagorean Symbols. 

2 Apoll. Rh. iii. 930. 

3 * Auf die Argonauten hatte ich immer ein Zutrauen .... Es liegen herrliche 
Motive darin, und gewiss liessen sich noch manche daraus entwickeln ' : Goethe to 
Schiller, Letter 496. 

4 An English scholar very recently propounded the view that the Hind with the 
Golden Horns was a reindeer ! 

217770-0; 6/idSos xpvatov Kepas" ov Se aAeWcu 

Tr]\ifeov 'Hpa.K\f)a e\d(f)0io tpovTJa' 

Mr) Tpopcprjs t\d(f>ov fJUfJLvrjaKfo. Nonn. Dionys. xxv. 223. 


of Diomedian and Memnonian Birds, of Pleiad-Doves and 
Singing Swans. All these come to us from the Land beyond 
the Rainbow : they are dwellers in Fairyland. 

Akin to this enterprise of tracing allusions to the ancient 
science of the Stars in art and legend, in neglected phrases 
and statements, of the Greeks, is the effort I have made to 
ascribe to non- Aryan languages names used by Hellenic 
writers for many legendary as well as for many real Birds. 
The Master told his pupils that the gods whom men wor- 
shipped under other names were, in the childhood of religion, 
the Sun, the Moon, and the Stars of Heaven, to which many 
barbarians still bowed down 1 ; and he told them also that 
one who should seek to explain by Greek all the words 
of Greek should surely go astray, for that many words in 
daily use were borrowed from barbaric speech 2 . 

The astronomic science that the ancients loved and under- 
stood, as do the wise men of China and Arabia to this day, 
was not the gift of Greece alone, but was the accumulated 
gain of ages of antecedent civilization by the River of Egypt 
and the Four Rivers of Chaldaea ; and Eastern imagination 
veiled in mysterious allegory the ancient treasures of Eastern 

If the quest after non- Aryan words and the attempt to 
trace the esoteric meaning of fables to a science which had 
its origin on alien soil are to be justified, we must cease 
to believe in a gulf between the Greeks and their Eastern 
contemporaries and predecessors. That gulf, if gulf there 
was, was crossed again and again. It was crossed by 
the migrations of races, by the tramp of armies, by the sails 
of commerce ; by the progress of religions, by the influence 
of art, by the humble footsteps of philosophers, seeking 
wisdom like Dervish-pilgrims of the Eastern or Wandelnde 
Studenten of the Western world. 

1 Plat. Cratyl., p. 397. 

2 Ibid., p. 409 : Ei ns &TOI ravra KO.TCL rrjv 'E\\rjviffriv (poavty us choreas KCITCH, 
dAAa prf /car' fKfivijv, e ?js TO ovopa. Tvyx^ vfl v > otcrOa on diropoi av. El/torus ye. 
The doctrine of ' Loan-words ' thus adumbrated in the Cratylus, is now, within 
certain limits, a commonplace of philology; but we do not know where the 
quest for such Loan-words may end. 


As the White Doves came from Babylon or the Meleagrian 
Birds from the farther Nile, so over the sea and the islands 
came Eastern legends and Eastern names. And our Aryan 
studies must not blind us to the presence in an Aryan tongue 
of these immigrants from Semitic and Egyptian speech, or 
from the nameless and forgotten language that was spoken 
by the gods. 

D. W. T. 



'AfO'P' deros, KvTrptot, Hesych. 

- Bochart (Hieroz. II. c. xi, coll. 79, 80) shows good reason for 
supposing that deros here should read yepavos, and that dyop is 
merely Heb. "\1jy, a crane (Jerem. viii. 7 ; Is. xxxviii. 14). Cf. 
Lewysohn, Zool. d. Talmuds, p. 169. 

'ArPAKO'MAI' opvts TIS vno ILa^L\wv, Hesych. 

'APPEY'Z. An unknown bird. It is like a Blackbird, black, musical, 
and a mimic, Ael. viii. 24. The description is somewhat sug- 
gestive of the Indian Mynah, but it is in the main mystical. Vide 

'AAflNHl'l, s. dSuimjis (cf. Creuzer, Symb. ii. 478). ^ xeXi8a>i/, Hesych. 
Cf. drjo'ovis, S. V. drjSwK. 

'AEAAO'I, an unknown bird, Hesych. 
'AEPOKO'PAH, vide s. v. Kopa. 
'AE'POvlJ, vide s. v. fxepoxj/. 

'AETO'I. Ep. and Ion. aleros alrjros in Find. P.iv, Arat. 522, 591, &c. ; drjros, 
Arat. 315 ; alperos, for al ferns, Hesych. Dim. aenSeuy, Ael. vii. 47, Aesop, 
Fab. I. deros is said to be 'the flyer,' 'the Bird] from root af or vt, 
of Sk. m-s, Lat. avi-s, and of Gk. ar^i : the same root perhaps in 
ol-wv-os (Curt.) and al-yvTr-ios ; cf. the Greek use of olavos ; also the 
Lat. use of ales for Eagle, and opveov in M. Gk. for Vulture. Never- 
theless, the absence of Eagle-names similar to aeros in other Indo- 
^ B 


AET02 (continued}. 

European languages is so striking, that I suspect for it a non-Aryan 

An Eagle, the generic word; see also dKuXcifc, dXideros, arrap, 
dpyioirous, api<|>os, dorepias, eupufjit'Swv, i^i^os, I8e<ui>, KUKi/ias, 
Xayw^oyos, {JieXai/dieTOS, fjiop^yos, i>T]TTo<|>6i>o9, irXdyyos, iruyapyos, 
Xpuaderos, c.: v. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b, ix. 32, 6i8b, 619 a ; on the 
species of Eagles cf. Cuvier ad Plin. x. 3, ed. Grandsaigne, whose iden- 
tifications, however, like those of Sundevall (Thierarten des Aristoteles, 
Stockholm, 1863, also in Swedish, K. Akad. Wetensk. Stockholm, 1862), 
are in my opinion to be received with caution. Besides the Osprey, 
Pandion Haliaetus, and the Short-toed Eagle, Ctrcaettts gallicus, the 
following true Eagles are regular inhabitants of Greece, A. Chrysaetus, 
A. heliaca, A. naema, A. Bonelli, A. pennata, and Haliaetus albicilla. 
Though occasional passages may be descriptive of the habits of one 
rather than another of these species, there is no evidence of any of 
these having been recognized as distinct : such names as dXuieros, fieXav- 
deros and \aya(j)6vos have a mystical or symbolic rather than a de- 
scriptive or specific meaning. On the confusion of the Eagles with the 
Vultures, vide infra. Eagles are common in Greece, though (Xen. 
Venat v. 24) absent from many of the islands, for want of hills. On 
the Eagle in classical art and mythology cf. O. Keller, Thiere d. cl. 
Alterthums, pp. 236-276, 430-452. 

Epithets. Horn. ay/cvXo^ei'X^f (cf. Ar. Eq. 197 Pvpaaieros ayKuXo^eiX?;? 
S. -XJjXjjs), aWcov, fieidy, KapriaTos KOI O>KLCTTOS Trererji/aii/, p.e\as (cf. Aesch. 
Ag. 115, Plut. Amat. iv. 9), o^vraros depKfadai, reXeioraro? (II. viii. 247), 
v^ineTTjs s. tynreTrjeis (cf. Soph. Oenom. fr. 423, Horap. ii. 56, c.), Ail 
(piXraros (II. xxiv. 310). Hes. Th. 523 ravinrrfpos (cf. Find. P. v. 112, 
II. xxiv. 317, Orphic. Lith. 124). Find. P. i. 6, v. 48, Isthm. vi dpxbs 
ola>vS)v, Ol. xiii. 21 /3ao-iXeu? oia>v>v (cf. Aesch. Ag. 1 15 ; Ar. Eq. 1087 ; 
Ael. ix. 2 ; Nic. Ther. 448 ; Callim. Hymn. Jov. 68 ; Ovid, Met. iv. 362 ; 
the Eagle was an Egyptian symbol for the king, according to Horap. 
ii. 56, and was worshipped as a royal bird by the Thebans, Diod. Sic. 
i- 87, 9) ; a royal emblem also at Babylon, Philostr. Imagg. 386 K. 
Aesch. Pr. V. 1024 Aios TTTTJVOS KIXOV, da(f>oivbs aieros I Soph. fr. 766 
a-Kf?7rro/3a/io)j/ cu'eros, KVO>V Aids (cf. Ar. Av. 515, Find. P. i. 6). Aesch. 

Suppl. 212, Soph. Aj. 1040, Eur. Ion 159, &C. : Z^z/6? opvis, Zrjvbs aieroy, 

Zrjvbs Kijpv^. Antip. Sid. xcii in Gk. Anth. (Jac.) ii. 33 *Opvi, Atos 
Kpovidao diaKrope. Arat. Phen. 522 Zrjvbs piyas ayyeXos. Schol. Find. 
I. v. 53 SioTrojLiTro? alfTos. See also Porphyr. De Abstin. iii. 5 opvifas rots 
dvdpwTTOis ftcri Krjpvues aXXoi aXXwi/ df&v, Albs fiev aerdy, K. T. X. Nonn. 
Dionys. xxiv. I2O aieroy ^-yt/idj/eue di rjepos avrirvrros Zevs. Ar. Av. 1248 
(Aesch. fr. Niob.) irvptyopoicriv aierois. Bianor in Gk. Anth. ii. 143 ^epo- 
divrjs aleroS) oiavav povvos enovpavios. Cf. Eurip. fr. 866 avrns p,ev drjp 


AETOI (continued}. 

TrepdcrifJLOs. (Cf. Arist. H. A. 32, 619 b v-^ov 8e irererai, OTTCO? eVi 
TOTTOV Kadopa' dionep 6elov ol avBpwnoi (pacriv flvai JJLOVOV ra>v 
opVQ)v.) Opp. Venat. i. 281 aleros aWcpioicnv firiBixttv yvdXotaiv. Quint. 
Sm. iii. 354 olu>v5>v Trpocpepea-Taros. Opp. Hal. ii. 539 o<rcroi> yap Kovcpouri 
/ier' ola>vol<riv avaKres, cu'eroi. Phile, De Aq. vty id p opos, KaprioTo? 6pvida>v, 
TrnjvoKpdroop. Eurip. fr. 1049 (Cram. An. Gr. Oxon. ii. 452) 
aero?, 6 Xwcrroff OVTOS KOI <pi\otve<rTaTos. 

derog 6 *uX. yvfjorios. Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 619 peyiaTos TO>V 

jjieifav re rrjs (pfjvrj?, TO>V 8' dfrav KOI jJ/zidXios', ^pa>/za {-avdds, (paiWrai 5e 
oXiyaKis coo-Trep 117 Ka\ovp.evrj Kvpivdis I cf. Plut. Amat. iv. 9 ; vide S. V. 
fAop<f>i/6s. This is usually taken, as is also the xpuo-afros or do-repi'as of 
Ael. H. A. ii. 39, to mean the Golden Eagle, Aq. Chrysaetus (L.) ; the 
former birds are however said by both authors to be very rare, whereas 
the Golden Eagle is the commonest eagle in Greece (Heldreich). 
Aristotle's statement as to its size is modified by Pliny (H. N. x. 3, 
media magnitudine). The passage is obscure and mythical, as shown 
by the allusions to Kvpivdis and (pyvr) : Pliny's phrase solumque in- 
corruptae originis is a literal but perhaps incorrect translation of 
yvrjo-ios. Many of the general references to aeros apply more or less 
closely to Aq. Chrysaetus^ e. g. Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 619, its nesting 
habits ; vi. 6, 563 ri/a-ei rpla <oa, eVa>aei Trepi rpiaKovra ijpepas I ix. 32, 
619 b TOVS dao"viro8as OIIK vdi>s Xap-/3ayei, aXX' els TO nfftiov edcras 7rpoeX$eii>, 
this last statement being, however, very obscure : Ael. ii. 39, &c., &c. 
On the other hand accounts of the capture of snakes and stories of 
the combat with the Dragon (Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609 Tpocpyv yap Troiemu 
TOVS ofais 6 dtTos : Ael. xvii. 37 ; II. xii. 200 ; Aesch. Choeph. 245 ; Soph. 
Antig. 1 10-126 ; Nonn. Dion. xl. 476 ; Nic. Theriac. 448 ; Acs. Fab. 120 ; 
cf. Virg. Aen. xi. 751 ; Hor. Carm. iv. 4 ; Ovid, Met. iv. 712 ; Flav. Vopisc. 
De Aurel. iv), are based on the habits of Circaetus gallicus, the Short- 
toed Eagle, which feeds on reptiles, and partly also of the Lammer- 
geier. In Imhoof-Blumer and Keller's Thierbilder we have coins of 
Chalcis in Euboea showing an Eagle with the snake in its beak, and 
also (pi. v. 9) a similar coin of Cyrene in which the bird's head is 
evidently a Lammergeier's. 

The Vultures were frequently confused under the name oVros, e. g. 
Aesch. Ag. 1 38 o-Tvyel Se delnvov aler&v : as also in the story of Pro- 
metheus, e.g. Hes. Th. 523; Aesch. Pr. V. 1022; Pr. Sol. ap. Cic. Q. 
Tusc. ii. 10 ; Apoll. Rh. ii. 1254, 1263, iii. 851 ; Lucian, Prom. 20 (i. 203) ; 
D. Deor. i. i (i. 205), &c., &c. ; and as in the story of the death of 
Aeschylus, Ael. vii. 16, Plin. x. 3, Valer. Max. ix. 12. 2, Didym. Chalc. 
ed. Ritter, 1845, pp. 84 &c., Hesych. Onomast. c. 16, where the derds was 
evidently a Lammergeier, on whose propensity to feed on tortoises v. 
Tristram, Fauna of Palestine, p. 94, see also Ibis, 1859, p. 177 ; cf. Acs. 

B 2 


AET01 (continued]. 

Fab. 419; Babr. 115. (On the mythical character of the Aeschylus 
legend cf. Teuffel, Rh. Mus. ix. 148, 1854; Piccolomini, Sulla morte 
favolosa di Eschilo, Pisa, 1883 ; Keller, op. c. pp. 257, 444.) 

The description in Arist. H. A. ix. 32 e(p' v^r\\wv KaOiCei dia TO /SpaSeW 
aipfaOai OTTO TJJS yr/s' v\^ov 8e Tre'rerm, OTTCOS eVi 7rXet(rroj/ TOTTOV Kadopq, /c.T.X., 
suggests rather the habit of the Griffon Vulture (v. Trfp/ci/oWf pos), which 
is also the ' Eagle ' alluded to in like terms in Job xxxix. 28 ; cf. also 
Ael. ii. 26, Horap. i. n, ii. 56. The Griffon Vulture is the royal bird 
of the East, the standard of the Assyrian and Persian armies (Xen. Cyr. 
vii. i. 4, of. Is. xlvi. ii, Habakkuk i. 8 ; whence probably the Roman 
Eagle), and the Eagle-headed God Nisroch (2 Kings xix. 37) of the 
Assyrians (cf. Tristram, Fauna of Palestine, p. 95 ; see also Hammer, 
Hist. Osman. i. p. 50, Creuzer's Symbolik, iii. pp. 649, 756, &c.). The 
crested Eagles of Assyrian sculpture (cf. Pocock's Descr. of the East, II. 
pi. xvi ; Wood's Baalbec, pi. xxxiv), are merely a further development 
of the solar emblem, and it is unnecessary to suppose (as does Hogg, 
Ann. and Mag. N. H. (3) xiii. 1864, P- 5 2 ) that they are copied from 
an actual crested species. 

The Persians, reverencing the Eagle, admired the aquiline nose and 
cultivated it : Olympiod. in Plat. Alcib. i. c. 16, p. 153 ol SOKOVVTCS apioroi 
TO. TOVTOV popta els ,/caXXos 8ta7rXarTOU(7i ypVTrfjv Kal Tr]v piva 
v8eiKvvp.evoi. TO f)yefJ.oviKov eivat Kal j3ao-t\iKov TOV nalfta' OVTOD yap 
Kal 6 aeTos ypvTros eo~Tiv a>s /ScunXiKo? : cf. Hyde, Rel. vet. Pers. p. 374. 

A fine description of the Eagle's flight in Apuleius, Florid, i. 

Myth and legend. The story of Prometheus, vide supra. 
The story of Ganymede. Strato in Gk. Anth. iii. p. 82 ; Anon. ibid. 

IV. p. Il8 aleTos 6 Zvs rjXdev eV avrideov ravvfJiT)8r)V, KVKVOS eVi J~av6r]V 
nr]Tpa TTJS 'E\evrjs : Theocr. xv. 124; Lucian, D. Deor. iv. I (i. 208), 
Hor. Car. iv. 4. The statue of Leochares, Plin. H. N. xxxiv. 19, 29. 
On coins of Chalcis, Dardanos, Ilia, &c. The story referred to the 
constellation Aquila, Hygin. P. Astr. ii. 16, Germanic. Phen. 317, 
Manil. Astron. v. 486, ,&c. 

The story of Leda : the Swan pursued by an Eagle ; Eurip. Hel. 
17-22. The Eagle in combat with the Swan, freq., e.g. II. xv. 692, 
Arist. ap. Ael. V. H. i. 14, Phile xv. 10, Statius Theb. iii. 524, viii. 675, 
ix. 858, &c. On coins of Mallos in Cilicia, and Camarina (Eckhel, 
Doctr. Numm. i. i. 201, Imhoof-Blumer and Keller, pi. vi. 16, 17, &c.). 

The Eagle with Dolphin on coins of Sinope, and other towns, 
especially on the Black Sea and Hellespont, is taken by Keller as 
symbolic of the fish-trade (op. c. p. 262) : the Dolphin here has 
also been referred to the Eastern emblem of Eros (cf. Weber, Hist, of 
Ind. Liter. 1882, p. 257), but is more probably simply the constellation 


AETO2 (continued}. 

adjacent to Aquila (cf. Manil. Astron. i. 353). See for other views, 
Welcker, Der Delphin und der Hymnus des Arion, Rhein. Mus. i. 
pp. 392-400, 1833. 

The myth of Nisus and Scylla or Ciris, Virgil (?) Ciris, Hygin. Fab. 
198, Ovid, Met. viii. 146, &c. (a Semitic solar myth, O. Keller, I.e. 
p. 259) ; see also E. Siecke, De Niso et Scylla in aves mutatis, Berlin, 
1884, vide s. v. dXideros. 

The transmigration of Agamemnon, Plato, Rep. x. p. 620 ; of King 
Periphas of Attica, Anton. Lib. Met. vi ; Ov. Met. vii. 399(cf.Th. Panofka, 
Zeus und Aegina, Berlin 1836) ; of King Merops of Cos, Anton. Lib. 
Met. xv. Cf. the ceremony at the consecration of a dead Emperor : 
dfTos dtpitTui o~vv ra> nvp\ dve\vo~6[j.(vos es TOV aldepa, os (pepeiv dno yf/s 
es ovpavbv Tr)v TOV j3ao~i\e(i)$ \l/-v)(f]v TTicrreuerai VTTO 'Pco/xai'co^, Herodian, 
iv. 2. II ; cf. Dio Cass. Ivi. 42, Ixxiv. 5. 

The Eagle as a portent (a. reXeio'raTos) in connexion with the founding 
of the Ptolemaic dynasty, Suid. s. v. Adyos : of the Phrygian dynasty by 
Gordius, Arrian, Anab. ii. 3, Ael. xiii. I ; of the Persian by Achaemenes, 
Ael. xii. 21 ; with the birth of Alexander, Justinus xii. 16. 5. 

The Eagle a portent of death : aero? entKadeo-dels rf/ Kf(pa\fj TOV Idovros 
Qdvarov aura) /uai/reuercu, Artemid. Oneirocrit. i. p. 112 (ed. Hercher). 

On the Eagle in augury cf. II. viii. 247, xii. 200, Od. ii. 146, xx. 242, 
Aesch. Ag. 115, Ar. Vesp. 15, &c. : doubtless also referred to, though 
unnamed, in such passages as Orph. Lith. 45, Aesch. Sept. c. T. 24, Pr. V. 
486 : still more frequent in Latin, e.g. Liv. i. 24 ; Cic. De Divin. i. 47, 
ii. 48 ; Sueton. Octav. 94, 96, 97 ; Valer. Max. i. 4. 6, Plut. Brutus xxxvii, 
&c. See Hopf, Thierorakel, pp. 87 et seq.; Spanheim in Callim. Hymn. 
Jov. 69. 

On Eagles in the Mithraic mysteries, Porphyr. De Abst. iv. 16. How 
the Etruscans understood the language of eagles, ibid. iii. 4. 

An Eagle's nest with seven eggs (!), as a portent, Plut. Marius, xxxvi. 
An Eagle's nestling in symbolism and dream-prophecy, Horap. ii. 2 (cf. 
Leemans in loc.}. 

The mythical genealogy of the Eagle : Arist. De Mirab. 835 a, i. (60) 
CK TOV frvyovs 8e TWI/ aro>j> Qdrepov T&V eyyovdav oXlOUTOS yiverai 7rapaAAa, 
IW av avvya yevrjTai. K fie aXimcrwy (f)r)vr) ytVerai, CK de TOVTM nepKVol 
K. yvTres, K. T. A. ; cf. 0eoKpocos, dXideros, ^^T), &c. 

How (prjvr) rears its young, Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 619, Antig. Hist. Mirab. 
4 (52), cf. Plin. x. 3. 

How the Eagle feeds and defends its young, and is affectionate 
towards them, Ael. ii. 40, Opp. Yen. 115, Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 619 (cf. 
Deut. xxxii. ii), but nevertheless casts them out, 8ia (frOovov, <pvo-fi ydp 
eo-TL (pOovepbs Kal oginreivos, e'n 8e o^uAa/3^?, Arist. ibid. How it lays three 


AET02 (continued}. 

eggs, hatches two, and rears one, Musaeus ap. Arist. vi. 6, 563, Plin. 
x. 4 ; a similar statement of iepa, Horap. ii. 99 TIKTWV yap rpia 6>a, TO li/ 
\iovov eViXeyerai KOI rpe^ei, ra Se aXXa dvo K\a' TOVTO Se Trota, 5ta TO KOT' 
TOV \povov TOVS oj/v^a? dno(3d\\iv, Kal eWeC$ei> /x) 8vvao-6ai TO. rpia 

How, when brooding, it goes without food, OTTOS M ap-nd^ TOVS TO>V 
6rjpia)v o~Kvp,vovs (cf. Horap. i. 1 1). 01 re ovv oyv%es avTOv 8iao~Tpe(povTai oXrya? 
Tj/j-epas, Kai. TO. Trrepa XevKm'veTai, &O~TC Kal rols TCKVOLS TOTC yivovrai 
ou TTtii/Ta 6e Ta T>V der&v yevrj o/zoia Trepi ra reKva, aXX' 6 irvyapyos 
ot S p,f\avfs fvrcKvoi TTCpl Trjv Tpo^v tlviv, Arist. H. A. vi. 6, 563. 

The sharp sight of the Eagle, opviduv o^uooTreWaTo?, and how its gall 
mingled with honey is an ointment for the eyes, Ael. i. 42 ; Plin. xxix. 38, 
&C. Cf. II. xvii. 674, Alciphr. iii. 59 yopybv TO /SXe/u/ua ; Prov. dfT&o'fs (3\f- 
TreiV) Lucian Icarom. 14 (ii. 769), Hor. Sat. i. 3. 26, &c. How the Eagle's 
offspring look straight at the sun, and the bastards, being by this test 
discovered, are cast out, Ael. ii. 26, cf. Arist. H. A. ix. 34, 620, Antig. 
Mirab. 46 (52), Lucan ix. 902, Lucian, Pise. 46 (i. 613), Sil. Ital. x. 107, 
Petron. Sat. 120, Claudian III. Cons. Hon. Praef, 12, Plin. x. (3)4, Dion. 
De Avib. i. 3, Apul. Florid, i. 2, Basil. Hexaem. viii. 6. 177, Eust. Hexaem. 
viii. 6. 952, S. August. Mor. Manich. xvi. 50, Julian. Imp. Epp. 16 (386 C), 
40 (418 d), Eunod. Ep. i. 18, id. Carm. ii. 150, Phile i. 14. Cf. Chaucer, 
P. of Fowles, 331 'the royal egle . . . that with his sharpe look perceth 
the sun.' On the Egyptian origin of this fable, see Keller, op. c. p. 268, 
and cf. Horap. i. 6, II. The Solar Myth is also oriental, and in the 
Rig-veda the sun is frequently compared to a Vulture or Eagle hovering 
in the air. 

The Eagle is exempt from thirst, Ael. H. A. ii. 26 ovdenoTc deTot 
OVTC Trrjyrjs Setrai OVTC y\i^(Tat KOvio~Tpas, aXXa Kal dtyovs dfjLfivwv eo~Ti '. 
cf. Arist. H. A. viii. 18, 601 b ; but perishes of hunger (also an Egyptian 
fable, Keller op. C. 267), yrjpdo-Kovo-i 8e Tols dfTols TO pvyxos avgdvfTai TO 
avo) yap,^fovp,fvov del p.d\\ov } Kal T\OS Xi/iW aT:o6vr)(rKOVo~LV. cmXfyeTai 8e 
TLS Kal nvflos, cos TOVTO 7rdo~)(fL 8ioTi avGpajirbs TTOT' &>v r)diKr]o~e evov, Arist. 
H. A. ix. 32, 619. Cf. Antig. 46 (52), Horap. ii. 96 (where the Eagle is 
said to be for that reason an Egyptian symbol for an old and starving 
man), Epiphan. ad Physiol. c. 6, Plin. x. 14. 

It is however long-lived, paKpoftLos 8' eo-TtV drj\ov 8e TOVTO e/c TOU 
iro\vv xpovov T ^ v veoTTiav TTJV avTrjv diapeveiv, Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 619 b. 

It feeds on grass, Ael. ix. 10 (pottos oo-nfp Kal Aibs KK\r)rai), is poisoned 
by o-vp.(pvTov, Ael. vi. 46, Phil. De An. Pr. 668, and in sickness eats 
tortoises as a remedy, Dion. De Av. i. 3. 

Its hours of feeding : &pa de TOV epydfca-Qat aeTcS Kai TrereoAu an-' 
dpio~Tov p-^XP 1 8ei\r]s' TO yap HwQev KadrjTai p-fXP 1 ^ypds ir\r)dvovo~T)s, Arist. 
H. A. ix. 32, 619. 


AETOI (continued]. 

Its feathers are incorruptible, Ael. ix. 2, Plut. Q. Conv. i. 10, Plin. x. 
(3) 4 ; its right wing buried in the ground is an insurance against hail, 
Geopon. i. 14, 2. 

How it walks with its toes turned in, to keep its claws sharp, Plut. De 
Curios. 12. 

Is hostile to fpeoSio?, o-i'm;, rpoxi'Xo?, Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609 b, aiyvmos, 
ib. 610 a ; v@pis, ib. 12, 615 b; Kopoavrj, Ael. xv. 22 ; TUTTM, Nicand. ap. 
Anton. Lib. 14 ; eyxeXv?, Aristoph. Hist. Anim. Epit. ii. 239 ; noXvirovs, 
Ael. vii. II, as well as to Spaxcoi/, Arist. ix. I, 609 (cf. Ael. ii. 26, Plut. 
Od. et Inv. iv. p. 650), and KVKVOS, ib. 12, 615 b, by which last it is con- 
quered, Ael. xvii. 24 ; to veftpos and aXcon-^, Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 619 b), 
cf. Plut. Sol. Anim. xxxi. 7 ; hostile also to xh v (Od. xv. 161), Sop/cay, 
Anyeos (Orphic. Lith. 147), ravpo?, Phile. Cf. Plin. x. (74) 95. 

It places the herb KaAXiYpixo" in its nest for a charm, Geopon. xv. 1,19. 

The Eagle a symbol of the Nile, Diod. Sic. i. 19. 2. Cf. Eustath. in 
Dionys. v. 239 eKXrflrj [% A'iyvTrros] Kal 'Aer/a : cf. Bryant's Anc. Mythol. 
i. pp. 19, 378. A symbol of the year, Artemid. Oneirocr. ii. 20, as the 
Vulture is also said to be by Horap. i. n ; of elevation, Horap. i. 6; 
of the sun on the equator, Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 567. For the explana- 
tion of these hieroglyphs, into which the emblem of the Vulture enters 
as a phonetic element, see Lauth, Sitzungsber. Bay. Ak. 1876, p. 81. 

A king who lives remote from and disdainful of his people is pre- 
figured as an Eagle : OVTOS yap ev rols epi'ip-ois TOTTOIS e'^ei rrjv veoaa-idv, Kal 
v^rjXoTfpos iravr&v rS)V 7TTeivS)V tTTTarai, Horap. ii. 56. 

The white Eagle of Pythagoras, Iambi. V. Pyth. xxviii. 142, Ael. V. H. 
iv. 17, was probably a symbol for the town of Croton, on whose 'coins an 
eagle is displayed (cf. Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins, i. c. 20, also Creuzer, Symb. 
ii. 602, footnote). How Pythagoras lured an Eagle at Olympia, Iambi. 
V. Pyth. xiii. 62, Porph. V. Pyth. 25, Plut. Numa viii. 

The constellation Aquila, Eurip. Rh. 530 /LieVa d' ateroy ovpavov nrorarai 
(cf. Petavii Var. Diss., lib. v. c. 14) ; Arat. Phen. 313, Hygin. iii. 15, &c. 
The constellation Aquila is frequently referred to in Latin ; e. g. Ov. 
F. v. 732 grata lovi fulvae rostra videbis avis ; [viii. Kal. Jun. Rostra 
aquilae oriuntur chronice.] Ib. vi. 194 si quaeritis astra, Tune oritur 
magni praepes adunca lovis ; [Kal. Jun. Aquila oritur chronice.] Cf. 
Columella xi. 2 ; Germanic. Phaen. 692 redit armiger uncis Unguibus, 
ante omnes gratus tibi, luppiter, Ales ; cf. ib. 610, &c. On the 
mythology of the Eagle in connexion with the constellation Aquila, 
see also Eratosth. c. 29, Hygin. P. Astr. ii. 16, for, int. /., the stories 
of the metamorphosis of Ethemea, of the Eagle that brought Venus' 
slipper to Mercury (cf. Strabo xvii. 808, Ael. V. H. xiii. 33), the eagle 
that portended victory to Jove in his combat with the Titans, &c. 

The complicated mythology of the Eagle baffles analysis. It is 


AETOI (continued']. 

sometimes evidently a solar emblem, as is Zrjvbs opvis in Aesch. Suppl. 
212. Its name xpuo-a'eros- is in like manner probably a translation of the 
' golden hawk ' of Egyptian Horus. In its combat with the Hare, the 
Swan, the Bull, the Dragon, and so forth, these latter are probably 
symbolic of their stellar name-sakes, and in such cases, the hostile 
Eagle is, in the main, a stellar and not a solar emblem. The following 
are the principal facts in connexion with the constellation Aquila which 
seem to bear on the mythology of the Eagle. It rose nearly together 
with the Dolphin, and shortly after, and as it were in pursuit of, the 
Swan and the Serpent of Ophiuchus : it set as the Lion rose, whose 
leading star Regulus was also called ^ao-tAiWos-, the Hare and the Dog- 
star rising simultaneously ; it set together with Aquarius, known also as 
Ganymede the cup-bearer, and it was close beside and rose together 
with the Arrow of Sagittarius. It is not far distant from the constel- 
lation Lyra, which last constellation is also known as the Vulture ; it 
and the Eagle are known respectively to later writers (and to the Arabs) 
as Aquila or Vultur cadens and volans or yty Kadrj^evos and nero^e vos, 
nesr-el-waki and nesr-el-ta'ir, whence our modern names Vega and 
Altair applied to their two principal stars. (See for Arabic and other 
references, Ideler, Sternnamen, pp. 67, 106, &c.; also Grotius' Aratus, 
Notae ad Imagg. pp. 54, 60, &c., &c.) Aquila rose together with the 
latter stars of the Scorpion, but Lyra or the Vulture, rising a little earlier, 
seems to have been the true paranatellon of that sign : accordingly it 
is probably not the true Eagle but the Vulture or Aquila cadens, which, 
substituted for the unlucky Scorpion, figures with the other three 
cardinal signs of Leo, Taurus, and Aquarius, in the familiar imagery of 
Ezek. i. 10, x. 14, and Rev. iv. 7. A solar myth is discussed s. v. dXideros. 
The combat with the Hare is interesting from its representation on a 
famous decadrachm of Agrigentum, as well as for the equally mystical 
description in Aesch. Ag. 115 jSoa-Kd/zcj/oi \aylvav. (The symbolism con- 
nected with the Hare seems to me to be peculiarly complicated and 
difficult, and all tentative hypotheses are more than commonly liable to 
be overthrown.) The Eagle with the Serpent or Dragon occurs not 
only in classical coinage (Chalcis, Agrigentum, Gortyna, Siphnos, &c.), 
but also on Persian and Egyptian sculptures. The Eagle with the 
lightning (deros Trvpcpopos) or thunderbolt (minis trumfulmtnis, cf. Plin. 
x. 3, Serv. in Aen. i. 398, Sil. Ital. xii. 58 adsuetis fulmina ferre Un- 
guibus) occurs on coins of Elis, Catana, Megalopolis, &c. Philo's phrase 
(i. 628) (pcyyo? yvfja-iov and 0. voQov for sunlight and moonlight is perhaps 
suggestive or corroborative of a solar symbolism in aero? yvrja-ios. 

afTirrjs, the eagle-stone. Ael. i. 35. Diosc. v. 161. Dion. De Avib. 
i. 3 ot p.ev avrbv arro TO>V KauKatricoi/ opaii/, ot 8e OTTO rrjs TOV wKeavov o%dr)s 
$ao-l K0fu'r#a<. : Lucan vi. 676 quaeque sonant feta tepefacta sub alite 
saxa ; Plin. x. 3, xxx. (14) 44, xxxvi. (21) 39, xxxvii. (u) 72, Horap. ii. 49, 


AETO1 (continued}. 

Phile 736, Geopon. xv. i, 30, Solinus, c. 37, Philostr. V. Apollon. ii. 14, 
Stobaeus 98, Priscian in Perieges. p. 393. Cf. Physiol. Syrus, where 
the stone is called WTOVLKOV, a corruption of CVTOKIOV or VKVTOKIOV : cf. 
Eustath. Hexaem. p. 27, Epiphan. De Duodecim Gemmis, &c., ed. 
Romae, 1743, p. 30, Marbod. Lapidarium, 339-391 (King's Ant. Gems, 
p. 404). See also, for mediaeval and other references, Boch. Hieroz. 
ii. 312-316, and N. and Q. (8) v. 518, 1894. The Eagle with its stone, 
an Egyptian symbol of security, Horap. ii. 49. 

Proverb and Fable. Fable of Fox and Eagle, Archiloch. fr. 86-88 
(no), Aes. Fab. 5 ; Ar. Av. 652. Hence according to Rutherford 
(Babrius p. xlvii), the proverb ahrbs ev TTOTCIVOIS, Pind. N. iii. 77 (138); 
alerbs ev vetyeXaiai, Ar. Eq. 1013, Av. 978, 987, fr. 28, and Schol. ; applied 
by the oracle to the Great King (cf. Ezek. xvii. 3), Schol. in Ar. Eq. 1010 ; 
cf. Zenob., Suid. eVt TO>V SucraXcorooi/, Trapoaov derbs ev ve<pe\ais &>v ov% dXiV- 

KCTOI : for other explanations, see Steph. Thes. 

derbv i7TTa<r6ai 8iSd(n<eis, Suid., Zenob. ii. 49 ; cf. Pseudo-Plutarch, 
Prov. 25 avev Trrepwv forels lirravQai : hence, according to Rutherford, 
the fable of the Eagle and Tortoise, Babr. cxv, Aes. 419 ; cf. Diog. L., 
ii. 17, 10. 

alerbv Kavdapos /uaieu(ropu, Ar. Lys. 696 : eVi rS>v rifia)povju,ei>a>j/ TOVS 
p.tiovas irpoKardp^avTas KCIK.OV. \eyerai yap ra a>a roO deroO d(pavifiv 
6 KavOapos, Suid.: cf. Ar. Pax, 133, and Schol., Lys. 695, Aes. Fab. 7, 
Keller, op. c. p. 269. 

The oracle of Action, Herod, v. 92. 

Fable of Eagle shot with its own feathers, Aesch. Myrm. fr. 123, 
cf. Schol. in Ar. Av. 808, Aes. Fab. 4. The Eagle and the Archer, 
Bianor, Gk. Anthol. ii. p. 143. 

derbs Kal /SatriXiVKoy, Plut. Mor. ii. 806 E. The Fighting-cock and the 
Eagle, Babr. v ; the Eagle and Lion in partnership, Babr. xcix ; the 
Eagle mindful of benefits, Aes. 6, 92, 120, Ael. xvii. 37, whence the 
proverb aUnov x<*P iv eicrivfiv, Apost. Cent. i. 78 ; cf. Tzetz. Chil. iv. 302. 

The tame Eagle of Pyrrhus, Ael. ii. 40 ; the Eagle that saved Tilgamus 
of Babylon, Ael. xii. 21 ; that saved Aristomenes, Paus. iv. 18. 5 : 
cf. Antip. Sidon. xcii in Gk. Anthol. ii. 33 : see also Ael. vi. 29, Plin. 
x. (5) 6: cf. Marx, Gr. Marchen, 1889, pp. 29-50. 

On Hawking with trained Eagles in India, Ctesias, fr. n (ed. 
Miiller), Ael. iv. 26 ; in Thrace, Ael. ii. 42 ; cf. also Leo Africanus and 
Tzetzes Chiliad, iv. 134. On Eagles trained for Falconry, see (e.g.) 
Scully, Contr. to the Ornith. of E. Turkestan, Stray Feathers, vi. p. 123, 
1876; also Yule's Marco Polo, Schlegel's Fauconnerie, &c. 

Representations of Eagles. On Babylonian processional sceptres, 
Herod, i. 195. On the sceptre of the Persian kings, Xen. Cyrop. vii. 


AET02 (continued'}. 

I. 4 (cf. Keller, op. c. pp. 240, 435). On the sceptre of Zeus at Olympia, 
Paus. v. II. i (copied on a late coin of Elis) ; and at Megalopolis, id. 
viii. 31. 4 (cf. Find. P. i. 6 evSei ava O-KUTTTO) AIOS aleros, Soph. fr. 766 
o-Kr)7TTot3d[jLa>v ahros, Schol. in Ar. Av. 510); on pillars before the altar 
of Zeus Lycaeus, in Arcadia, id. viii. 38. 5 ; on the Omphalos at Delphi 
(cf. Soph. O. T. 480), Pind. P. iv. I xpuo-ecov Atos alrjT&v ndptdpos (simi- 
larly on coins of Cyzicus). Cf. Plut. de Orac. i. 409 derovs rtvas, r) 

KVKVOVS, nv6o\oyov<riv OTTO T&V oLKpoiV Trjs yrjS firl TO fj.6(rov <pepop.vovs els 
ravTo crvfjiireo-flv Uv6oi nepl TOV Ka\. o/KpaXoi/. The great mechanical 
Eagle with outspread wings on the altar at Olympia, Paus. vi. 20. 12. 
On the shield of Aristomenes at Messene, Paus. iv. 16. 7 (cf. account 
of shield in Eurip. fr. Meleag. iv, and on the shield of Aeacus, Zrji>a 
vodov, (ro(pov opviv, Nonn. xiii. 214). For references to coins, v. supra, 

The gable of a temple was called deros, Ar. Av. mo, or ae'ra^a, 
Suid. Cf. Eur. fr. Hypsip. tdov irpbs alQep e^a/LuXA^o-ai Kopais, ypair- 
TOVS fv atTol<Ti 7rpoa-/3Xe7ra>i/ rvnovs : Pind. Ol. xiii. 21 ris yap . . . rj 6t<av 
vaoiviv olavoiv /SatriXea didvpov eircBrjKe ; cf. Pind. fr. 53, ap. Paus. x. 5. 12, 
and Bergk's note ; Tacit. H. iii. 71 ; Bekker Anecd. p. 348. 3 aeroi) 
/Mi/zemu (TX^JP-CL dnoreraKOTos ra -nrepd : for other references see Blaydes, 
in Ar. Av. 1106. Compare the Sacred Hawk or Eagle, or the winged 
solar disc, on Egyptian gables, &c., and on Mithraic monuments. 
See Bronsted, Voy. en Grece, ii. 154; Welcker, Alte Denkmaler, i. 3. 
A conventional ornament on the gable even of modern buildings in 
the Greek style, still represents the degenerate emblem of the Eagle's 

See also, besides the special references to the other Eagle-names 
enumerated above, kindred mythological references s. vv. yu'ij/, Upa, 

*AZEINOl', also d^effijUKH' KVKVOI, rats nrepv^iv dno\ap,[3dvovTfs df'pn, Hesych. 

'AHAQ'N, TJ [6 a., Anth. Pal. vii. 44, Eust. 376. 24 ; for grammatical forms, 
see Bergk. Philol. xxii. p. 10, Ahrens in Kuhn's Zeitschr. iii. p. 81, c.] 
Also drj&ovls (Eur. Rhes. 550, Theocr. viii. 38, freq. in Gk. Anthol., c.), 
ddovis (Theocr., Mosch.), dfirjdav = nf^Scoj/, Hesych., and a^Sco, Soph. 
Aj. 628. Dim. drjdovidevs, Theocr. xv. 121. Rt. vad^ to sing, a<-i'Sa>, &c. 

The Nightingale, Motacilla luscinia, L., Daulias luscinia, auctt. 

Mod. Gk. drj86vi, applied to various Warblers. 

Od. xix. 518 Uavdapeov Kovprj ^Xcop^ls drjduv. [German commentators, 
translating ^Xwpjyi'y green, have made many needless conjectures as 
to some other bird being here alluded to ; cf. Groshans, p. 5 ; Buchholz, 
pp. 123-125. On the word xXwpiji'y see also G. E. Marindin and 
W. W. Fowler, Class. Rev. 1890, pp. 50, 231, and in particular Steph. 


AHAflN (continued}. 

Thes. (ed. 1821), coll. 1284-5. The general significance is perhaps 'the 
nightingale, that clepeth forth the fresshe leves newe,' Chaucer, P. of 
Fowles 351, ^Xwpalff VTTO /3a<7(raiy, Soph. Oed. Col. 673.] 

Other Epithets. 'Ar0i'y, aloXooeipos (Nonn. xlvii. 33), moXocpooi/os (Opp. 
Hal. i. 728), fiapvdaKpvs (Phil. Thess. Ixvi), 8aKpv6eo-o-a (Eur. Hel. mo), 
*Hpos ayyeXos, ^jj.fp6(pa)vos s. ip,fp6(p(i)vos (Sappho, p. 39, ap. Suid.), 
KipKr)\aTos (Aesch. Suppl. 62), \iyeia (Aesch. Ag. 1146; Soph. Oed. Col. 
671), \tyv(pdoyyos (Ar. Av. 1380), \iyv(pa>vos (Theocr. xii. 7), p,f\iyr)pvs 
(C. I. G. 6261; Gk. Anthol. iv. pp. 231, 273; cf. Theocr. Ep. iv. 12), 
6gv(pa>vos (Soph. Trach. 963 Babr. xii. 3, 19), gov66s (Aesch. Ag. 1142, 
Ar. Av. 676, Theocr. Ep. iv. n ; cf. Eur. Hel. mi), TroiKi\68eipos (Hes. 
Op. et D. 201), Tro\vKa)Ti\os (Simonid. fr. 73, in Etym. M.), irvKvomepos 
(Soph. Oed. Col. l8), 7rav68vpros S. rravdvpros (Soph. El. 1077), TCKVO- 
Xereipa (ib. 107), ^Kopavxnv (Simon. 73). [Note similarity of epithets 
s. v. xeXiSwi/.] 

Among innumerable poetic references, cf. Ibyc. fr. 7 rap-os avnvos 

K\VTOS opOpos eyeiprjartv drjdovas. Simon, fr. 73 8evT dr)86i>es TroXuKwrtXot, 
X\a)pavxfves elapivai. Callim. L. P. 94 juar^p f*V yoepatv olrov drj8ovi8a)V 
aye ftapv K\aiov(ra. Aesch. Ag. IIl6 "irvv, "irvv ffTevovcra, drj8(av. Soph. 
El. 147 <* *!TVV aiev "irvv oXo<puperat, opvis arv^o^LieVa, Aioj ayy(\os. 
Eurip. Phleg. fr. 773, 23 p-eXnci de SevSpeo-i \enrav drjdav appoviav 
op6pevop,va yoois^lrvv^Irvv 7ro\v0pr]vov. Eurip. Hel. 1 1 II S> 8ia ov6av 
yfvvow e\\io[jieva 6pr t vois e/Ltois ^vvepyos. Ar. Av. 212 "irvv eXeXifrufvr) 
(cf. Hor. Car. iv. 2. 5 Ityn flebiliter gemens, Catull. Ixv. 14 Daulias 
absumpti fata gemens Ityli). Soph. Aj. 628 otVrpa? yoov opviOos a^SoCr, 
cf. Aesch. fr. 412. Eur. Hec. 337 dr)86vos o-ro/xa. Ar. Ran. 684 pvgci 

S' e7riK\avTov drjdoviov vop.ov. Mosch. iii. 37 ovdc roaov ITOK aeurev cvl 
<rK07re\oi(riv drjfttov ' cf. v. 46. Aristaenet. Ep. i. 3 fjdv KOI drjdoves, 
irepnterofjievoi TO, va^ara, fj.\a)8ov(nv. Philip Ixvi in Gk. Anthol. ii. 
p. 213 met 6' fj fBapvdaKpvs, enl a-rrjXais p.ev drjdwv' p,ep.(pop,Vi] de ftvQols, 
aXKvovls /SXeTrerm, &c., &C. 

Description. Arist. H. A. iv. 9, 536 aSet KOI 6 apprjv KCU y ^Xeta 
[an error, but cf. Od. xix. 518], 7r\rjv rj drfXfia Trauerat orav eVcoa^ KOI ra 
veoma ^XH" wTrrat KCU dr)da>v veorrov 7rpo8i8d(rKov(ra (cf. Ael. iii. ^O } Plut. 
De Sol. Anim. 973, Dion. De Avib. i. 20 dnoKTeivfi 8e TOVS d<pd6yyov$, 
Porph. De Abst. iii. 5). Arist. H. A. v. 8, 542 b rtWa -roC Qepovs dp%o- 

fj.vov 7TVT Kul e <a* (p(o\vi de OTTO TGI) /ueTOTrcopou p~e\pi TOV eapos. 

H. A. ix. 15, 6i6b OVK. ie^et TTJS y\a>TTr)s TO 6gv [true of the Hoopoe; 
dr)8a)v is an interpolation here, Aub. and Wimm., cf. Plin. x. 43 (29), 
but compare the version in Apollod. iii. 14]. H. A. ix. 49 B, 632 b 

17 S' drjdwv qdei p.ev (ruff^cos rjp.epas KOL VVKTUS deKanevre, orav TO opos fj8r) 

i' p,ra. 8e TavTa aftei per, (Tvi/f^ws S' ov<eTi. TOV 8e depovs 
dfpirjcri <xavr]V Kal OVKCTI 7iavTo8aTrfjv ovSe 


AHAflN (continued}. 

dXX' cbrX?)i>, Kal TO xp5)p.a p.Ta(3d\\ei Kal ev ye 'iraXta TO ovoua fTfpov 
KaXemu nepl rrjv &pav ravTyv. (paiverai S* ov rroXvv \povov' <^>a>XeZ yap 
(cf. Ael. xii. 28 ; Plin. N. H. x. 29, Clem. Alex. Paedag. x) : the above 
excerpt is very obscure and mystical; with the verb dao-vvTjTai cf. 
Etym. M. s.v. AaiAfr, also Aesch. fr. 27 (tbi tit.}, and Paus. x. 4, 7. 
Hesiod, ap. Ael. V. H. xii. 2O rrjv dr)86va fj.6vr)v opvldav dpoipelv VTTVOV 
Kal did Tf\ovs dypvrrvelv. Ael. H. A. i. 43 drjdwv opviQav Xi-yupomm;, 
Xeyouo-i Se Kai ra Kpea avTrjs es dypvnviav \vaiTe\elv : cf. ib. xii. 2O, Phile 
xviii. Ael. iii. 40 Kadeipypcvr) ev oiKio-Kco Sdrjs aTre^erai, ml d/JLVverai TOV 
opvidodfjpav vnep rijs dov^eias ry <na>Trfj' ovnep ovv ol avdpwiroi Trerrfipafj-evoi, 
rag fjdr) Trpe&PvTepas p-fdidcri, <nrov8dov(n 8e 6r]pav ra veorria. Ib. V. 
38 V TCUS eprjfjiiais orav a8rj Trpbs eavTrjv, anXovv TO /LteXo?* orav de dXaJ 
Kal T>V aKov6vTo>v pr} SiafnapTavr), noiKiXa re dvapeXireiv Kal raKepws eXi'rreii' 
TO /ueXoy. Its mode of capture, Dion. De Avib. iii. 13. On captive 
Nightingales, see also Nemesian, Eel. ii, De Luscinia. A white or 
albino specimen, Plin. 1. c. 

The locus classicus for the Nightingale's song is Plin. x. (29) 43, 
cf. Ar. Av. 209 ; see also Dion. De Avib. i. 20, Phile xviii, &c. 

Pausan. ix. 30. 6 XeyouoH de ol QpaKes, oo~ai T&V drjbovtov e%ovo~i veoo~ffias 
Trl TCO Tci0o) ToO 'Op^eoff, TavTas fjdiov Kal p.e'i6t> n qdeiv. Cf. Antig. Hist. 
Mirab. 5, Myrsili Methymn. fr. 8 (vol. iv. p. 459, Miiller). 

The Nightingale which sang over the infant Stesichorus, as a presage 
of poetry, Plin. x. 43 (29). The transmigration of Thamyras (? Thammuz), 
Plato, Rep. x. 620. 

On talking Nightingales, Plin. N. H. x. 59 (42). 

The lay of the loom, KcpKida 8' evrroirjTov, drjSova rav eV cpMois, Antip. 
Sid. xxii, Gk. Anthol. ii. n, cf. id. xxvi ; cf. Ar. Ran. 1316. 

The Cricket is called rfjv Nu/^e'coi/ Trapodlnv dr)86va, Gk. Anthol. 
iv. 206. 

Ulysses, for his melancholy tale, is Movo-cof aqo>i/, Eur. Palamed. 
viii ; a poet is Movo-da>v drjdovts, Anthol. Pal. vii. 414 (cf. Movo-dv opvix*s, 
Theocr. vii. 47) ; a bad poet is drjdovoiv fjrriaXos (enough to give a Night- 
ingale the shivers), Phryn. Com. Inc. i. 

The Sirens are called aprrvioyovvoi a^Sdves, Lye. 653. 

Proverb and Fable. ouS' oo~ov dr]86ves vTrvvovaiv, Suid. VTTVOS dr)86- 
veios, Nicoch. Inc. 3 (ii. 846, Mem.), cf. Nonn. Dionys. v. 411 
dpird^avres drjboviov (s. otdonov) irrepov VTTVOV. rol O-K>TTS a;Soo-i yapv- 
craij/ro, Theocr. i. 136, cf. Gk. Anthol. (Jac.) iv. p. 218, also Theocr. v. 
136 TTOT' dr)6va Kiao-as pio~8evl Luc. Pise. 37 BO.TTOV av yv-^r drjdovas 

Fable of the Hawk and tne Nightingale, Hes. Op. et D. 203, cf. 
Aes. Fab. 9, Plut. Mor. 1586. The Nightingale and the Swallow, 

AHAflN 13 

AHAflN (continued}. 

ov #eXo> TTJV \vm)V raw TraXatav pov (rvfjXpop&v jj.p.v^crdai, Acs. Fab. IO, 
cf. Babr. xii. Vox et praeterea nihil, Plut. Apophth. Lacon. 123 A ri\as 
TIS drjoova <al ^pa^elav ndvv crdpKa evpwv eiVe, (fxava TV TIS even KCU ovSev 
aXXo. Story of Agesilaus and one who mimicked the Nightingale's 
song, avras, flnev, CIKOVKO. -rroXXdns, Plut. Mor. 191 B. 

On the myths of Itylus, Philomela, Procne, and in general on the 
melancholy strain of the Nightingale, cf., int. /., Theocr. xv. 121 ; 
Pherecydes, fr. p. 136 (ed. Sturtz) ; Ar. Av. 203, 665, and Scholia ; 
Paus. i. 41. 8; Boios ap. Ant. Lib. xi ; Hygin. Fab. 45 (209, 212); 
Apollod. iii. 14. 8; Virg. Georg. iv. 510, Eel. vi. 79; Martial x. 51, 
xiv. 75 ; Ovid, Met. vi. 424, Am. ii. 6. 7; Catull. Ixv. 14; Carm. de 
Philomela, &c., &c. See also (int. al.} Hartung, Relig. und Myth. 
d. Gr. iii. p. 33 ; Duntzer in Kuhn's Ztschr. xiv. p. 207 ; E. Oder 
in Rh. Mus. f. Philol. (N. S.) xliii. p. 540 et seq. ; Keller op. c. 
pp. 304-320; Pott in Lazarus and Steinthal's Zeitschrift, xiv. p. 46, 1883 ; 
J. E. Harrison, J. Hellen. Studies, viii. 439-445, 1887, M. of Anc. 
Athens, p. Ixxxiv. 

The Nightingale's song, as Coleridge discovered, is not melancholy. 
It was a spirit of religious mysticism that ' First named these notes 
a melancholy strain, And many a poet echoes the conceit.' I believe 
the innumerable references to the melancholy lay of doovis or dr)8vv, and 
to the lament for^Irvy, to be for the most part veiled allusions to the 
worship of Adonis or Atys ; that is to say, to the mysterious and 
melancholy ritual of the departing year, when women ' wept for 
Tammuz ' : 'A5oW ayopev, KOI TOV "Aduvtv KXdopev ! This conjecture is 
partially supported by the confusion between doovis and afiooi^iV, by 
the mythical relations between the Nightingale and the Swallow, and 
by the known connexion of both with the rites of Adonis. Compare 
also Thuc. ii. 29 6 /uei/ eV Aav\ia rfjs &WKIOOS vvv KuXovp-evrjs yrjs, 6 Trjpevs 
<pKei rore VTTO QpqK&v oiVou/ieVqs* Kai TO epyov TO irepl TOV *!TVV al 
ev TTJ yfi TavTfl 7rpaav' TTO\\OIS $e KCU T>V TroirjTwv ev dr)86vos p.vr)fj,rj 
17 opvts encDvopao-Tai. (Cf. Hesych. AavXt'a Kopa>vr) ; also Etym. M. 
p. 250, 8 AavXi'av Kopavyv, dvT\ TOV drjdova, 'Aptarot^a'j/T;? Sia TOV pvdov' eviot 

In the above passage from Thucydides the commentators take cu 
ywalKfs to refer to Procne and Philomela ; it seems to me to mean 
simply that in that spot the women-folk practised the rites of Adonis. 
It is noteworthy that Dodwell found an archaic village-festival, or 
feast of tabernacles, taking place at Daulis, when he visited the locality 
at the season of the vernal equinox (cf. Ezek. viii, &c.). The passage 
in Theocr. xv. 121 ofoi drjSoviories degonevwv eVi Se'i/Speoi/, K.T.X., with its 
context, is important in this connexion. As I have attempted to bring 
uv, Itys or Itylus, and possibly even Thamyras into relation with 


AHAflN (continued}. 

Adonis, Atys, and Thammuz respectively, so I am tempted to see 
a connexion between a fourth Adonis-name, Duzi or Dazu, and the 
traditional etymology (dacrvs) of Daulis. Again, is it certain that drdls 
arjftav, a late and rare epithet in Greek (Nonn. Dionys. xlvii. 32, cf. 
ibid. xliv. 265), means really the Attic nightingale ; or may we not 
here also have an Atys-name ? Lastly, a reference to a Moloch- 
sacrifice is indicated in Hesychius under the heading A.if3vs re a.T)8o>v' at 
yap ev VLapxydovi (rfjs Aifivrjs de ftcri) yvvaiKes [at] ra i'Sta reKva Kara TI 
vofjLifjiov y o-(payiaov Kp6va> [et maestis late loca questibus implent !] : cf. 
Soph, in Andromeda, fr. 132, ap. Hesych. s. v. Koupioi/. 

Philomela and Procne are frequently confused, cf. Serv. ad Eel. vi. 
78. In all Greek authors, Philomel is the name of the Swallow, and 
Procne of the Nightingale (Ar. Av. 665). The Latins generally reverse 
this ; but Varro De L. L. and Virg. Eel. vi adhere to the Greek version 
of the story (W. H. Thompson, ad Plat. Gorg. fr. 6, p. 180). drjSuv and 
d\Kva>v are also apt to be confused, e. g. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b, where 
MSS. have drjSovvv for d\Kvova>v, and Suid. s.v. 'H/xepti/a a>a, where 
dr)8<av occurs among the 6a\da<na a>a, between d\Kv<av and Kr)vg ; cf. 
Boch. Hieroz. ii. 218. In the version of the Itylus-Myth given by Boios, 
ap. Anton. Lib. u, the mother of Aedon is transformed into the bird 

See also s. vv. dXideros, dXtcuoW, x 6 ^ ^- 
Al'BETO'l (for al^eros). alperos' deros, Uepyaiot, Hesych. 
AlTl'OAAOI (also aiytOaXXos ; cf. KopuSaXos, Kopu8aXX<5s). A Titmouse. 

Three sorts are indicated, Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b 6 pev cnri^ir-qs pf- 
yto-roS) fan yap oaov (nria = Parus major, L., the Great Tit or Ox-eye : 
cTcpos S' opeivos, ovpdiov fiaKpov ex )V ~ Acredula (Parus] caudatus, 
the Long-tailed Tit (which occurs in Northern Greece, v. d. Miihle 
p. 49, Lindermayer p. 65) : rpiros eXa^io-ros, including the Tom- 
Tit and its allies, of which, according to Heldreich (p. 39) P. ater, 
coeruleus and palustris are rare in Greece ; P. higubris, Nath., is com- 
moner and now shares the same popular name KXeidcwds with the Great 
Tit. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis <rKO)\r)Ko(pdyos : ix. 15, 616 b Tucrei 
<'a TrXelora (the Long-tailed Tit is known to lay very numerous eggs) : 
ix. 40, 626 /MaAiora aSiKei ras fie \Lrras (cf. Ael. H. A. i. 58, Phile 650, 
Geopon. xv. 2, 18). According to Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ii. p. 65, 
eXato? and <rvKci\is are also varieties of alyidaXos: vide s.v. auicaXis. 
Mentioned also Ar. Av. 887 together with p,e\ayKopv(f)os (into which 
<rvKoXfc is metamorphosed) ; Alcae. Com. ii. 825. Is hostile to d<av- 
QvXXis, Plut. De Od. et Inv. iv. 537 B. The metamorphosis of 
Timandra, Anton. Lib. Met. v ; and of Ortygius, Met. xx. Is con- 
fused with alyo0ji\as, Dion. De Avib. i. 15, iii. 20. 


AfriQOS (also aiyiyflos). An unknown and mythical bird, identified 
by the older commentators (e. g. Belon) with the Linnet. 

Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609, 610 oVo> iroXc'/uor (cf. Antig. Hist. Mirab. 58 
(63) ; Ael. H. A. v. 48 ; Dion. De Avib. i. 12 ; Phile 696 ; Plin. x. 95). 

TroXefuoi 5e KOI avQos Kal aKav&is KOI cuyidos. Ib. ix. 15, 6l6b eu/SiWo? 
KOI TroXvTfKvns, TOV 7roSa ^coXoff. [Many MSS. have alyioBos : for ^coXd? 
some texts read o>xP s > or ^Xcopoy, the latter Albertus Magnus, but cf. 
aiyiOos dpcpiyvrjeis, Callim. fr. ap. Antig. 1. c. ; Plin. x. (8) 9.] Xe'yercu 8' 
on alyidov KCU avdov alp-a ov (rv/z/ztywrai aXX^Xois : idem, Pliny X. (74) 
95 (who calls it avis minima), Ael. H. A. x. 32, and Phile 432, the 
same statement of aKavQis and alyidaXos, and Antig. H. M. 106 (114) 
the same of atyidos and aKavdts. Dion. De Avib. iii. 14 Qrjparai KXo>/3o5, 
V eo TraXat drjpadels eWpoy eirl TO (3oav KaTaxXeifrat. Antig. H. M. 45 (5*)j 
how atyidos sucks the goats (v. alyoOfaas) and is xo>Xo'?. [Aegithus 
solo nomine huic nostrae aetati cognitus, P. Hardouin, Annott. ad 
Plin. x. 8.] Vide s. vv. 

A Macedonian name for the Eagle. Etymol. M. 

AITOOH'AAI. The Goatsucker or Nightjar, Caprimulgus euro- 
paeus, L. 

The name is probably corrupt, and the mythical attribute of the bird 
due to a case of ' Volksetymologie.' 

M. Gk. name -yido/3ucrrpa is a corrupt translation of alyo6fj\as (Heldr. 
p. 37). Also called /Sufaorpa, wKTpi8a (i. e. the Bat, v. d. Miihle), WK- 
Tondrrjs, and TT\UVOS (Erh.). (Cf. Germ. Ziegenmelker, Kuhmelker, Fr. 
tette-ckevre, &c.) 

Arist. H. A. ix. 30, 6l8b opvis 6pew6s, p-ncpw ptifav Korrixpou, KoKKvyos 
e'Xarrcoj;* wo dvo [cf. Lindermayer, p. 38, Kriiper, p. 183, &c.] rj rpia" TO 
Se rjffos P\aiuK6s [verb, dub., cf. Aub. and Wimm. in Arist. 1. c.]. &jX4 
8e ras alyas. OVK O^UCOTTOS TTJS tyftcpof. Ael. H. A. iii. 39 roX^pdraroy 
q>a)i> .... tmriforcu rais atgi Kara TO Kaprepov, KOL rols ovQcunv avrS>v 
7rpoo"7r6To/Mej/oj elra Kp.vd TO -yaXa .... Tv<p\ol TOV fj-aaTov, KUI OTroo'jSeVj'VO't 
TTJV cueWev eiripporjv. Cf. Plin. x. 56 (40). Vide S.vv. alyiOaXos, aiytOos. 

AlTOKE^AAOI. Probably a kind of Owl: perhaps the Horned or 
Long-eared Owl, Strix otus, L., or its small ally Ephialtes scops, 
K. Bl. The latter is the Asio of Plin. x. (23), xxix. 38, which name 
in its Italian diminutive form is Shelley's ' Sad Aziola/ 

Arist. H. A. ii. 15, 506 o\a>s oi'K e^ TOV o-7r\ijva' TrjV xo\f)V e^ei Trpoff TO 
i^TraTt Kai Trpoy TTJ KotXta. Ib. ii. 17, 509 TOV o-Top-a^ov e^ei evpvTepov TO 

Gesner (p. 62) mentions Capriceps as an unknown bird. Neither 
Sundevall nor Aubert and Wimmer pronounce an opinion on it : the 


A I rOK E4>AAOI (continued]. 

former thinks it possibly identical with alyodrjKas. According to Scaliger 
p. 2$I ) alyoKe(j)a\os = aiya>\ios. In both passages cited above alyoicecpaXos 
is mentioned along with yXau, and the name suggests a Horned Owl 
(sic Scaliger, Lidd. and Sc., &c.). For other suggestions, see Newton, 
Diet, of Birds, p. 365, s. v. Godwit. 

Al'nmiO'Z. A Vulture. 

Etymology very doubtful. The analogy of Lammergeier suggests a 
compound of ai or oiV (Curt.) and yv^, but the word is probably much 
more primitive and ancient. I suspect that most of the remarkably 
numerous bird-names beginning with al- (many of which are peculiarly 
difficult to identify, a circumstance suggesting their generic rather than 
specific character), contain an element akin to avi-s^ Sk. vi-s (v. deros), 
and in this case that yfy is the shortened or derived form. The dialectic 
form afy/TTor//- is interesting in this connexion. 

Horn, frequent, with ep. dy<v\oxfi\r}Sj ya^5>w^. Not merely a car- 
rion-eater (as in Hes. Sc. 405-412), but attacks live birds (II. xvii. 460, 
Od. XX. 322, cf. Soph. Aj. 169 .... pcyav alyvmov VTroSeurai/re?). Arist. 
H. A. ix. I, 609 b /ua^erou dera>' TroXe/uos auraXam. A portent of aiyvirioi 
in chase of ipq/cey in the Persian war, Herod, iii. 76 ; cf. Baehr's note. 
Is feared by rpwyXiVijs-, Phile 692. Sometimes distinguished from yty, 
Ael. ii. 46 V peOopico yvTTwv flat KCU aerwf, elvat KCU cippevas, KOI rrjv xpoav 
TrffyvKfvcu p.f\avas (cf. Phil. De An. pr. 127) : Nic. Ther. 406 alyviriol yinres 
re. Pallad. Alex, xx, in Gk. Anthol. iii. p. 119 KOI TOV peit TITVOV Kara 
yrjs 8vo yvrres fdovaiv, rjnas Se U>VTO.S Tf&orapes alyvmoi. Cf. Lob. Path. j. 
p. 87. 

The metamorphosis of Aegypius and Neophron into alyvnioi xpoav de 
KCU p,eye6os ov% O/JLOLOI, dXXa eXarrcoj/ opvis alyvrrLos eyevero N6O0p&)j/, Boios 
ap. Anton. Lib. Met. v ; the smaller species here alluded to is the 
White or Egyptian Vulture, the Neophron percnopterus of modern 
authors : vide s. vv. yuxj/, irepKi/oVrepos. 

The <f)i\ocrTopyia of alyvmos, as also of (prjvTj, celebrated in Od. xvi. 216, 
Aesch. Ag. 49, Opp. Hal. i. 723, c., is connected with the Egyptian 
association of the Vulture with the goddess of Maternity (cf. Horap. 
i. ii). 

alyvmos is apparently the poetic name, applied to the various species 
which frequent the battle-field, and on the other hand applied to an 
Eagle in such passages as II. xvii. 460. That the word is an old and 
antiquated one seems to be meant by Suidas : alyvmov' OVTWS ol -n-aKmoi, 
dXX* ov yvrra. Cf. Bekk. An. 354. 28, Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 19. 

Al'm'AIOI. Also alyoXios, and aircaXios (Bk., Ar. vi. 6. 3). An Owl. 
Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b, a nocturnal rapacious bird, mentioned with 
and o-Kco^, and resembling the former (in size) : &/peuet ras 


AirflAIOI (continued'). 

[here Camus, reading m'ro>Xios, and following Belon and Buffon, trans- 
lates Milmts niger, the Black Kite]. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 17, 6l6b VVKTIVO^LOS eVrt, KOL fjpepas oXiyaKis (paiverat. 
otKel Trerpas KOI (nrrj\vyyas' eon yap dida\\os [Gaza tr. vtctus gemini, 
Guil. divaricately v. Aub. and Wimm. ii. p. 248], r^v 8e didvoiav /SiomKoy 
KOL cv/jiTjxavos. Ib. vi. 6, 562 eViore de Kal Terrapas ft-dyei VCOTTOVS [Plin. 
x. 79 (60)]. 

The metamorphosis of Aegolius, Boios ap. Anton. Lib. Met. 19. 

If 8i6a\\os means particoloured, mya>Atos is clearly the White or 
Barn Owl, Strix flammea, L., as Littre' (ad Plin.) takes it to be ; 
it however does not catch birds, and is said to be scarce in Greece 
(v. d. Miihle, Lindermayer). Gesner transl. by ulula, and identifies 
it with the Tawny Owl. Sundevall librates between the Tawny and 
the Barn Owl ; A. and W. incline to the former. See cuyoKe^aXos, 

Ar0YIA. A poetic word, of uncertain or indefinite meaning. 

Probably a large Gull, e. g. Larus marinus, the Black-backed Gull 
(Sundevall), or L. argentatus, the Herring Gull (Kriiper), the former 
being rare in Greece. Netolicka's hypothesis of the Merganser, and 
that of Groshans that it was a Diver or Grebe, do not tally with 
Aristotle : Schneider's identification with the Skua, Lestris parasiticus, 
fails, inasmuch as the latter does not dive (vide Buchholz, op. c. pp. 112, 
113) nor does it breed in the Mediterranean. The Herring Gull is 
abundant during the winter and breeds about the middle of April : 
the Common Tern (Sterna anglica) lays about the same time (Kriiper) 
but in the lagoons and not on the cliffs. 

Od. v. 337, 353. Arist. H. A. v. 9, 542 b 17 5' aWvia KO\ 01 \dpoi TLKTOVO-I 
jj.ev fV Tals rrepi daXarrav Trerpais, TO /xeV 7r\rjdos dvo r) rpia' aXX' 6 /xeV 
Xapoy TOU 6epovs y 17 8' aWvia dp\op.evov rot) capos [cf. Mergus, Plin. x. 32 
(48)] evOvs fK rpoirav. ovdcTfpov 8e (pa)\vi. Also i. i, 487 ] viii. 3, 593 b. 
Arrian, Peripl., ed. Didot, 1855, i. p. 398, names it with Xapoi and 
Kopwi/at ai $aXa(nricu, and Hesych. renders diOviai by eivdXiai Kopwvai. 
Frequent in the Gk. Anthol. ; e. g. Glauc. vi, vol. iii. p. 58 cSXero yap 
criiv 1/771, ra ' oore'a nov rror' eKfivov f TrvQerai, aldviais yvaxTra p.ovais eveneiv, 
cf. Marc. Arg. xxxi, ibid. ii. p. 250 ; Callim. xci ; Leon. Tar. xci, Gk. 
Anthol. i. p. 178 TQV aldvirfs 7rXei'oi/a vij^d^evov : Anon. ibid. iv. p. 143 
arjpayyos aXiKrvnov os rode vaieis evori/Sey atdviais i^^u/3oXoi(7i terras, 
Phile, De Anim. Pr. 680, is hostile to neXapyos and Kp'. Is said to 
be deaf and dumb, Aristoph. Hist. Anim. Epit. i. 141. 

The metamorphosis of Hyperippa, daughter of Munychus, Nicander 
ap. Anton. Lib. Met. 14. 

Arat. Phen. 918, a sign of rain ; TroXXaKi? 8' dypidSa vf)cr<rai 



AI0YIA (continued}. 

aWviai xepo-cua TLvaa-arovrai TrTtpvyco-aiv : cf. Theophr. De Sign. ii. 28, 
Virg. Georg. i. 362. 

A long but unsatisfactory description in Dion. De Avib. ii. 5. 

A title or epithet of Athene, Paus. i. 5. 3, i. 41. 6. 

Said to be the name of a horse in Mnasalc. xiii. Gk. Anthol. i. p. 125. 

See also SUTTTTJS, Xcipos. 

Al"E. An unknown bird. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b : mentioned 

between xr?i/aXa>7n7 and 7rr)ve\o\^ as One of the opvidfs o-reyai/oVoSes 

ftapvTfpoi (omitted in several MSS.). 

According to Belon the Plover (Vanellus cristatus) was so called 
in Greece in his time: the interpretation cannot hold. Sundevall 
9 conjectures ai' to be one of the smaller Geese (? Anser leucopsis\ and 
to be derived from the goat-like cry. Perhaps as alyoKc(pa\os suggests 
the Horned Owl, so nt here suggests the Horned Grebe, Podiceps 
auritus, Lath., a common bird in Greece in winter. 

AI'PIGAKO'X. Vide S. vv. auraicos, epiOaicos. 
AriAKOI. A very doubtful word. 

KaXelrat Se KCU TO a>oi/ 6 alpiQaKos aio*aKoy, Etym. M. Cf. Serv. in 

Aen. iv. 254, v. 128. 

Al'XA'AfiN (alaap&v, Hesych.). A sort of Hawk, traditionally identified 
with -the Merlin, Falco aesalon, L. (Gesner, &c.). 

Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 62O T>V Se icpaKuv devrepos [rfj Kparia]. Ib. 
ix. I, 609 b alyvTricS iroXepios' aXo>7rKi rroXe/ito? Kal KopciKi. Ael. H. A. 
ii. 51 p.d\Tai 5' 6 K.6pa KOI opvidi tcr^upaJ TO) KaX. atcraXcoi't, /cat orav 
^eatr/jrai aXa>7TfKt p.a^6p.vov } Tifj-wpflrai. Cf. Antig. H. M. 59 (64)* Plin. 
N. H. x. (74) 95 Aesalon vocatur parva avis, ova corvi frangens, 
cuius pulli infestantur a vulpibus. Invicem haec catulos eius ipsam- 
que vellit : quod ubi viderunt corvi, contra auxiliantur velut adversus 
communem hostem. (Some editors read aesalona for epileum> Plin. 
N. H. x. 9.) 

'AKAAANOl'l' eiSo? opveov /nt/cpoO, Suid. Vide S.W. dKa^Ois, dKar'OyXXis. 

Ar. Pax 1078 17 KcoScof a.Ka\av6is (Schol. XctXoi> -yap TO wov) e7Tfi.yop.evT} 
rv(p\a TLKTei (cf. Paroemiogr. ed. Gaisf., p. 69). Associated with Artemis, 
Ar. Av. 871. One of the nine Emathidae, daughters of Pieros, was 
metamorphosed into the bird aKaXavdis, Nicander ap. Anton. Lib. 
Met. ix. 

'AKANGI'X. A small bird, usually identified with the Linnet, Fringilla 
cannabina, L., or the Goldfinch, F. carduelis, L., on the ground of 
the more than doubtful derivation from aitavOa. The description 


AKAN0II (continued}. 

is in the main mythical : cf. a^Oos. Mod. Gk. a-KaBi, the Siskin, is 
perhaps akin (Bike'las). 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis aKavBotpdyos' enl aKavBav vep-erat. Ib. 
ix. I ova> Kal avBco Kal alyida iroXepios [cf. Antig. Hist. Mirab. 106 (114), 
Plin. x. 74 (95)], ix. 17 KUKO^LOS Kal KaKoxpoof, (puvrjv /ueWoi \iyvpav 
e^ovo-a. Agath. xxv. 5 in Gk. Anthol. iv. p. 13 \iyvpov /So/i/SeCo-ii/ aKavdidfs. 
Theocr. 7. 141 : the Scholia in Theocr. make a<avdis synonymous with 
dicav0v\\is and TroiKiXis. Virg. Georg. iii. 338 littoraque halcyonem 
resonant, et acanthida [#/. acalanthida] dumi ; cf. Serv. in Virg. alii 
lusciniam esse volunt, alii vero carduelem, quae spinis et carduis 

In Anton. Lib. Met. vii, the daughter of Autonous and Hippo- 
damea is called 'Anai/Bis and 'A.KavQv\\is indifferently ; note also that 
her mother was metamorphosed into Kopv86s. Hesych. and Aelian 
have also azavBos. (Cf. Anton. Lib. 1. c.) Vide s. v. 

'AKANGYAAI'I (in some MSS. cueavBc^is). Probably the Goldfinch, 
Fringilla carduelis, L. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 TO peycOos oarov KvnroXoyos. Ib. ix. 13, 6l6 rexvi- 
Koi)S 5e K.CU fj TTJS aK.av6v\\i8os cx l veomd' TreVXcKrai yap axrirep (rcpalpa \ivrj, 
e^oucra TTJV clfrdvcriv p.iKpdv I cf. Plin. x. 33 (50). Is hostile to Kopv8a\6s, 

Ael. iv. 5, Phile, De An. Pr. 683. Mentioned also Eubul. fr. iii. 268, 
ap. Athen. ii. p. 65, Plut. ii. 537 B, and by Hesych. as vrpovBov yevos. 

The description in Arist. H. A. ix. 13 has suggested to scientific com- 
mentators (Sundevall, p. 116, &c.) the nest of the Long-tailed or Pendu- 
line Tits, Aegithalus caudatus or pendulinus (cf. alyi6a\os) or Bearded 
Tit, Calamophilus biarmicus ; but the neat round nest of the Goldfinch 
would suit the description well enough. The alternative form aitavBaKis 
is evidently identical with aKoKavQis, and so supports the identity of the 
bird with aKavOis, while its identity with TroiKiX/s-, also asserted by the 
Schol. in Theocr., is strengthened by the statements of hostility to 
Kopvba\6s in the case of both these birds. The latter statement is, of 
course, fabulous or mystical. In identifying dKavdvXXis with the Gold- 
finch, I only mean that such an identification was probably adopted by 
Aristotle : what d/caj/0vXXi's, civBos, &c. originally meant is unknown. 
See also cuyiSaXos, akdos. 

'A[K]KAAANirP- aKavBvXXis, Trapa Ad<axnv, Hesych. [On various read- 
ings cf. Valkenaer, Adon. p. 2*78 ; Ahr. Dor. ii. 69.] 

"AKMQN- -yeW deroC, Hesych. Cf. Opp. Cyneg. iii. 326, where, though 
amoves are cited as wolves, the description closely resembles that 
of the mystical eagles in Aesch. Ag. 111-120. 

C 2 


'AKYAEHT dfros, Hesych. Also dicuXds, Eustath. ad Dionys. Perieg. 
381. Perhaps akin to aquila\ cf. Umbrian (Tab. Eugub.), angla 
s. ankla. 

'AAEKTPYft'N. Also aX<?KTup (Batr. 191, Simon. 81, Theocr. vii. 122, 
Aesch. Ag. 1671, Eum. 86 1, &c. dXeKreop seems thus to have been 
an old form, retained in tragedy; cf. Rutherford, New Phryn. 

P- 307). 

Fem. d\KTopis : Com. aXfKrpvaiva (Ar. Nub. 666, 851, c.) and rj 
d\cKTpva>v (Ar. Nub. 663, Fr. 237, &c.). Cf. Hesych. aXenrpvoves' KOIV&S oi 
naXaiol Kai ras 6r)\eias opveis OVTMS eitd\ovv I Phrynich. CCVli aXeKTOpls 
evpiffKeTdi ev rpaycadia irov KOI Koo^eoSi'a, Aeye de aXeKrpvwv KOI eVi 6r)\eos 
KOI eVt appcvos as oi iraXaioi : Ar. Nub. 662 rf]v re 0r)\fiav KaXfls a\K- 
rpvova Kara rairo Kai TOV appeva. Dim. d\cKTopi8evs, a chicken, Ael. 
vii. 47 ; also dXeKropivKos, a cockerel, Babr. v. I, xcvii. 9, cxxiv. 12. 
Connected with O. P. halak, the sun, cf. dXicuwy. For false etymology 
a, \eKTpov, see below. 

The Common or Domestic Fowl, Gallus gallinaceus, L. Often 
mentioned simply as opvis, a ^fowl' [especially a hen, Athen. ix. 373 
dXXa [Mfv K.a.1 opvtdas K.OL opviQta vvv \iovov rj avvrjdfia KaXel ras 6r)\eias], cf. 
opvis evoiKios, Aesch. Eum. 866 ; opvis KaGoiicis, Nic. Ther. 558 ; 
Id. Alex. 60, 535 ; KaroiKiSios, Geopon. i. 3. 8 ; &pvidcs oi 
Herondas vi. 101 ; opvis o-vvf<mos } Opp. Cyneg. iii. 118; nOas opvis, 
Alpheus Mityl. in Gk. Anth., ii. p. 118, cf. Arat. Progn. 960 (228), 

Early references. Theogn. Scut. 86 1 eo-Trepfy r' e(ip.i, KOI opdpirj avris 
eaeip.1, ctnos oXfKTpvovav (J)Q6yyos cyeipopevav. Simon, fr. 80 B (Athen. 
ix. 374 D) a/zep6<po>j/ dXeKrcop. Pind. OI. xii. 2O fVSo/xa^s ar* 
Epicharm. Com. Syr. (ap. Athen. I.e.) fr. 96 (Ahr. Dial. Dor.) wea 
K d\KTopid(i>v TTfTerjv&v. Batrachom. 191 eeos e/3o^o-ei/ dXeVrajp. For many 
fragments, see Athen. 1. c. 

Description. Arist. H. A. v. 13, 544, De Part. ii. 657 b, De Gen. iii. 
749 b> described as yevos' fjfjiepov, striytioif, KOVHTTIKOV, jSapu, ov TTT^TIKOV, OVK 
^oTTTfpoV) d(ppo5i(riac7Tt/coi', &C. H. A. ii. I7> 5^8 b, 509 ^po- 
?rp6 rrjs KoiXias' drro<pvd8as e^ov<ri. 

Comb and spurs. Ar. Av. 487, 1366, Arist. H. A. ii. 12, 504 b ema TWV 
opveav \6<pov e'^otxri, ra pei/ avrfav TO>V Trrepfov eTraveo'TTjKOTa, 6 S' dXeKrpvcov 
fMovos idiov' ovre yap (rap| ecrriv ovre Troppto o~apKos rr^v (j)vo-iv. Ib. ix. 49, 
50 KaXXmov, nXrJKrpa (Hesych. has also TrXaxr^p and KoTries, the spurs). 
KtiXXaia, distinguished from X6<poy, the ' wattles,' Ael. xi. 26, Ar. Eq. 497, 
cf. Schol. <d\\aia 8e TOVS Trcoycoi/as- rwf d\Krpv6vu>v : in Ael. xv. I, a fish- 
hook dressed with two feathers vnb rots xaXXeois suggests the ' hackles.' 
With ep. <poiviic6Xo<pos, Theocr. xxii. 72, Geop. xiv. 16. 2. 


AAEKTPYflN (continued}. 

Compared in size with (pao-ovz, Arist. fr. 271, 1527 I with eXfo?, H. A. 
viii. 3. 592 b ; with the largest of the Woodpeckers, H. A. ix. 9, 614 b ; 
with daKaXairas, H. A. ix. 26, 617 b. 

Reproduction. Arist. H. A. V. 2, 59 b o-vyKadeio-rjs rrjs AfXcutf eVi 
rfjv yrjv CTrtfiaivei TO appevl cf. ib. X. 6, 637 b. Ib. vi. 9, 564 b op^ety. Ib. 
vi. I, 558 b o^euerai KOI rixrei o\ov TOV evtavTov eeo 8vo fj-rjvfav TO>V ev TGJ 

X/UGw TpoTriK&v (cf. H. A. v. 13, 544, De Gen. iii. i, 749 b, P^ n - x - 74)- 

TIKTOVO-I de Kal oiKoyevels eviai dls TTJS rj/jLfpas' fj8rj 8e rives Xiaf TroXvTOKTjo-acrai 
dircQavov 8ia ra^ecor. H. A. vi. 2, 560 b at i/forrt'Ses npStTov TIKTOVQ-IV evdvs 
dpxop,vov TOV fapof) Kal TrXeuo TIKTOVO~IV r) al Trpo~(3i>Tepai' tXarro) 8e TW 
fjifyedei TO. K T>I> vea>Tpa>v. Ib. awio-Tarni de TO Tr/s dXfKTOpidns wbv /JLfTa 
rfjv oxeiav KOL reXeioCTai fv deft r)p.pais. Ib. 560 a eV oKTuKaideKO. fjfiepais 
ev TO) Oepei K\TTovo~iv ) (v 8e T&7 xeifjitovi VIOT' ev TreWe KOI f'lKncriv. 

Plut. Q. Conv. vii. 2 (Mor. 853. 15) d\KTopida)v t OTUV reKoxri, 
<pi<Tfji6s, cf. Plin. x. 41 (57). 

The structure and development of the egg, H. A. vi. 3. am 
U7n7i>e/iia, Kvv6o~ovpa, ovpia, rj fcffrvpia, H. A. vi. 2, 559? ^ e Gen. iii. I, 75 1 j 
Plin. x. 60 (80) ; Columella, vi. 27 ; cf. Erasmus ad Prov. vmpffua TIKTCI. 
wa 8i8vp.a, H. A. vi. 3, 562. On crosses between fowl and partridge, 
De Gen. ii. 7, 749 b. How Pea-hen's eggs are put under a sitting hen, 
H. A. vi. 9, 564 b. How the hen takes the chicks under her wing, 
H. A. ix. 8, 613 b ; cf. Alpheus Mityl. xii, in Gk. Anthol. ii. p. 118 ^ei- 

fj-epiois vKpadevo-i iriiKvvofJitva Tidas opvis, TCKVOIS evvalas dpcpexfc TTTepvyas I 
Eurip. H. Fur. 71 ov? vnb Trrepoif <ra>a> vfoo-ffovs opvis a>s v(f)(ip.evr} : see 
also Plutarch, De Philost. (Mor. 599. 4) ; Opp. Cyneg. iii. 119. How 
a cock sometimes, after the hen's death, rears the brood, and ceases to 
crow, H. A. ix. 49, 631 b, Plin. x. (55) 76. H. A. ix. 8, 614 ev Tols iepols, 
OTTOV avev drjXei&v dvaKfivTai [as to this day on Mount Athos], TOV dvaTide- 
\ievov jrdvTfs fv\6ya>s oxevovviv. Cf. Plut. Brut. Anim. Nat. vii (Mor. 
1 2 12. 30) dXfKTpvvv 6' d\fKTpvovos eTTiftaivav, GqXeias fifj napovo-qs, KUTU- 

On eggs in medicine, Diosc. ii. 44, Galen. De Fac. Simp. Med., Plin. 
xxix. (3) n, &c. The longer eggs produce male birds, and are the 
better to eat, Hor. Sat. ii. 4. 12, Plin. x. 74 (52). 

On artificial incubation in Egypt, Arist. H. A. vi. 2, 559b, Diod. Sic. 
i. 74. Geopon. xiv. 8. i. On capons, Arist. H. A. ix. 49, 631 b ; cf. Plin. 
x. (21) 24, &c. Varro, R. R. iii. 9, &c. On the whole management of 
fowls, Geopon. xiv. 7-17. 

TLoTfpov f] opvis npoTfpov jy TO cobv fyevfTo, Plut. Q. Conv. iii (Mor. 
770. 13). 

The Crowing Cock. Among innumerable poetic and other references, 
cf. Theogn., Simonid., Batrachom., supra. Cratin. ap. Athen. 3740 
&o-jrp 6 Ilfpo-iKbs [cf. Ar. Av. 277, 485, 708, c.: v. also Suidas] &puv 


AAEKTPYQN (continued"). 

iraa-av Kava-^v 6\6(pa>vos, 'AXexrwp. eipjjrcu S' ovrcoy eVeiS^ Kai ex TOV 
XtKrpov ^/nas dteyeipet. Theocr. xxiv. 63 opviQfs rpirov apn TOV e 
opdpov aeidov. Soph. El. 1 8 as f]jjuv fjdr) Xa/i7rp6i> j/X/ou ore\as ewa 
(pdeypaT opvi6a>v (ratprj : fr. QOO KOKKoftoas opvis : cf. ep. opdpofioas, 
Alexarch. ap. Athen. 98 E. Diph. iv. 421 (Mein.) opdpioKoKKvt- \lect. 
dub.~\ a\KTpv>v. Probably alluded to also Soph. Anten. 2, fr. 141 
(Ath. ix. 373 D) opvtda Kal KrjpvKa KOI didieovov. Plat. Symp. 223 C 
a\cKTpv6va)v abuvTwv, at Cock-crow. Cf. Alciphr. i. 39. 20, Aristaenet. 
i. 24 fts d\KTpv6vo)v wfia? : Ar. Nub. 4, Juv. ix. 107, &c. Plut. ap. Eust. 
Od. p. 1479, 47 (re de KOKKvfav opdpi d\eKTQ>p 7rpo/caXeiTai. Antip. Thess. 
V, in Gk. Anthol. ii. p. 96 TraXai 5' rjaos 'AXe/crcop, Kjypuo-frcoz/ (pdoveprjv 
'Upiyevfiav ayei. opvidcov eppois (pdovepooraroS) K. r. X. : cf. Ar. Vesp. 8l5 5 

Anyt. xi, in Gk. Anthol. i. p. 132, Virg. Aen. viii. 456, &c. Arist. De 
Acoust. 800 b TOVS rpaxfaovs e^oi/rey paKpovs jSiat'co? (pdeyyovrai. Ael. 
N. A. IV. 29 6 dXeKrpuojj' rrjs cre'h.fjvrjs ai/io-^ovo-Ty s (vBovcriq. (pacrt KOI (TKiprd. 
17X105 5e avlax^v OVK av TTOTC avrbv dia\ddoi, eJStJfWTaros Se eaurou tori 
Cf. Arist. H. A. iv. 9, 536. Lucian, Gallus, &c. With ep. 
i?, Babr. cxxiv. II. 

, to crow, Cratin. ii. 186, Diph. iv. 407 (Mein.), Theocr. vii. 
48, 124, &c. KaKKafciv, to cackle, Hesych., &c. 

Why the Cock crows : by an affinity for the sun, or rejoicing in heat 
and light, Heliodor. i. 18. See also Schol. Ar. Av. 830, Cic. De Div. 
ii. 26. According to Theophrastus (Ael. iii. 38) in moist localities 
Cocks don't crow. Paus. v. 25. 9, on the shield of Idomeneus, as a 
descendant of Helios, 17X101; de lepov (paatv elvai TOV opvida Kal dyy\\eii> 
dvievai peXXovros TOV fj\iov. See also Schol. Diog. L. viii. 34, Plaut. M. 
Gl. iii. i. 96, Mart. xiv. 223, Isidor. De N. R. c. 3, &c., &c. 

How to prevent Cocks crowing, by means of a collar of sarmentum 
wood, Plin. xxiv. 25. 

On hearing a Cock crow, or an ass bray, it is a matter of common 
prudence to spit, Joh. Chrysost. in comm. ep. S. P. ad Ephes. iv. 12 
(vol. xi. p. 93, Montef.) : this reference to the ass is used to explain 
ovov opviv in Ar. Av. 721, by Haupt, Inaug. Diss., Berlin, 1864. 

On Fighting Cocks, Aesch. Eum. 866 ; Plato, Legg. vii. 789 ; Theocr. 
xxii. 72 ; cf. Opp. Cyneg. ii. 189; cf. Schol. in Ar. Eq. 494, Ach. 165 
orav is [i.d](r)v o"U/i/3uXXo>o"ii> TOVS d\KTpv6vas } (TKopoda 8i86a(riv avTols I 
Lucian, Anarch. 37 (2. 918), &c. (See also Xen. Symp. iv. 9, and 
cf. (pvo-iyyoopu, from (pvo-iyf;, garlic. The annual cock-fight at Athens, 
instituted by Themistocles, Ael. V. H. ii. 28 aXetcrpvovas dywvifccrdai 
8r}fjLO<ria (v rq> dedrpq) pia J^e'p? TOV erovs : cf. J. E. Harrison, Myth, of 
Anc. Athens, p. 278; also at Pergamus, Plin. x. 21 (25). The cock- 
fight was depicted on the High-priest's chair in the Dionysiac theatre 
(Boetticher, Harrison, c.) ; represented also in the Festival Calendar 


AAEKTPYflN (continued}. 

of Panagia Gorgopiko at Athens, as taking place in the month Poseideon, 
about the end of December (Boetticher, Philologus, xxii. p. 397, 1865). 
As an attribute of January, on a Calendar of the time of Constantius ; 
Graevii Thes. Ant. Rom. viii. 96, Creuzer, Symb. iii. 616. Ael. N. A. 

iv. 29 /*X?7 &* d\KTpvu>v Kal TTJ irpbs ii\\ov rjTTtjOels dyom'a OVK av aaeie' 
TO yap rot (ppovrjua avra KarecrraXTat, KOI KaraSverai ye VTTO TTJS aldovs. 
KpciTrjcras 8e yuvpos eort, *ai {i^ai^ei/ft, KOI Kv8povfj.ev(6 HOIKC. Cf. Proverb, 
Galli victi silent, canunt victores, Cic. De Divin. ii. 26 ; cf. Ar. Av. 70 
and Schol. <pvo-i<bv TOVTO eV ruts (rvfjiftoXals TWV dXfKTpvovcov TOVS fjTTrjdevras 
eirca-dai rols veviKrjKoo-i : cf. Theocr. xxii. 71. On spurs for fighting- 
cocks, TrXrjKrpa, KcWpa, cf. Ar. Av. 760, and Schol. The table with raised 
edges, ri/Xt'a, on which Cocks or Quails were pitted against one another 
(still used in the East), Aeschin. viii. 221, Alciphr. iii. 53, Poll. ix. 108; 
also irlva t Plut. Mor. 65 c. It was a matter of duty and of education 
to witness the cock-fights, o>$ p.rj dyevvearepot KOI aroX/norepoi (paivoivro 
rS>v dXeKTpvovatv fJir)e -rrpomrayopcvoiev vnb rpav/zarcov ^ Ka/iareov fj TOV 
aXXou 8v<rxepovs, Lucian, De Gymn. 37. See also s. vv. opru, O-TU<[)O- 


On the marks of courage, Arist. Physiogn. 2, 806 b ; Plin. x. (56) 77 ; 
Geopon. xiv. 16. 

The fighting-breed of Tanagra, Pausan. ix. 22. 4 (vide infra). 

How the Cock fights his own father, Ar. Nub. 1427, &c., cf. Av. 758, 

How a hen that has defeated the Cock in combat, crows and assumes 
the plumage of the male, Arist. H. A. ix. 49, 631 b, cf. Ael. v. 5 ; Terent. 
Phorm. iv. 4. 30 gallina cecinit. On wide-spread superstitions con- 
nected with the Crowing Hen, vide Hopf, Thierorakel, pp. 164, 165. 

On the pugnacity of the Cock, cf. also Pind. Ol. xii. 20. Aesch. 

Agam. 1671 Kofjuracrov 0ap<ra>i/, aXeKToop wore 6r)\eias ireXas. Cf. Ar. Av. 

835 "Apew? veoTTos. See also Lucian, Gallus, &c. 

Placed as a symbol of battle on the head of Athene's statue in the 
Acropolis at Elis, Pausan. vi. 26. 23. 

Varieties and Breeds. Adrian Fowls, Arist. H. A. vi. I, 558 b pucpal 
TO fjieyedos, rocTOWl S' dv cKaaTrjv f]p.epav' elffl Se ^aXfyrat, KOI Kreivovo~i TOVS 
veoTTovs TroXXaKiy' xpa>fiara 5e TravroSaTra X OV(rLV - ^f. De Gen. iii. 6, 
Chrysipp. ap. Athen. vii. 285 E, Plin. x. 75 (53), Hecat. fr. 58, ap. 
Steph. Byz. 

Illyrian Fowls, that lay twice or thrice a day, Arist. De Mirab. 128, 
842 b; cf. H. A. vi. I, 558 b. 

At Tanagra, Paus. ix. 22. 4, were two breeds, oi re /ua^i/zoi, KOI ol 
Koo-orv(poi Ka\ovp.evoi. Cf. Babr. Fab. 5 aXe/cropiWa)^ ty pd\rj Tavnypaioiv, 
ols (paviv flvai dvfutv &anrep dvdpa>7rois. See also Lucian, Gallus, on the 
metempsychosis of Pythagoras, dm Sa/itov Tayaypaloy. Cf. KO\oi4>pu|. 


AAEKTPYQN (continued}. 

The Egyptian breed of Moi/oo-ipot, e o>i/ of /za^t^iot dXfKrpvovcs yfvvw 
and on their exemplary patience as sitters, Geopon. xiv. 7. 30. 

A silent breed at Nibas, near Thessalonica, Ael. xv. 20. 

On the breeds of fowls, galli tanagrici, medici^ chalcidici, &c., see 
also Varro, De R. R. iii. 9. 3 ; Colum. viii. 27 and 31 ; Plin. x. (21) 24, 
(56) 77- ^ 

Chrysipp. ap. Athen. ix. 373 A KaOdrrep rives ras \CVKCLS opvidas T>V 
p.\aiva>v fjdiovs tlvai fj.d\\ov. 

The fatted fowls of the Delians, and Roman laws and practices 
regarding the same; Plin. x. 50, cf. Columella viii. 2, Varro iii. 9, Cic. 
Academ. iv. 

The large fowls of Ctesias, fr. 57. 3, Ael. xvi. 2, were Impeyan 
Pheasants ; cf. Cuvier in Grandsaigne's Pliny, vii. p. 409, and Yule's 
Marco Polo, i. p. 242. 

Myth and Legend. Pythag. ap. Iambi. Adhort. xxi. 17 d\KTpvova 
ptv, pr) 6ve 8e' privy yap KCU 17X10) KaQiepvrai. Cf. Iambi. V. Pyth. xxviii. 
147, 150, &c. 

A white Cock sacred to the Moon, Pythag. ap. Diog. L. viii. 8. 19, 
Iambi. V. Pyth. xviii. 84 : to the Sun, Suid. s. v. UvBayopa T a o-vp@o\a. 

A white or yellow Cock sacrificed to Anubis, Plut. de Is. Ix. 

The Cock sacred to Athene, Paus. vi. 26. To Hermes, Lucian, 
Callus (cf. Montfaucon, i. pi. Ixviii, Ixxi, Graev. Thes. A. R. V. 718 A, 
c.) ; cf. Plut. Conv. Disp. iii. 6. p. 666 6 de opBpos npbs rf)v epydvrjv 
} Adr]vdv Kai rov dyopalov t Eppr l v enaviOTrjari. To Latona, Ael. iv. 29. 
Sacrificed to Mars, Plut. Inst. Lacon. (Mor. 238 F.). Sacred to 
Demeter, and therefore not eaten at Eleusis, nor by the initiates of 
Mithra ; Porphyr. De Abst. iv. 16. Sacrificed to Nephthys and Osiris 
on the 1 3th of Boedromion, and to Hercules and Thios on the 29th of 
Munychion, C. I. G. 523, Marm. Oxon. ii. 21, pp. 15, 17. 

Dedicated to Aesculapius, Plat. Phaed. 118. See also Artemid. v. 9 
rjv^aro ns TO> 'AovXlprff , ei dia TOV erovs uvo<ros ?X0oi, Qvaeiv CIVTG> d\(K- 
rpvova : also Porphyr. Vit. Pythag. 36, Herondas, Ascl. iv. 12. On the 
fowl in medicine, Nic. Ther. 557, Cels. v. 27, Diosc. Ther. 19 and 27, 
Galen and Pliny passim. 

Sacrificed to the Household gods, Juv. xiii. 233 Laribus cristam 
promittere galli ; cf. ibid. xii. 96. 

The Cuthic deity Nergal (2 Kings, xvii. 30) is said to have been 
represented as a Cock : for which reason Rabbinical writers, according 
to Gesenius, connect the name with TUTtH, tharnegol, a Cock, which 
word old-fashioned etymologists found hid in Tanagra. 

An image dedicated to the Twin Brethren, Callim. xxiv, in Gk. 
Anthol. i. p. 218 ; cf. Pausan. vi. 26. 

How fowls were kept in the temples of Hercules and Hebe, ei> rfj 


AAEKTPYQN (continued}. 

EvpeoTT/;, Mnaseas ap. Ael. xvii. 46 at /uei/ ovv dXcKropiftes ev r<w TTJS "H^ys 
vep.oi>Tai Vfui, ol 8e ev 'HpaK\eovs ol T0)vde yaperai I cf. Plut. ii. 696 K, Paus. 
ii. 148. 

Ael. N. A. ii. 30, how a new-purchased cock, if carried thrice 
round the table, does not seek thereafter to escape. Ib. iii. 31, how 
the lion fears the cock, and how the latter frightens the basilisk 
to death : for which reason travellers in Libya take a cock along with 
them. Cf. ibid. vi. 22 e^iora 8e TO> p,ev Xeoj/ri nvp KOI aXe/crpucoi/ : Aes. 
Fab. 323 ; Plut. De Inv. iv (Mor. 650, 5), Sol. Anim. xxxii (Mor. 1201, 
23). Hence also the use of a Cock to destroy the Lion-weed, 17 \eov- 
rfios Tr6a=opopdyxri, Geopon. ii. 42. 3. A confusion is possibly indicated 
here with the Galli, priests of Cybele ; according to Varro, De R. R. 
c. 20 (Nonius, s. v. mansuetum), when the Galli saw a lion, tympanis 
...fecerunt mansuetum: for other important references see Mayor's 
note to Juv. viii. 176. Note further that a mystical name for the Sun 
was Aeo>i>, and that those who participated in the rites of Mithra were 
called Lions ; Porphyr. De Abst. iv. 16. Niclas, the learned editor of 
the Geoponica (ed. 1781), and certain other historians quoted by him, 
finding that a lion in Bavaria evinced no terror at the sight of a Cock, 
but killed and ate the bird, still remained faithful to the old tradition, 
asserting that that lion's spirit must have been broken by captivity : 
scimus quam vim habeat consuetude ; cum diu in galli vicinia detentus 
esset, quid mirum, si eum ferre didicerit, &c. ! 

Paus. ii. 34. 2 ; at Methana (Troezene) a Cock with white wings was 
torn in two by two men as a charm to protect the vines from the wind 
Aty, cf. J. G. Frazer, Folk-lore, i. 163, 1890. See on Sacrifices of the 
Cock, Sir J. G. Dalyell's Darker Superstitions of Scotland, 1835 ; Sir 
S. Baker, Nile Sources, pp. 327, 335, c., &c. 

On d\eKTpvofj.avTfia } see Lucian's Callus, De Dea Syr. xlviii, Cic. De 
Div. ii, Plin. x. (21) 24; cf. Mem. Acad. Inscr. vii. 23, xii. 49; Hopf, 
Thierorakel, pp. 161-163. 

How some cannot abide a cock or a hen, Plut. fr. viii. 10 (12. 23). 

The Cock as a weather-prophet, Ael. vii. 7, Plut. Mor. 129 A, 
Theophr. De Sign. i. 17, Arat. Progn. 960 (228), Geopon. i. 3, 8. 

How the flesh of a fowl absorbs molten gold, Plin. xxix. 25. 

Is hostile to drrayds, Ael. vi. 45. 

Proverb and Fable. 

d\KTpvovos KoiXiav exftv, Ar. Vesp. 794 (i.e. the stomach of an 
ostrich, to swallow pebbles), cf. Suid. 

O.\fKT(t>p TTlWt KflU OVK OUpft, Suid. q.V. 

\fj6ovo-i yap TOI Kai/e'/LKoi/ 8ieoSot 6rjKfiav opviv, TT\T)V orav TOKOS 
Soph. fr. 424. 


AAEKTPYflN (continued}. 

KOIVOS ' A.6r)vai<i)v aXeWoop, descriptive of a bombastic talker, Demadas 
ap. Athen. iii. 99 D. 

fnTT) dXe/crwp dov\ov a>s K\ivas nrfpov, Phrynichus ap. Plut. Amator. 
xviii (Mor. 762 F); whence Ar. Vesp. 1490 rfrfjcra-ei $pvvixos &s ns 


With metaphorical epithet SiavXoSpofio?, 8ia yap TTJS av\ijs rpe\ei, 
Artemid. iv. 24 ; cf. Ar. Av. 291. 

Fable of the Eagle which carried off the Cock crowing over his 
victory, Aesop, Fab. 21. The Weasel and the argumentative Cock, 
ib. 14. The Cock and Thieves, ib. 195. The Cock and Dog, as 
wayfarers, ib. 225. The two Cocks and the Partridge, ib. 22. See also 
Babrius and Aesop passim. 

Fable of the Weasel and the Hen ; us &rj KCIT evvoiav avTrjs vo<rov<rr]s, 
ows ex f t) TrvvQavopevriv' KaXo>?, clnev, civ crv aTroor/js 1 , Plut. De Frat.Am. xix. 

How the plumage of the Cock outshines the raiment of Croesus in 
all his glory, (pvcriKO) yap avQei KeKoo-prjrai KCU /xupi'w KGtXXioi/i, Solon ap. 
Diog. L. i. 2. 4. 

Representations. The oldest Coins with the Cock are those of 
Himera and Dardanus (Imhoof-Bl. and K. pi. v. 38-42) and of 
Carystus (B. M. C., Central Greece, p. 100, pi. xviii), all of the early 
fifth century. They recall the Indian Gallus Sonneratii (cf. J. P. Six, 
in Imhoof-Bl. p. 35), or rather the Gallus ferrugineus or bankiva of 
Northern India. Cf. also Blyth's note (Ibis, 1867, p. 157) on fowls 
sculptured on the Lycian marbles (c. 600 B. C.). See also Conze, Ann. 
de I'lnst, 1870, p. 280, on a Cock represented on an ancient relief of 
Dionysus and Semele (?), B.C. 580-540. In regard to Himera, it is 
noteworthy that Pindar's twelfth Olympian Ode, in which the Cock is 
mentioned, was addressed to Ergoteles, an inhabitant of Himera (cf. 
Buckton, N. and Q. (4) iii. 131). 

The Cock with the Lion is early and frequent on coins of Asia 
Minor: with Athena on coins of Leucas, Corinth, Dardanus; also on 
coins of Ithaca, Zacynthus, Argos, &c. 

On a statue of Athene, Paus. vi. 26 (v. supra); on a statue of 
Apollo, to indicate sunrise, Plut. De Pyth. Orac. xii. 574 (Mor. 488. 30). 
On the shield of Idomeneus, Paus. v. 25 (v. supra). 

See also s. vv. |3pY)T<Ss, TJIKCU'OS, KIKKOS, KoXoi<|>pu, KOTTOS, 
, <re'pi<os, 

'AAIA'ETOZ s. dXiaieros. A Sea-eagle. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 619 e^ovcrii/ av\eva re /j,eyav KCU TTO^VI/ Kal nrepa 
Ka/iTruXa, ovpOTrvyiov 8e TrXaru" otKov&i de Trept BaXarrav KOI auras, dpna^ovTcs 
de KCU ov dwd/j-evoi (pepctv TroXXaKis KcmKpe'poi/rcu els (Bvdov. viii. 3, 593 b 
nepl rrjv 6d\arrav Siarpi'jSet KOI ra \ifJLvala Kojrrfi. [Here KoWet seems 


AAIAETOI (continued']. 

meaningless and may be an interpolation; cf. the next reference.] 
ix. 34, 620 6va>7r<TTaTOS /zeV eori, KCU ra TCKVO. avayK.a(i en ^iXd oi/ra 
Trpos TOI> rj\iov (BXeTreiv, Km TOV p.f] (Bov\6p.evov KOTTTCI KOI <rrpe<pei, KCU 
OTTorepou civ e/Lwrpocr$ev ol o<p$aXp.oi daKpixraxnVj TOVTOV dTTOKreiVei, TOV 5' 
erepov KTpe(pi. [The same story, s. v. aeVoy, in Ael. H. A. ii. 26, also 
Plin. N. H. x. 3, and in Gesner, &c.] fj Orjpevutv TOVS irepl rfjv 6a\arrav 
opviOctS) K.r.X. Arist. De Mirab. 60, 835 e*c TOV fvyovs TO>V derail' BaTfpov 
TOSV eyyovwv aXidfTos yiverai TrapaXXa^, &c., cf. Dion. De Av. ii. i. Men- 
tioned also Ar. Av. 891, Eur. fr. 637 6p<S 5' eV UKTO'IS vo^dSa KvpaTocpOopov 
aXidcTov : Opp. Hal. i. 425 Kparepoi ^' dXtateroi dpiraKT^pes, &C. 

See also Nonn. Dion. xlii. 531, where dXiaero?, associated with 
Poseidon, seizes a dove from the clutches of KI'PKOS, faidofjicvois 6vi>x^fo-i 
HTap(TLov opviv dei'poo^. Cf. Sil. Ital. Punic, iv. 105. 

A good omen to fishermen, Dion. De Avib. ii. i. 

On the fabled metamorphosis of Nisus or Pandareus see Ovid, Met. 
viii. 146, xii. 560 ; Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. xi ; Hygin. Fab. 98 ; Virg.(?) 
Ciris 536, and Keller, op.c. p. 259. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 619 is apparently descriptive of the Osprey, 
Pandion Haliaetus, with which bird dXtdero? is commonly identified 
by mediaeval and modern commentators ; but the description of the 
chase after sea-birds (ix. 620) applies rather to Aquila naevia, or 
Hal. albidlla (Sundevall). A Sea-eagle is very frequently alluded 
to under the generic name deros, e. g- Pind. N. v. 21 irtpav TTOVTOLO 
TraXXoi/T* euerot' : Soph. Oen. fr. 423, ap. Ar. Av. 1337 yevoipav tueroy 
v^nreTaS) as av noTcidfiijv vTrep drpvyerov yXavKas eV ol8p,a \ifJLvas I Theocr. 
xiii. 24. 

An Eagle with a fish is frequent on coins, e. g. Acragas (Imhoof-Bl. 
and K. pi. iv. 31), Sinope (ibid. v. n, 12), and many other towns 
especially in the Black Sea and Hellespont (Keller, op.c. p. 262). 

In all the above references, as in most passages relating to the Eagle, 
a mystical and symbolic meaning outweighs the zoological. The poem 
of Ciris is of great importance for the understanding of the myth. It 
is noteworthy how many birds, or names associated with birds, occur, 
with more or less obscure significance, in this poem ; to wit, Procne, 
the Daulian maids, Pandion, theAnserLedae, Haliaetus or Nisus, and 
lastly Ciris. I accept the theory that we have here to do with an 
elaborate Sun and Moon myth. The golden or purple lock in Nisus' 
hair (cui splendidus ostro Inter honoratos medio de vertice canos 
Crinis inhaerebat, Ov. Met. viii. 8, cf. Ciris 122, Apollod. ii. 4. 5), 
recalls, on the one hand, the Samson-legend (as we are expressly told 
by Tzetzes in Lye. 648), and on the other, the crest of the solar tVo^ 
or focus, both of which birds appear in the version of the legend given 
by Boios. The name Nisus is akin to nesher^ m'sr, an eagle (vide 


AAIAETOI (continued}. 

s. v. aeros), and Nisus or 'AXiciero? plunges, like the setting Sun, into 
the sea. Ciris, Ketpi? (with which I believe KeipuXos- or <f]pv\os to be 
connected), or Scylla is the Moon (cf. Porphyr. De Abst. iii. 17), which, 
as the watery goddess, appears in some forms of the legend as a fish. 
The last lines of the poem Ciris are of 'peculiar importance, where the 
mutual pursuit and flight of Haliaetus and Ciris are described, and com- 
pared with the alternate appearance and disappearance of the opposite 
constellations of Scorpio and Orion : Quacunque ilia levem fugiens 
secat aethera pennis, Ecce inimicus atrox magno stridore per auras 
Insequitur Nisus : qua se fert Nisus ad auras, Ilia levem fugiens 
raptim secat aethera pennis : it is the Moon in opposition, the Moon 
at the full, which (strictly speaking, at the sacred season of the equinox) 
sets and rises as the Sun rises and sets. Cf. also Cornutus, p. 72 L 
(teste Keller) Kvvrjyia ' f'oine KOI TO ^ diaXeirrftv avrrjV ore p.ev 8ia)KOV(Tav 
TOV rjXiov ore e (pevyoixrav . . . ovx eWpa 8' ovtra avrrjs rj 'EKar/7, &C. The 
full understanding of the stories of d^Scoy, Procne, Philomela, and the 
whole Tereus-legend, depends on the further elucidation of this myth. 
Were it not for the comparison drawn with Scorpio and Orion, we 
might be rather disposed to refer the description to the Moon in the 
last quarter, stationed in advance of and as it were in flight before 
the Sun. The same four lines occur in Virg. Georg. i. 406-409, where 
I venture to think they are out of place and keeping. 

AAIA'nOAA' TOV Kenfpov, rj Ba\amov opvtv . . . Hesych. (verb. dub). 

A bird, doubtless the Halcyon. 

Ibyc. fr. 8 (13) ap. Athen. ix. 388 D, according to Hermann and 
Schneidewin. Others read \a6nroptpvpi8es, v. Bergk, P. Lyric. Gr. iii. 
p. 239. Cf. Alcman 12 (26) a\nr6p(pvpos ettpos opvts (vide s. v. K^puXos), 
whence Tennyson ' The sea-blue bird of March 3 (on which, see Whitley 
Stokes and others, Academy xxv. 1884; also Tennyson in Nature 
Notes, i. p. 93, ii. p. 173, where the Laureate alters the epithet). I am 
not inclined to admit that aXiTro'ptpupo? means sea-blue, nor that it is 
anything so simple as a mere colour-epithet ; cf. 

'AAKYii'N s. dXicuwi'. Also d\icvovis (Ap. Rhod. i. 1085, Epigr. Gr. 205 
&c.), and aX/uW, Hesych. Cretan avKvvv, Hesych. On the aspirate, 
see Forstemann, Curt. Zeitschr. iii. 48. Not from aX? : cf. Lat. a/c-edo. 
Probably connected with O. P. halak or harac the Sun, and so akin 
to a\KTpv(>)v and tfXeKTpov, also to 'Hpa/cX^s and to many other proper 
names, e. g. Alc-inous. 

The Halcyon, a symbolic or mystical bird, early identified with the 
Kingfisher, Alcedo ispida, L. The Kingfisher is called, in Mod. 


AAKYQN (continued]. 

Gk., -^apo(f)dyos, also (Heldr.) o-apde\o(pdyos, /MTTtpftTriXt rrjs QaXdao-rj?, 
and (in Acarnania) /3ao-tXo7roCXi. 

First mentioned in Simon. fr.i2 (ap. Arist. H. A. v. 8, 542 b, Poet. Lyr. 
Gr., Bergk p. 874, vide infra) ; Aleman 26 (12), ap. Antig. Mirab. 27 ; 
and Ibycus fr. 8 (13) d\Kv6vfs Tawo-iTTTepoi. 

Description. Arist. H. A. ix. 14, 6l6 17 8' d\Kv<vv eVn p,ev ov TroXXeS 
peifov o-Tpovdov, TO 8e XP^P a * a ' Kvavovv e^et Kat ^Xwpoi/ KOI vTron6p(pvpov' 
fjLfj.iyfievu>s 8e TOIOVTOV TO ff&fJia TTCLV Kat at TTTepvyfs KOI ra ?repi TOV Tpd^rj\ov t 
ov \<p\s eKdo-TOV TWV xpa/jbaTcov' TO 8e pvy^os wd^Xcopoi/ jj.ev, /uaKp6i> 
8e /cat XeTrrof. viii. 3, 593 b TO T>V d\Kvova)i> 8e yevos ndpvSpov ecrriv' 
8' CIVTUV oi/ra dvo eldrj. KO\ f] p.ev (pOeyyerai, K.adidvovo-a eVi TO>V 
f) 8' a(poivos' eorrt 8' avr^ p-dfav' TO 8c vwrov d/jLCpoTepai KVO.VOVV 
[Cf. Plin. x. 47. Two species occur in Greece, A. (Ceryle) 
rudis, L., the Spotted Kingfisher (Mod. Gk. aWpoj> tyapocpdyor, v. d. 
Miihle), principally near the coast, and A. ispida, the Common King- 
fisher. Sundevall points out that A. rudis has not TO VWTOV KVOVOVV, 
and suggests A. smyrnensis, which does not now occur in Greece 
(Kriiper) but in Asia Minor. Neither of these birds can sing, any more 
than the common Kingfisher, and the attempt is hopeless to identify the 
second Aristotelian species with either. The whole matter is confused 
and mystical.] 

On the ' song' of the Halcyon, cf. Tymnes ii (Gk. Anthol. i. p. 256) 
o> napop-otov aXxvoariv TOV o~ov (pdoyyov lo~(H(rdp.evov '. Pindar fr. 62 (34) a P 
Schol. Apoll. Rhod. i. IO86 (q. v.) ev\6ya>s 8e oa-ffav tirre TTJV a\Kvovos 
(fxovfjv : cf. Dion. De Avib. ii. 7 TQ>V d\Kv6va>v 8' ov< av ftrrot Tty els (ptavrjv 
opvfov fjdtov. Its plaintive and melancholy note ; Eur. I. in T. 1089 opvts, 
a Trapa TTCTpivas, TTOVTOV 8etpd8aff, d\Kv<av } eXeyov OITOV deideis '. imitated 
Ar. Ran. 1309 d\Kvovcs al Trap' devdois daXdo-OTjs Kv/j.aai o-Tco/xuXXfrf. Cf. 
II. ix. 563 /-tJjTJjp J A\KVOVOS Tro\viTvdeos OITOV fx ov(Ta ' Mosch. iii. 40 
*A.\Kv6vos 8' ov TOCTO-OV eV a\yeo~iv ta^e K^v^. Opp. Halieut. i. 424 
a TC (pv\a a\Kv6va>v. Epigr. in Marm. Oxon. iii. p. in (Ixxi) 
8e f] dvcTTrjvos oftvpfTai old TIS O.KTO.IS 'AXxvovt's, yoepoils 8aKpvo~i 
fj.vp6p.eva. See also Lucian in Alcyone, Philostr. Imagg. 362 K, Plut. 
Utr. Anim., Ov. Met. xi, Trist. v. i. 60, Her. xviii. 81, &c., &c.; cf. 
also Eumath. De Hysm. et H. L. x. p. 448 TTJV yXa>TTai> d\Kv6ves TTO\V- 

ircvOeo~T*pai) drjftoves QprjvrjTiKatTfpai, avTrjs NiojS^s 1 fj.i/j.ovfjifva.1 TO TroXuSa/tpti, 

Trpoy 6pr)vov eplfovvai. According to the Scholia in Ar. Aves, Horn. II. ix, 
Theocr. Id. vii eOpfjvei T>V aiwv avTrjs ev TT) 0a\do~o-T] KXap-evoiV. 

How the females carry the old males on their backs, Ael. vii. 17 ; cf. 
Plut. Utr. Anim., Antig. Hist. Mirab. 27. Cf. also Aleman (ap. Antig. 1. c.) 
/SaXe 817, (3d\ KqpvXos f'irjv, os T' eVt KV/JLCITOS avdos a/u,' akKvoveao-i TTOT/Jrai I 
imitated in Ar. Av. 251 o>j> T' eirl TTOVTIOV otS/xa ^aXao-o-^y (pv\a /xeT* 



AAKYHN (continued}. 

Beloved of the Sea-nymphs, Theocr. vii. 59, cf. Virg. Georg. i. 399. 

Associated with Pallas, Antip. Sidon. xxvi, Gk. Anth. ii. p. 12 t<rra>i/ 
IlaXXdSos d\Kv6va (the shuttle, from its swift flash of colour) : with Hera, 
Pindar fr. 1. c. ' 

With ep. govOos, Mnasalc. viii (Gk. Anthol. i. p. 124), [vide s. v. iTrn-a- 

The Nest. Arist. H. A. v. 8, 542 b riWei nepl Tporras TCLS x l l i P lvas ' 
816 Kai KaXovvTai orav ei>8ieii/ai -yeVooj/rat at rpoTrat, d\KvovL8es qpepai e7rra 
[lev Trpo rpoTraij', eWa fie fierd rpon-d?, KaBdnep KOI St/ican'St;? evoiiffW, 
"a>y onoTav xei/nepioi/ Kara fj.rjva TrivvaKr) Zeus Jj^ara reo-(rapaKaieKa, Xa0di/e/zdt> 
re' fjnv &pav Ka\eovatv enixjdovioi, lepav iraidorpofpov noiKiXas d\Kvovos" 
yivovrai 5' evSieii/at, oral/ crvuftfj various yiveo~dai ras rpoTrdf, rijs H\eid8os 
/Sopeiou yfvoijievrjs. Xeyerai 5' eV eTrra /i^ fjnepais Troie'ia'Oai rrjv veorTidv, 
ev 6e rats XoiTrals cVra f)p,epais TLKTCIV ra i/eorna KOI enrpefaiv. nepi p-ev 
ovv TOVS evTctvda TOTTOVS OVK del <rvp.(3aivi yiveo-dai d\Kvovibas ypepas Trepl 
ray rporrds, ev 8e r<u 2iKfXiK<B TreXdyfi o-^eSov act. TtWei 5' 17 aX/cuu)!/ rrcpt 
TTCVTC wd. . . . irdvTuv &e a-navKararov Idflv aXxvoz/a ecrriV cr^fSoj/ -yap Trepi 
KOI Tponns oparat p.6vov } KCU ev TOLS v<popfj.ois irpo^rov o<rov 
TTfpl TO jr^-olov d(pavierai evOvs, 816 Kai Srjyo'i^opoy TOVTOV TOV 
epl ain-f)?. (Schneider conjectures that this last refers 
to an Argonautic legend, cf. Apoll. Rhod. i. 1085 and Schol.) The Nest 
further described, ib. ix. 14, 6l6 Trapo/no/a rat? a(paipais rals tfaXarri'ats earl 
/cat rats Ka\ovp.evais aXco'd^i/ai?, n\r]v TOV ^pco/aaro$'' TrjV 8e %p6av vnonvppov 
e%ovo~iv } K. T. X. /cat KOTTTOVTI (lev (TtS^pto) o^ei ov Tci%v diaKoTTTeTai, a/za 
8e KOTTTOVTI Kai rat? x e P"' dpavovTi ra^u Sta^pawcrat, &cnrep 17 dXoo-d^i/jy. . . . 
6oKt 8e p-dXto-ra e*c reov aKavdwv TTJS fteXovrjs. A lengthy description in 
Ael. H. A. ix. 17 : see also Dion. De Avib. ii. 7 ; Plin. x. (32) 47, (33) 49 ; 
Plut. De Sol. Anim. xxxv; Acs. Fab. 29, &c. Cf. also Callim. xxxi (Gk. 
Anthol. i. p. 219) o>? Trdpo? nW^rai voTeprjs eov d\Kvovo$. The descrip- 
tion in Plutarch ends as follows : e/zoi Se TroXXaxts ISovri Kai Oiyovri, 
Traptorarat \eyeiv Kai qfteiv ' A^Xa) b~r) Trore rotoi/ 'ATroXXcovo? napd yaw.' 

On the d\Kuota8es or dXKuo^eioi ^jxepat, f when birds of calm sit 
brooding on the charmed wave,' see also Theocr. vii. 57 K&\Kv6ves orope- 
o~evVTi TO. KVfiaTa TO.V Te 6d\ao~o~av } TOV re VOTOV TOV r* evpov. Apollonid. 
xiii (Gk. Anthol. ii. p. I2l) et Kai ev aXwovvv K\av(rop.eda, d\KVova>v, 
als TTOVTOS del (TTripl^aTO KU/XO, vrjvep.ov. Ar. Av. I594> Schol. in Ar. 
Ran. 1344, Ael. i. 36, Philoch. 180, Plut. Sol. Anim, p. 983, Quaest. 
Grace, pp. 1809, 1810, Apoll. Rhod. i. 1086, Plin. x. (32) 47, xviii. (26) 
62, xxxii. (8) 27, Aul. Cell. iii. 10, Sil. Ital. xiv. 275, Plaut. Poen. 145, 
Casina, prol. 26, Diosc. iv. 136, Alciphr. 5. i, Lucian Hale. 2, Ovid Met. 
xi. 745, Colurn. xi. 2, Dion. De Avib. ii. 7, Carm. De Philom. 383. On 
the number of the Halcyon days, see, in addition to the above, Suidas, 
according to whom Simonides made them eleven (v. supra), Dema- 

AAKYflN 31 

AAKYflN (continued}. 

goras seven, and Philochorus nine. See also references in Bochart, 
Hieroz. ii. 86 1. 

On the myth of Alcyone and Ceyx, cf. II. ix. 563 (where the bird 
is not mentioned, but cf. Heyne, in loc.}, Lucian, Halcyon. 2, where 
Alcyone and Ceyx descend from the Morning Star, Ovid, Met. xi. 410, 
Apollod. I. vii. 4, Serv. ad Virg. Georg. i. 399, Lutat. ad Stat. Theb. 
ix. 361, Tzetz. ad Lye. p. 69, &c. 

The myth of the Halcyon days is unexplained. The above state- 
ments have no zoological significance : the Kingfisher neither breeds 
at four months old, nor lays five eggs (but rather six or seven), nor 
nests in the winter season, nor on the sea. I conjecture that the 
story originally referred to some astronomical phenomenon, probably 
in connexion with the Pleiades, of which constellation Alcyone is the 
principal star. In what appears to have been the most vigorous period 
of ancient astronomy (not later than 2000 B.C., but continuing long 
afterwards to influence legend and nomenclature), the sun rose at the 
vernal equinox in conjunction with the Pleiad, in the sign Taurus : the 
Pleiad is in many languages associated with bird-names (cf. Engl. * hen- 
and-chickens,' see also s. v. jj^po\[), and I am inclined to take the bird 
on the bull's back in coins of Eretria, Dicaea, and Thurii for the asso- 
ciated constellation of the Pleiad. (Note, as a coincidence, the relation 
of Alcyoneus to the heavenly Bull in Pind. I. v. 47 ; ubi Schol. fiovfiorav 
e TQV j3ovK.6Xov (1707, Trap' ov rag 'HXi'ou (3ovs aTr^Xatre . . .) The particular 
bird thus associated with Taurus may vary ; on some of the above- 
mentioned coins, where it is certainly not a Kingfisher, it is taken by 
Canon Tristram (Ibis, 1893, p. 215) to be a Tern ; to me it seems 
rather to be the Swallow, figuring as the bird of spring; (on the 
cognate symbolism of the Dove, see s. v. ireXeia). The Halcyon is said 
by Canon Tristram (1. c.) to have been the sacred bird of Eretria ; 
I cannot find a direct statement of the fact. Suidas definitely asserts 
that the Pleiades were called 'AXxvoi/es. At the winter solstice, in the 
same ancient epoch, the Pleiad culminated at night-fall in mid-heaven, 
a phenomenon possibly referred to in the line vi>g /iaxpi) KOI x<iipa. \*.ivr\v 8' 
eVi nXetaSa 8vvei. This culmination, between three and four months after 
the heliacal rising of the Pleiad in Autumn, was, I conjecture, sym- 
bolized as the nesting of the Halcyon. Owing to the antiquity and 
corruption of the legend, it is impossible to hazard more than a very 
guarded conjecture ; but that the phenomenon was in some form an 
astronomic one I have no doubt. [It might for instance refer more 
directly to the Sun, which anciently began its annual course at the 
spring equinox when in conjunction with the Pleiads, and which at 
the winter season, when in the lowest part of its course, might be said 
to brood upon the sea, only beginning its ascent a week after the actual 


AAKYftN (continued-). 

tropic (cf. Ptolemy, ap. Petav. iii. 54, Kal. Jan. : Sol elevari incipit)]. 
The risings and settings of the Pleiads and of the Dogstar were 
apparently the chief landmarks of the ancient year, and in this con- 
nexion the comparison with aXocrd^vr] is also suggestive. I take 
to be a corruption, by ' Volksetymologie,' of the Egyptian 
q", the Dog-star. Cf. Chalcid. in Timaeum Plat. f. cxxiv, ed. 
Fabr., Cum hanc eandem stellam do-TpoKvvov quidam, Aegyptii vero 
o-oXf^T/t/ vocant (v. Jablonsk. in Steph. Thes. and cf. Leemans in 
Horap. i. 3). The common Egyptian name for the Dog-star is Sothi^ 
and of this we read in Plut. De Isid. p. 375 2co0! AtyvTrrio-rl o-^/iaiWi 

KVT](TIV rj TO KVflV. 

The birds anciently associated with the season of the vernal equinox 
are, with the exception of the Nightingale, associated with St. Martin 
in modern times; viz. the House-martin or Martlet (cf. xeXifio>v), the 
Harrier (cf. KtpKos}, Fr. oiseau St. Martin, and the Kingfisher, Fr. 
martin-pecheur. It is precisely the same birds, with the addition of 
the solar Hoopoe and Woodpecker, and with the substitution of 
aXidfro? (q. v.) for <a'pKos, that figure together in the story of the meta- 
morphosis of Pandareus ; Boios ap. Anton. Lib. Met. xi. 

In the calendars ascribed to Geminus (?), Columella and Ptolemy (?), 
the Halcyon days are placed in the end of February or beginning of 
March. I cannot account for this discrepancy, which is clearly at 
variance with the older tradition ; unless indeed the phrase had lost its 
meaning and was simply transferred to the season of the migration 
of birds. 

See also s.vv. avfiuv, <xXnrop<f>upis, KTjpuXos, KTJU. 

Note. On the mystical element in the stories of d\Kvot>v and di/dap 
cf. Lucian, Hale. OVK av e^oi/nei/ tlirfiv ftefiaias OUT' 'AXfcvovcoj/ Trepi, OUT' 
'Ar)86v(av' K\fos 8e fj.vOa)v, olov TrapeSocrav Trnrepes 1 , TOIOI/TO KOI naKrl 
a> opvi dprjvav /LieXcoSe, TrapaScoaco TO>V <rS)v vp.vd)V TTfpt, Kai o~ov TOV 
KCU (pi\av$pov epami TroXXaxi? v 

"AMAAAOI- irep&ig, Ho\vppr)vioi, Hesych. 

'AMHEAl'I. An unknown bird. Ar. Av. 304. Cf. Poll. vi. 52. 

'AMHEAl'ilN. An unknown small bird mentioned together with 
(q. v.), with epithet Koixpdraroy. Taken as identical with 

a/iTTfXiSfS- as vvv d/HTreXicoi/as KaXovcriv, J. Pollux, VI. 52 J cf. Lob. 

Prol. p. 49. In Mod. Gk. dpndKovpyos is the Black-headed Bunting, 

Called also KpaaonovXi, p.e6v(TTpa. 

'ANATKHI, S. o.vd<K\<s' opvfov TI 'ivdticov, opoiov ^dpo), Hesych. The 
name is strongly suggestive of the Arabic and Syrian Anka or 


ANAfKHI (continued}. 

Onka, which is said to be identical with Sirrmrgh, the magical 
bird of the Persians, and which is believed further to come into 
relation with Athene 'Oy/ca; cf. Von Hammer-Purgstall, Wien. 
Jahrb. d. Lit. xcvii. 126, Creuzer, Symb. iv. 397, Boch. Hieroz. 
ii. 812, 852. Vide s. v. OK^OS. 

"AN00I. An unknown small bird. The name does not occur in 
Mod. Gk., and like so many of the bird-names mentioned in a 
non-scientific or fabulous sense, is probably an exotic. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis a-KcoX^Ko^a-yos-, /neye$o? orrov (Tiria. 
ix. I,6o9b ITTTTW TToXejmos' ccXavjwi yap 6 ITTTTOS CK rrjs vop^s, noav yap 
6 avQos. eirdpyefjios 8' earl KCU OVK ova)7rds' /Lu/ielrai yap rou ITTTTOU 
pwvrjv, Ka\ (pojSel e7rt7rerd/zei/o? /cat, ee\avvei, orav 8e Xa/Sfl, KreivfL avrov. 
' 6 uvBos napa Trorapov Kal eX??, \poav S' e\i KaXrjv KOL (vjBioTos ecrrt. 
IX. I, 6 10 and 12, 615 hostile to duavQis and a'iyidos' alyidov Kal avQov alpa. 
ov crvp/jiiyvvTai a\\r]\ois i cf. Plin. x. 74 (95). With the above fabulous 
account, cf. Ael. H. A. V. 48, vi. 19 Ididfct Se rats pi^o-fa-i r<av TOIOVTVV 
6',Te (ivOos KaXov/JLevos . . . Kai 6 /ueV civOos UTTOKptVerat xpep-eTicrpa "rnrov. 

Also Plin. x. (47) 52 ; see also Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. 7, where 
Anthus is a son of Autonous and Hippodameia, killed by his father's 
horses, and metamorphosed into the bird &v6os. In Phile 705 it is the 
fish dvOias that is said to be hostile to the horse. 

Note. As indicative of the mythical, fabulous, and probably exotic 
element in the above, compare the accounts of ai>0os and 
(? aK-av6-is), the former (TKa>\r]K.o(pdyos, ei>/3i'oro?, xpoav KaX 
noXefjiios '. the latter aKavQo(pdyos, KctKo/3io?, KaKo^poos, oj/o> TroXe/xtos, &C. : 
aKavdis and a"yi(v)0os are perhaps two corruptions of the same word. 
Though the bird cannot be identified, and though it is more than 
doubtful whether it was ever known to the Greeks, yet Sundevall's 
identification of avQos as the Yellow Wagtail, Motacilla flava, L., 
deserves to be recorded. This hypothetical identification is based 
on the brilliant colour (which according to v. d. Miihle is more brilliant 
in Greece even than in N. Europe) and on the localities frequented. 
The Yellow Wagtail frequently consorts with the cattle at pasture, 
feeding on flies ; it may indeed have become associated with the above 
fable, the origin of which, however, is doubtless more deep-seated and 

'ANOnAfA. A bird associated with Athene, possibly the Wight- Heron. 

Od. i. 320 Otrcfty yXavKfoiris 'A^i/r;, opi/ty 8' o>? dvoTram fiieVraro. For 
various explanations and Scholia, see Steph. Thes. (ed. 1821), Lidd. 
and Sc., c. According to Rumpf, De aedibus Homericis, ii. p. 32, 
Giessen, 1857, Netolicka, Naturh. aus Horn. p. n, Buchholz, Horn. 



ANOHAIA (continued}. 

Realien, p. 126, the Swallow, from its passing in and out through the 
smoke-hole, napa TO 8iarpi@civ fv rats oirals (Herodian). Cf. Hesych. 
dvoTrala' upveov ovop.a Kcil ci8of, 77 ava TTJV oirr)v rrjs dvpas, r/ ava rrjv 6vpi8(i, 
T) a<pavfjs (MS. afpuvos). See also Ameis in loc., Doederlein, Horn. 
Gloss, &c. 

Bochart, Hieroz. ii. 337, suggests (not for the first time, for the state- 
ment is made in early Hebrew dictionaries) a connexion with Hebr. HS3N 
anaphah, which he supposed to be a species of eagle, partly perhaps 
to make it fit in with the interpretation, common in his time, of dvonala. 
But according to Lewysohn (Zool. d. Talmuds, p. 109), with whom 
Tristram agrees, anaphah is rightly translated Heron (Lev. xi. 19), 
which seems to me to lend support to the hypothesis that dvonala 
is identical with it. Cf. epaoios, II. x. 274. 

"ANTAP 1 afTos, VTTO Tvpprjv&v, Hesych. 

'ANTl'^YXOI* OVT&S KaXovvrai ol Mf'nvoves opviGes (q. V.), Hesych. 

'AnA<t>0'I' eWo^ TO opveov, Hesych. (Probably a Macedonian word, 
Schmidt in Hesych. ; or more likely Egyptian, vide infra, s. v. 

AHOYI. A bird of the swallow kind. Probably including the Swift, 
Cypselus apus, L., and Hirundo rupestris, Scop., the Cliff 
Martin; Mod. Gk. Trerpo^eXiSow. Also for KityeAoy, the Sand 

Arist. H. A. i. I, 487 b opvis KOKOITOVS (cf. Plin. xi. 47), 
(paiverai 6 pev anovs iraaav &pai>, f] 5e Speiravls orav vcrfi rov Qepovs. Ib. ix. 
30, 6l8 ot ' anodes, ovs Ka\ovo-i rives Kv\l/e\ovs o/noiot rals x ^ 0(TiV eZortV 
ov yap paStov diayvuvai Trpos TTJV ^eXiSoya, TT\T)V rcS TTJV <vi]\it]V e^etv 8a(relav. 
veoTTevovo-iv ev KV\l/e\iaw CK TrrjXov ne7T\aafJ.vais /laxpatj, ocrov eicr 
e^ovo-ais' ev o~Teyv<a 8e Troietrai ras veomas VTTO Trerpais KCU (77rr;Xaioiff, 
KOI TCI drjpia Kal TOVS avdpanovs diafpevyfiv. Cf. Plin. X. 39 (55) his quies 
nisi in nido nulla, &c. 

The name is traditionally identified with the Swift, Cypselus apus^ 
L. As regards the former passage (which is doubtfully authentic) 
it appears that H. rupestris is the only bird of the Swallow kind 
which is a permanent resident in Greece (Kriiper p. 255, &c.), though 
Erhard (p. 46) says that Swifts winter in the Cyclades. The second 
passage is corrupt, and contains two different accounts of the nest 
(cf. Sundevall p. 130). H. rupestris builds solitarily, on the face of 
high cliffs (VTTO TreTpais) (Kriiper, 1. c.). The other account (cv Kv^e\io-iv 
pa<pals) seems to refer to the Sand Martin, vide s.v. Kuij/eXos. Sundevall 


AF1OYZ (continued}. 

takes ttTTou? to be the Swift: Aubert and Wimmer (p. in) take it 
to be the House Martin (Hirundo urbica L.). The name Trfrpo^eXiSoi/i 
applies in Mod. Gk. both to H. rupestris and to the Swift (Heldreich). 

"APAKOI. An Etruscan word for a Hawk. apaKos' fe'pa, 

Hesych. Said to be a Lydian word, Jablonsk. in Steph. Thes. 


"APAMOI. A name for a Heron = epcofito'?, Hesych. 

'APno'nOYI, s. dpyiTTous. A Macedonian name for the Eagle, Hesych. 
Perhaps a corruption of alyiiroty, or perhaps of apgxpos. 

'APHTIA'AEI "OPNI0EI. Fabulous birds, which shot forth their feathers 
like arrows: doubtless an astronomical emblem. Apoll. Rhod. 
ii. 1035-1052. Cf. King's Ant. Gems p. 330. 

'APNEYTH'P. [Cf. Lat. urinator, a diver, Sk. vdri, water (Curt.).] 
Supposed to mean a diving bird, diver or grebe (Colymbus). 
Perhaps only a professional diver. Cf. SUTTTT]?. 
II. xvi. 742 dpvevTijpL toiK&s. See also II. xii. 385, Od. xii. 413. 

*APJ=I<I>OI. A Persian word for an Eagle, Hesych. (Pers. barges). Cf. 

"APflAIOI. An unknown or fabulous bird ; vide s. v. Spirt]. 

"APP1H. (Perhaps from rt. of dp7r-do>, L. rap-io.} An unknown or 
fabulous bird. 

II. xix. 350 apTTfl el/ana ravvTrrepvyi, Xiyv(pa>i/a) (Eustath. <Sov $aXdcr<rioi>, 
Xdpa> Tro\p.ovv). Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609-610 en ol ano rrjs daXdrTrjs 
^"col/res TroXe/iioi dXX^Xoi?, olov fipevdos Kal Xdpoy Kai aprn] . . . . 7ri(piy Kal 
apiri) Kal IKTWOS (pi'Xoi. ix. 1 8, 617 TroXe/uio? 8e r/y apirrj f] (f>S>v{;, Kal yap 
tKtivrj 6fjLoio(3ioTos. Ael. H. A. ii. 47 r] Se opeios aprrrj T&V opvlQ&v npcxr- 
irfcrovcra rovs o(p6a\povs dfpapirdfci. Cf. Dion. De Avib. i. 4. Plin. 
x ' 95 (74) Dissident harpe et triorches accipiter. Harpe et milvus 
contra triorchem communibus inimicitiis. The wife and son of Cleinis 
are metamorphosed into the birds apTrrj and aprraa-os : Boios ap. Anton. 
Lib. Met. 20. According to Hesych., ap-nrj is Cretan for IKTLVOS. 

Places ivy, KiWo?, in its nest for a charm, Ael. i. 35, Phile 729, 
Geopon. xv. i. 

The word is poetical. Dionysius (1. c.) refers to the Lammergeier. 
Some mediaeval commentators (e. g. Gesner) take Harpe and Milvus 
(IKTWOS) to be identical in Arist. and Plin. 11. cc., as does also Tzetzes, 
Chiliad, v. 413 IKTWOS opj/is ris evnv, 6Wep KaXovpev apTrrjv, apTrdfav ra 

D 2 


APF1H (continued}. 

veoTTta TO. TWV aXfKTopidav, and Sundevall makes Harpe the Black Kite, 
Milvus ater, or M. parasiticus. Aubert and Wimmer suspect apirr) to 
be a large Gull (Larus}. For other hypotheses, vide Buchholz p. 137. 

'AIBHNOl'- opvtBfs, Hesych. Possibly akin to O-TTWOS. 

"All AON- epoSioV, Hesych. Heb. HTDH, chasidah, the Stork. Cf. 
Boch. Hieroz. ii. 321-326. 

'AIKA'AA4>OZ. An unknown bird, mentioned Arist. H. A. ii. 12 as 
possessing colic coeca (d-nofpvdftas). 

Usually translated Owl, from the story of the Metamorphosis of 
Ascalaphus, Ovid, Met. v. 539 Foedaque Jit volucris, venturi nuncia 
Indus, Ignavus bilbo, diruin mortalibus omen. Cf. Apollodor. ii. p. 107 
'AaKoXixpov ovv ArjfjL-fjTTjp ftroftpro' &TOV '. Serv. ad Aen. iv. 462. The mys- 
tical aspect of the story is briefly indicated by Creuzer, Symbolik, iv. 
378. [Quaenam sit avis, neque ex Aristotele neque ex Plinio aut ex 
Aeliano deprehendere potuimus. Sed Ovidius inter fabulas ostendit 
esse bubonis speciem : Scaliger in Arist.] 

'AIKAAH'nAI. (daK^XoTras, Arist. MS. O). Probably identical with 
<7KoAo7ra, q. v. The Woodcock, Scolopax rusticola. 
Arist. H. A. ix. 26, 6l7b iv Tols KIJTTOIS dXi'o-Kerru Ip/ceo-iy, TO p-ey^dos 
fi&ov dXfKTopis, TO pvy%os p,ciKpoV) TO xpa)p.a opoiov arrayfji/r rpe^fi Se Ta\v. 
The Woodcock according to v. d. Miihle and Lindermayer is very 
abundant in Greece in November. Aubert and Wimmer rather identify 
d<TKa\a>nas with the Curlew, 


I. An Eagle = x/jvo-aero?, Ael. ii. 39. In Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 
620, mentioned as yeW ifpaKw, and usually identified with the 

Cf. Scaliger in Arist. p. 249 : aorrptav vertit Theodosius stellarem . . . 
d(TTpiav igitur puto nostrum asturem : ut enim punctis quibusdam 
tanquam stellis totus pictus in pectore. This identification, though 
adopted by Sundevall, is inacceptable. aartpLas is said to be the 
largest of the eagles, and to feed on fawns, cranes, and in Crete, bulls ; 
like xpixraeros it seems to be used not of the actual bird but as a symbol, 
probably astronomical. 

II. A bird of the Heron kind, supposed, for a similar and equally 
unsatisfactory reason, to be the Bittern, Ardea stellaris, L. 

It is only mentioned in connexion with an Egyptian myth, probably 
relating to the Stork ; and the name itself is in all probability foreign 
and corrupt (cf. 


A2TEPIAI (continued}. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 1, 609 b, 18,617 T&V po)8iS)v yevos, emKaXovutvos OKI/OS-, 
/uufloXoyemn yrWcr&n en dovXwv. Ael. H. A. v. 36 ovofjui ecrnv opviOos 
d&Tfptas, Kal Tida(TVTai ye eV TTJ Ai-yurrra), Ka\ dvQpamov (ptovrjs eVatei. 
ei de TIS avrbv oveiftifov 8ov\ov fMTCMj 6 Se opyi^erai' Kal fit IS OK.VOV KaXecrttev 
avToV, 6 de flpevQverai Kal dyavaKTfl, a>$ KOI es TO dyevves CTKcoTTTOfjifVos KOI 
es dpyiav eldwopevos. Vide S. V. ep<o8i<$s.. 

'AITH'P. A name for the Goldfinch, vide s. v. dicaK0uXXis. 

Dion. De Avib. iii. 2 mrrcpis ols epvOpos re KVK\OS ea-riv, &<rircp aor^p, 
eVi rat? KccpaXals. Arrives in spring with the North wind, and is 
caught with bird-lime. 

'AZTPAfAArNOI. An unknown small bird, mentioned along with the 
foregoing, with epithet raxvf. Perhaps a synonym of d<rryjp : 
Belon (cit. Bikelas) has It. stragalino = Goldfinch, but, according 
to Giglioli, the word is not known in any modern Italian dialect. 

'AITPAAO'I* 6 ^apo'y, VTTO eerraXcoi/, Hesych. Supposed to be 
akin to L. stur-nu-s (Curt.), L.paru-s (Fick), O. H. G. sprd, &c. 

An unknown bird ; Hesych. s. v. evQv 

'ATTArA'l, s. drrayas, s. drray^. Also drTapuyds, Hesych. (MSS. 
have dTTayrjs, aTrayts, drayi]), and ray^i/dpioi/, Suid. C Lob. Path. 
i. p. 142. Athen. 388 B notes the accent as an exception, and the 
plural orrayoi, not drrayijves ; cf. Eustath. p. 854 TO TraXaibv 'ATTayat 
p,ev 'ATTtKcos 1 , 'ArTayrjves 8e KOLVWS. Mod. Gk. rayivdpi (Du Cange), arra- 
yivdpi (Sibthorpe ap. Walpole, Mem. rel. to Turkey, p. 262), Ai/3aSo- 
7T6pdt (Tournefort). Vide s. v. Tay^i/. The word has been taken for an 
Egyptian one, from the phrase 'Arrcrya? Alyvirrias, Clem. Alex. Paed. 
ii. i. p. 140 ; cf. Sturzius De Dial. Aeg. p. 86, ap. Steph. Thes. p. clxxiii. 

The Francolin, Tetrao francolinus, L. See Lilford, Ibis, 1862, 
P- 352. 

Ar. Av. 247, 761 with ep. rouc/Xof, TrepiTroiKiXo? or Tn-epoTro/KiXoy (cf. 
Meineke, in loc.) ; cf. Suid. eon KardaTiKTos TrotKi'Xoic TTTepoTs* Xe-yeTai fie eirl 
Sov\w KaTeo-TiypeVcoi/. Ar. Ach. 875, common in Boeotia ; absent from 
Crete, praeterquam in Cydoniatarum regione, Plin. x. 58 (83). Arist. 
H. A. ix. 26, 617 do-Ka\a>Tras TO xp<p-a o/zoioi/ arroy^n. ix. 49 B, 633 011 

71T1JTIKOS dXX' fTTiyeiOS KOI KOVI&TIKOS. Ael. H. A. IV. 42 TO IdlOV Ol/OjUa rj (T0VCl 

(ptovfj (pOeyyerai Kal dvafJie\Trei avro. Ib. vi. 45 voovcri 8e apa drrayds 
p.t> d\KTpv<'>vi exdurra, aXexTpvcov S' av ira\iv drraya. Socr. ap. Athen. 
ix. 387 f., how the drrayds in Egypt said in times of famine Tpis Tots 
KaKnvpyois KGKO, (vide Casaub. in Athen. ii. p. 420, ed. 1600) ; cf. Ael 
V. H. xv. 27. Alex. Mynd. in Athen. 1. c. fjuKpy /zeV peifav earl nepdiKos, o\os 


ATTAPAI (continued}. 

fie Ka.T(iypa(f)os rot Trepl TO VMTOV, Kepap-eovs rrjv %poav viroTrvppifav p.a\\ov. 
6rjpfvfTai fie VTTO Kvvrjywv fiia TO fidpos Kai TTJV TWV TrrepStv /Spa^ur^Ta. (Cf. 
Dion. De Avib. iii. IO.) e'ori fie KOVKTTIKOS, 7ro\vreK.v6s re icai OTrepjuoXd'yoy. 
Schol. in Ar. Av. 250 6 drrayas 6 e^coi> TUV \ip.)va TOV Mapadwvos. TO. 
yap \ip,voaftr) KCU eXeia ^copia KaTa/3oV/ceTai 6 drrayay. It is friendly with 
the stag, Opp. Cyneg. ii. 404. 

Proverbs. array as vovp,r]viq> [crwep^frai], Trapot/zia eVi ra>v 
Suid. s. v. drrayas, Hesych. s. v. vov^vios, Schol. Ar. Av. 762. Cf. 
Timon ap. Diog. L. ix. 16. 6, Paroem. Gr. i. p. 307, ii. pp. 16, 212 (Scaliger 
in Prov. metricis). Ar. Vesp. 257 TOV TnjXoi/ wa-nep drrayas rvp@a<Tis 
/3a5i^o)i/. Proverbial as a delicacy : Ar. IlfXapyoif in Athen. 388 b drrayas 
fyeiv (v fTriviKiois Kpeas. Phoenicid. 4. 509 Kovbev rjv TOVTM rrpos 
pftaXriv r&v /SpcopiTcov. Martial, xiii. 61 Inter sapores fertur 
alitum primus, lonicarum gustus attagenarum. Cf. Ovid, F. vi. 175, Hor. 
Epod. ii. 54 ; Plin. x. 48 ; Apicius, De Re Coquin. vi. 3 ; Aul. Cell. 
Noct. Att. vii. 16, c. Mentioned also, Hippon. fr. ap. Athen. 1. c. 

The Francolin does not now occur in Greece or Italy, though it is 
found in Crete, Cyprus, Sicily, Malta, and on the southern shores of the 
Black Sea (Lindermayer p. 125). On this account, Sundevall and 
others have disputed its identity with arrayas, and have identified 
the latter with various birds, especially Perdix cinerea^ the Common 
(or Northern) Partridge ; C. T. Newton, Cont. Rev. 1876, p. 92, taking 
it to be Pterocles alchata^ a species of Sand-grouse. The descriptions, 
especially that of Alex. Myndius, point distinctly to the Francolin, 
and even Lindermayer does not doubt that the name is to be so 
interpreted, and that the bird was formerly abundant. The record by 
Sibthorpe of the modern Greek name, which I cannot find in more 
recent writers, suggests that the bird has only lately disappeared from 
Greece. According to Danford (Dresser, Birds of Europe, vii. p. 124) 
it is fast disappearing in Asia Minor also : likewise in Cyprus (Guille- 
mard, The Field, Sept. 1892). The general disappearance of the Quail 
in recent years from England is a parallel case. 

BAl'BYKOI' TTfXeKa^os <i\r)ras, 'Ap-fpias [5e] (SavflvKOs, Hesych. For 

other readings, v. Steph. Thes. ii. coll. 40, 41, and Schmidt's 
Hesych. i. pp. 352, 366. 

BAIH'0. An Egyptian name for a Hawk. 

Horap. i. 7 wri ^ V X^ S te'p a rda-aerat, C'K rrjs TOV ovofiaros epfjLrjvdas' 
KaXen-at yap Trap AlyvrrTiois 6 lepag, Ba'ifjQ. TOVTO fie TO oj/o/za diaip(6ev, 
a-rjualvei <a\ Kapdiav' eWi yap TO /ueV /3at tyvxr], TO fie T}$ KapfitV 17 fie 
t'a KCZT' AiyvTTTLOvs tyvxr/s vrepi'/SoXo?, <waTf ffrjuaiveiv TT]V (rvvdecriv TOV 
ovduaros, ^fvxrjv eynapdiav' dfi ov Ka\ 6 iepag 8ta TO irpbs Trjv ^fvx^v o~vfji- 


BAIHG (continued}. 

7ra0eti>, vSwp ou Trt'i/ei TO KatfoXov, dXX' atfia, <u Kot ^ tyvyj] rpe'^erai. Cf. 
Leemans in Horap. p. 151, and in particular Lauth, Sitzungsber. Bayer. 
Akad., 1876, p. 78 ; the hawk enters as a phonetic or alphabetic element 
into the hieroglyphic spelling of bat or ba, and in the second place 
becomes associated with the symbolic meaning of the word. I suspect 
that /3at/3uKo? is closely allied, especially as a bird like a pelican is 
figured instead of a hawk in an alternative spelling of the syllable ba. 
The Egyptian representation of the Soul as a Hawk is also mentioned 
by Chaeremon, \//-uxjj-jpuos--&os == tepa| ; it, and the Harpy-figures which 
represent the disembodied soul are interesting in connexion with 
Plat. Phaedr. p. 246 ; cf. Jomard, Descr. de PEg. Antiq. vol. ii. pp. 366, 
381, Bunsen, Egypt's Place in History, v. 135, R. Brown, jun., Dionys. 
Myth. i. 340, &c. 

BA'P[B]AE- tipag, irapa Ai'jSvcn, Hesych. Cf. apaicos, peipaices. 
BAPl'THI. An unknown small bird. Dion. De Avib. iii. 2. 

BAIIAEY'I. A name for the Wren, Lat. Regulus. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b, ix. II, 6153. rpo^iXoy KaXemu KUI npeaftvs 
/mi /SaatXcus* 5to /cat TOV aerof avreo, <pao"i, 7ro\fp.flv. Plin. Ep. i. 5> 14 
regulus omnium bipedum nequissimus ; cf. Plin. H. N. viii. 37. See 
also Carm. de philomela v. 42 Regulus atque merops et rubro pectore 
progne Consimili modulo zinzinulare sciunt. Vide s. vv. {Sao-iXio-jcos, 
irpeajBus, po|3iXXos, rptKKOs, Tpox^Xos, TpwyXo8uTT]s, rupavvos and 
especially opxiXos. 

BAIIArZKOI. A name for the Wren = pao-iXcu's. 

Artemid. p. 234 H TO. Se p-ovaiKct KOI rjdv^wva (ptXoXdyovy Kal p.ov(TiKOv$ 
/cat ev(p<avovs, a>y ^eXtSobv Kal drjd&v KOI /Sno-tXtV/coy KOI ra o/uota. Cf. 
po|3iXXos. Fab. dcrbs Koi /SaaiXur/cos, Plut. Mor. ii. 806 E. 

BAIKA'Z. Ar. Av. 885. Vide s.v. pooxds. 

BA'ZKIAAOr Kio-cra, Hesych. (A /Saaica), fortasse, ut loquax, Lob. Prol. 

p. 120.) 
BATl'l. An unknown bird. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvts o-K<X?7Ko<pcryo9. (Gaza translates rubefra, 
as if from jSaroy, a name like our ' brambling,' and apparently supposed 
the bird to be the Stonechat, the traquet of Belon, to which bird, 
Saxicola rubetra, L., his name is still applied.) 

BATYPPHTA'AH. A Lydian word for a Kite, IKTWOS, Hesych. 
BEI'PAKEZ- iepaKfs, Hesych. Possibly for 

BEAAOY'NHI* rptopx^y, AaKavcs, Hesych. 


BI'TTAKOZ. A Parrot. Vide s. v. \J/irraKOs. 

BOIKA'Z, v. 11. |3ao-Kdis, 4>aaK({s. A small Wild Duck; probably including 
the Teal (Anas creccd] and Garganey (A. querquedula], both 
common in Greece ; and in Athenaeus also a larger species. 
, Ar. Av. 885. 

as, Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b mentioned among the heavier 
water-birds, OJJLOIOS /nev V^TTTJ, TO Se peyeQos eXdrTw. Alex. Mynd. ap. 
Athen. ix. 52, 395 d 6 /uei/ apprjv Kardypcxpos, e^ouo-i Se 01 appfves (Tip-d re 
/ml eXarrofa rfj (ru/ifierpia ra pvyx a - *V TI * Ka ^ "XXo yevos 
p.fv VTJTTTJS, eXarroj/ 8e x^aXooTreKOff. 

4>a<7Kas, Alex. Mynd. ibid, ai Se Xeyopevat (pa<TKd$es 
oucrai rS)v p,iKpS)v KoXu/u./3i'5a)V, Ta XoiTra vfjTTats etai TrapaTrX^orioi. 

BOYAY'THI. An unknown small bird, mentioned Dion. De Avib. 
iii. 2, with epithet dvGfvrjs. 

BOYKOAI'NH- Ki'y*Xor, TO opveov, Hesych. 

BOY'TAAII. [Said to be from ov- intens., and raXaw (?)]. 
The ISTightingale, in Aesop 235. 

BPE'NOOI. An unknown bird, or birds, opveov (3pev6os, oncp ci/tot 
Kocrvvfpov Xf'yovo-t, Hesych. 

Arist. H. A. ix. u, 615 a ftpevdos [MS. Vat. PpwQos] lv rots opeo-i KOI 
TTJ v\y Karoi/cet. eujSioTo'y ecrri Kal eofiiKo? [mentioned with eiro^r]. Ibid, 
ix. I, 609 a, a sea-bird, TroXe'/uoi Sc ot OTTO r^s ^aXarr/;? ^"wiref aXX^Xoty, oiov 
Ppevdos Ka\ \dpos Kal apnr). In this latter passage, fipevOos is perhaps 
a later interpolation ; cf. branta, the Brent Goose. 

BPHTO'I* dAe/crpuon/ evtavaios, Hesych. 

BY'AI (v. 1. ppvas), for Pvf as : Mod. Gk. /iTrovcpos, Lat. bubo, It. ^/"^, 
Sp. buho, O. H.G. uwo, Germ. w/^w. [Cf. Lith. bub-auti, to 
shriek, Fick i. 685, ii. 620.] 

An Owl, especially the Eagle Owl, Strix bubo, L., Bubo maxi- 

mus, Bonap. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b eon ' 6 (Bvas rr\v fieV ifieav ofioios yXavni, 
TO 5e peytdos acroO ovSeV eX(irTeoy. A favourite word of Dion Cassius, 
usually as a bird of evil omen, e.g. Ivi. 29 @vas e/3ve, also xl. 17, 47, 
xlii. 26, 1. 8, liv. 29, Ivi. 45, c. Cf. Bubo, Virg. Aen. iv. 462, and Serv. 
in loc., Plin. x. (12) 16, Ovid, Met. v. 550, vi. 431, x. 453, xv. 791, Seneca, 
Here. F. 686, &c. 

The Owl, bubo, in medicine and magic, Plin. xxix. 26 and 38 ; its egg 
also is valuable, but difficult to obtain: quis enim, quaeso, ovum 


BYAZ (continued}. 

bubonis unquam videre poterit, quum ipsam avem vidisse prodigium 

The Eagle Owl is not rare in Greece (v. d. Miihle, Lindermayer), 
and is still called p.irov<j)os or yovpt. 

BY'ZA = fivas. Nic. ap. Anton. Lib. 10, where the daughters of 
Minyos are metamorphosed into wKrcpis (cf. Ov. Met. iv. 415), 
yAa{), and /3ua* (f)vyov Se ai rpeis TTJV avyyv rov j^Xi'ou. Also j3u(T(ra 
= A(VKo6eas opvis, BoiOS ap. Ant. Lib. 15. Also f3ua<rrpi'a, 
Herodian, 479. (Hence (Bv&vnov, Curt.) 

BY'TGAN- TOV ^dpa, Hesych. 

BQ'KKAAII, s. pdpicaXis. A small bird, mentioned with o-vKaXis and 
others in a list of presents to the Indian king, Ael. xiii. 25. 

BflMOAO'XOI. A little Jackdaw. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 24, 617 b Tpirov yevos TO>I> Ko\oiS)V 6 p,iKpos } 6 

PAYZAAI'THI- opveov, napa 'ii/SoT?, Hesych. 

PE'PANOZ, f) (6 ap. Theophr. Sign, i ; mL<oivov TW yei/et, Suid.). Also 
yfprjv, Hesych.; yeprjv fj 6f]\fia yepavos (?), Ael. Dion. ap. Eust. 231. 
35 (i75); cf. Lob. Prol. p. 49. 

Etymology doubtful : according to Curtius, from rt. gar, to cry. 
Cf. Utih.garny, Bret, garan, O. H. G. chranuh, Germ. Kranich, Kran, 
Armen. Kt'unk, Eng. crane: without the n in L. gwts, Lith. ger-ve, 
O. SI. geraixf, Russ. zurawl (v. Edl., &c.). 

The Crane. Ardea grus, L., Grus cinereus, auctt. Mod. Gk. 
yepavos, ytpdv (Heldr.). The Crane is in Greece a bird of pas- 
sage only, chiefly seen on its journey northward in the spring 
(cf. Strab. i. 2. 28): it breeds further north, in Macedonia (hence 
grues Strymomae, Virgil, Seneca, Martial, Claudian, &c. ; s. Bis- 
toniae, Antip. Sidon. cv, Lucan, &c.) and on the Danube (Kriiper, 
p. 267). In Horn, yepavos doubtless includes the Stork also, the 
latter bird not being mentioned, though equally common in the 
Troad (Schliemann, Ilios, p. 113). 

Description. p,ciKpov e^ei TO pvyxos, Arist. H. A. i. I, 486 b. TOV 
rpd^j/Xov paKpov, id. De Acoust. 800 b ; cf. Prov. (frdpvyya CIVTW paKpo- 
repov yepdvov ytvevdai yvgaro rts o^o^ayoj, id. Nic. Eth. iii. 13, 1 1 8, &c. 
An uncomplimentary description, Athen. iv. 131 E. In colour, re0pa 
(ashy, cinereous, cf. Babr. Ixv. i), /teAairepa yrjpda-Kovaa TO. Trrepa i'cr^et, 


TEPANOI (continued]. 

Arist. H.A. iii. 1 2, 5 19, cf. De Gen. v. 5, 785, Plin. x. 42 (29), Solin. c. 10. Its 
noisy cry, Arist. De Acoust. 800 ; frag. 241, p. 152 a : cf. II. iii. 3, Antip. 
Sidon. xvii, O. Smyrn. xiii. 104, Ar. Av. 710, Virg. Aen. x. 265, Mart. 
Ep. xxx ; Lucret. iv. 182 ; in Carm. De Philom. grus gruit ; &c. With 
ep. $&>AoK<)7ror, Cratin. 2. 20. 

A smaller species in the Balearic Islands, called Vtpio, Plin. x. 
49 (69). 

Gregarious habits: dyeXatoi/, H. A. i. i, 488, iv. 12, 597 b; irXirtJc6i/ 
Ka\ v(f> fjytfjiovi, i. i, 488. Pugnacity : fights with the eagle, II. xv. 692, 
Q. Smyrn. xiii. 104, Ael. iii. 13; and with its own kind, H. A. ix. 12, 
615 b. Its flight is lofty, ovpuvodi TT/JO, II. iii. 3; cf. Hes. Op. 446 euf 
av yepuvov <pa>vr)v eiraKovcrr]s,' t Y\^odtv CK vecptwv eviaixria KeK\r]yvirjs (with 
which cf. Pind. Nem. vii ei TL irepnv dcpdels dveKpnyov) ; Aes. Fab. 397 
(ifTTpw eyyvs tWa/uat, Arist. H. A. ix. io, 614 b, Avian. Fab. xv Ast 
ego deformi sublimis in aera penna, Proxima sideribus numinibusque 
feror ; Ael. iii. 14, Plin. x. 23, Isidor. Origin, xii. 7 ; see also Horap. 
ii. 98, where a watcher of the stars is said to be symbolized in Egypt 

as a crane, v\l/rj\a)S yap iravv in-rurai, Iva Oeda-rjTai ra ve(f)rj, fj.rj apa X l P l *&]> 

Iva eV r)(n>xLq diapery : flies against the wind, Arist. H. A. viii. 13, 597. 
Lays two eggs, ib. ix. 12, 615 b ; ov o-vyKadeio-rjs T^S 0/jXei'as e 

TO appev, ib. v. 2, 539 b. 

Migrations. Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597 eKToni&vo-iv e< TWV 
Ti-fStW fls ra e\rj TCI <'iv<0 T?JS Aiyvtrrov (cf. Herod, ii. 22). A fuller account, 
how they alight before foul weather, how they have in front a leader, at 
TOVS enio-vpiTTovras v rots eV^arots 1 : how when sleeping they stand first on 
one leg and then on the other : how while they rest the leader keeps watch, 
Arist. H.A. ix. io, 614 b: cf. frag. 241, 1522 a, Antig. H. Mirab. 46; 
and how their discipline taught men the rules of government, Ael. iii. 14. 
Cf. in particular Eur. Hel. 1478 At/3ue$- ol<avo\ oroXade? Spftpov \irrov(rai 
%ip.epiov viacrovTai Trpecr/Surara (rvpiyyt Trei^o/Ltej/ai 7roip.cvos, &C. How they 
fly aloft in the form of a triangle, with the old in front, the young in the 
middle, Ael. iii. 13, Plut. De Sol. Anim. Mor. 967 C, 979 A, Dion. De 
Av. ii. 17, iii. n. The distance they traverse, crossing the Euxine 
between the promontories of Criumetopon and Carambis, Plin. x. 30 : 
from Thrace to the river Hebrus, Ael. ii. i ; cf. Diog. Perieg. 155 ai' 
T a/i(a> gvvia<Tiv evavTiai, ov fiev eovvat eyyvdev, dXX' oaov 6\<as eVt rpirov 
dvvfrcrrj. The migration from Thrace takes place TOV Mai/iax- 
, Arist. H. A. viii. 12 ; (pdwoTrapov fjdrj fjiea-ovvros, Ael. iii. 13. 

The flock was supposed to represent a A or other letters ; cf. Philostr. 
Heroic, xi. 4, p. 7IO ai yepavoi p.aprvpovTai rols 'A^aioiy ort avrai -ypdjMjuara 
fvpov: cf. Claudian. De B. Gild. 477 ordinibus variis per nubila texitur 
ales Littera, pennarumque notis inscribitur aer ; Lucan v. 712, Martial 
ix. 14, xiii. 75, &c., &c. See also Bochart, Hieroz. ii. p. 78, G. J. Voss, 


TEPANOI (continued}. 

De Arte Gramm. i. 25, Mayor in Cic. Nat. Deor. ii. 49, Hemsterh. ad 
Lucian, i. 305, &c., &c. ; cf. Cicero, De Nat. Deor. 1. c., Martial xiii. 75. 
How each carries a stone, $ %x flv Kct ' ( *iirvov KOI irpbs ras e^poXas T&V 
oW/ucoz/ ep/ua, Ael. ii. I, cf. Antip. Sidon. cv, Ar. Av. 1137, 1429, Nonn. 
Dionys. xl. 515, Plin. x. 30 (23), also Prov. yepwoi \idovs Kara7re7rru)Kmai, 
of provident men, Suid. ; and how the same is a touchstone for gold, 
Ael. iii. 13. [In Plin. xxxvii. 72, the stone yepavlris is said to be so 
called from resembling the hue of the crane's neck.] How the oldest 
crane, having encircled the flock, dies and is buried, Ael. ii. i. How 
they post sentinels, who hold aloft a stone for wakefulness' sake, Ael. 
iii. 13, Plut. Sol. Anim. x, xxix, Plin. x. 30,. Phil. De An. Pr. xi. The 
stone still figures in heraldry as the crane and her ' vigilance.' The 
crane an Egyptian symbol of vigilance, Horap. ii. 94. It observes the 
time of its coming, ' intelligent of seasons,' Hes. Op. 448 fjr dporolo re 

o-ri/jia (pepei, Kal y^lp.aros &prjv deiKvvei oufipripov. Theocr. Id. X. 3! and 
Schol., Ar. Av. JIO (nrelpeiv pev orav yfpavos /cpd>bu(r' es rfjv A.i[Bur)v 

The fight with the Pigmies. H. iii. 6 avdpavi nvyp-aioio-i (povov Kal 
(pf'povcrat, and Schol.; cf. Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597 (loc. dub.) ov yap 

fCTTi TOVTO juO^of, aXX' eon Kara. rrjv dXrjdeiav yevos p,iKpov p.fv, &(nrep Xeyerat, 
Kul avroi KOI ol iTTTroi, TfjiayXodurai ' etai TOV ftlov. Cf. also Strab. Geogr. 
i. 2. 28, p. 35, xv. i. 57, p. 71 1 ; Ctesias, Photii Biblioth. p. 68 ; Opp. Hal. 
i. 620; Philostr. Imagg. ii. p. 375, Heroic. I.e., Babrius xxvi ; Apoll. 
Vit. iii. 50, p. 136, &c. Frequent in Latin ; Plin. H. N. iv. 18, vii. 2, x. 
2 3 (3); Ovid, Met. vi. 90; F. vi. 176 nee quae Pygmaeo sanguine 
gaudet avem ; cf. Julian. Anticensor. Epigr. 3 m/^an rjdo^vtj 
yepnvos : Juv. vi. 506, xiii. 168, &c., &c. A myth of the cranes and 
pigmies in Boios ap. Athen. 393 C rjv TIS rrapa rols nvypaiois yvvi] 
dido-rjfjLos, oi'Ofj-a Tfpat/n, K.T.\. : cf. Ael. xv. 29 ; Boios ap. Anton. Lib. 16 ; 
Eustath. in Iliad. 1444. 14; Ovid. Met. I.e. The legend of the Pigmies 
appears in India in the story of the hostility between the Garuda bird 
and the people called kirata^ i. e. dwarfs, the 2/upfmu of Ael. xvi. 22 ; 
cf. Megasthenes ap. Plin. vii. 2. It is quite possible that this fable has 
an actual foundation in the pursuit of the ostrich by a dwarfish race. 
(Compare also Addison's poem nvyp.aioyepavop.axia ; Tyson's Essay 
concerning the Pygmies, &c. 

The Cranes of Ibycus : the avengers of crime. Schol. Ar. Thesmoph. 
1 68 : Suid. S. V. "iftvKos' crvXXr/Cpdcls 8e vno Xflvruv eV prjp,ias e'cprj, Kav ras 
ytpdvovs, as e'rv^ej/ uTrfpiVrao-^at, CJtdlKOUf yevevdai, Kal avrbs pev dvypefy 
p.Ta de raura TCOJ/ Kgvr&W (Is ev rfj TroXei 6fa<rdp,fvos yepdvovs *<$)*)' i'Se, at 
i, K. T. X. Cf. Iambi. V. Pyth. xxviii. 12. 6 opas rovs 
Cf. also Plut. De Garrul. p. 509 F, Nemesian. De Nat. Horn. 
c. 42, Eudoc. p. 247, Zenob. i. 37, Apostol. ii. 14, Diogen. i. 35, H. Steph. 


TEPANOI (continued}. 

Animadv. ad Adagia Erasmi, p. 10; Stat. Silv. v. 3. 152 volucrumque 
precator Ibycus. Evidently alluded to also in Ar. Av. 1427. See also 
Welcker's interesting article, Die Kraniche des Ibykos, Rhein. Mus. i. 
pp. 401-413, 1833- 

A weather-prophet. A sign of early winter, or of storm, lav Trpcoi 
nerovTai KOI ddpooi, KOI eav vTroo-rpcKpao-i Trerofteyoi, Theophr. Sign. Hi. I, 
Geopon. i. 3. 12 ; cf. Hes. Op. et D. 629, and the imitation of the line 
in Ar. Av. 711 ; cu xXayyai Ka\ov<rtv opftpovt, Ael. i. 44; cf. Virg. Aen. 
x.265, Georg. i. 351, 373, (cf. Milton, ' With clang despise the ground, 
under a cloud In prospect '). How mariners return to port if they see 
the cranes flying the contrary way, Ael. iii. 14, cf. vii. 7. A sign of 
fair weather, Kal ' av TTOU yepavoi paXaKfjs TrpoirdpoiQc 70X771/77?, daCpaXevs 
ravvo-aiev era Spoftov rj\iOa ira<rai, Arat. Phen. IOIO ; cf. Theophr. Sign, 
iv ov yap Treroi/rat irpiv f/ av neTopevoi Kadapa idaxrti'. 

The crane was not molested, Lucill. 66 (Gk. Anthol.' iii. p. 42) ov5d? 
Trpbs yepdvovs TroXe^o? : cf. Ael. ii. i ; see however Babr. 13. 

Mentioned as food, Plat. Polit. p. 114, Athen. p. 131, Plut. De Esu 
Cam. ii : Plin. x. 30, Hor. Sat. ii. 8, 86, Epod. ii. 35, Apic. vi. 2. 
Its brain used as an aphrodisiac, Ael. i. 44. How captured, by means 
of a beetle inside a dry gourd, Dion. De Avib. iii. II. Grues mansue- 
factae, Plin. H. N. x. 23. 

Their plumes carried in front of the shield by certain Eastern tribes, 
Herod, vii. 70 ; cf. iv. 175. 

The Dance called ycpavos, Plut. Theseus, xxi. I. 9 D, Luc. Salt. 34, 
J. Poll. iv. 20 (101). Perhaps described in Callim. Delian Hymn, 
515) &c. ; still danced in Greece under the name of Kai>5io>r^y, vide 
Guys, Voy. litte'r., lettre xiii ; represented in Leroy, Ruines des plus 
beaux monuments de la Grece (2nd ed.), p. 22, pi. x (Ricard, Vies 
de Plut. i. p. 137, 1829). The dictionaries usually say that the dance 
mimics the flight of the cranes, which is incorrect : the dancing 
of Cranes may be seen in the opening of the year in any zoological 

A comic simile, dvvjrodrjTos opdpov irepnra.Te'iv yepavos, Aristopho 3- 
361 (Mem.). 

Fables. yepavoi KOI yfwpyos, Aesop, 93 (Babr. 26). y. KOI x*) V *) 4 21 - 
y. KOL a\a>7rq, 34 (Plut. Mor. 614 F). y. KOI \VKOS, 2?6 b. y. KOI raws, 

397 (Babr. 65). 

See also ayop, o-eprr]?. 

n'NII (s. yvis). A Tuscan word for a Crane = yepavos, Hesych. 

TAAY'KION. A kind of Duck. 

Perhaps the Golden-eye, Anas clangtila, L., Clangula glaucion, 
Bonap., which winters in considerable numbers in all the waters of Greece 


TAAYKION (continued}. 

(Lindermayer, p. 163); at least some species of duck with pale yellow 
eyes like those of yXavg. Athen. ix. 395 C TO e Xeyo/ni/oi> yXau/aoi/ dia 
Tr)V TO>V o/u/Ltarcov %pnav /xt/cpa> e'XaTToV earn vr/TTrjs. 

PAAY'E (s. y\au) (yXavo-crco, yXav/cos = gleaming [cf. a/cel)^, a/ceTTTo/iat : 

v. Edl. p. 37]). 
The Little Owl, Athene noctua, auctt. Mod. Gk. KovKov@ata. 

Description. vvKrcpofiios, Arist. H. A. i. I, 488, cf. Ar. Lys. 760 ; VVKTC- 
pivos, yafji^wvv^ Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b ; OVK ov /SXeVet rrjs J^/iepa?. ov KOTO 
iraa'av rrjv VVKTO. 6r]pevfi ) aXX' aKptairfpov KOI rrept opBpov. Orjpevei 8e pi)? 
/cat o-avpas /cat o-(povdv\as KOI roiavr' a'XXa a>apta, ix. 34, 619 b (cf. Ar. 
Av. 589). IJLVOVO-I 01 yXaufcco8eiy /cat rco ava) /3Xe^)dp&), ii. 12, 504. /uiKpoj/ 
e^ei rov (nr\i)va, ii. 15, 506. o-To/xa^oi' e^et evpvrepov TO KUTO)' a7ro0yada? 
e^et, ii. 17, 509. oXt'-ya? ypepas <po)\l, viii. 1 6, 6oo. The owl's nocturnal 
hootings, Ar. Lys. 760 (vide s. vv. |3uas, KIKUJJLIS). 

A bird of evil omen, Men. 4. 230 av y\av avfupayr) de^oiKa^fv. Dion. 
ix, in Gk. Anth. ii. p. 232 a/ACpi Se Tv/j,(3(p aelo /cat atfXauTOi yXaiKes edfVTo 
yoov : Ael. x. 37 (foretelling Pyrrhus' death) ; see also Pallad. De Re 
Rust. i. 35, Plin. x. 12, 16, &c. A portent of victory : Hesych. n-po rfjs 
p.d)(r)s ev SaXa/Liiyi yXavjed (pacri dicnrTTJvai rrjv VIKTJV Trpoarjfj.aivovcmv. Hence 
Prov. yXaC^ tTTTaTat, cf. Suid., Ar. Vesp. 1086, Eq. 1091 and Schol. On 
the Owls released by Agathocles to encourage his soldiers, see Diod. 
Sic. xx. n, 3. 

A weather-prophet, aa-atra evdiav p.avTfverat, Arist. fr. 241, 1522 a. 
Cf. Theophr. Sign, iv, Ael. vii. 7, Arat. 999, Geopon. i. 2. 6, Virg. 
Georg. i. 403. 

The hostility to it of small birds, Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609, Luc. Harm. I 
e5o-7rep eVt rijV yXaC/ca Ta opvea, cf. Ov. Met. xi. 24 et coeunt ut aves si 
quando luce vagantem Noctis avem cernunt ; Plin. x. (17) 19, &c. 

Capture of small birds by means of the owl, Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609 
TT}? fie rjpfpas KOI TO. aXXa upviQia rf]V yXavKa TreptTreVaTat, 6 KaXelrat 
Ouvpafciv (cf. Timon ap. Hesych., Diog. L. iv. 42, Sillogr. Gr. p. 117, 
ed. Wachsmuth, ot Se /JLIV fjvre yXavKa Trepit; (nriai TepoToCvro), /cat rrpocr- 
TreTojueva TiXXou<r*<' dio ol opvidodrjpai Oypevoicriv avrfj iraVTodcnra opvidia. 
Cf. Arist. H. A. ix. 22, 617 b, Ael. i. 29, Phil. De An. Pr. 468, Dio Chrys. 
xii. i ; an Egyptian version, Horap. ii. 51. Full account in Dion. De 
Avib. iii. 17 -yXuuKi Se at KopvdaXides aypevovrai. r]V 6 OrjpaTrjs eni TWOS 

Kt/cXa) pa/38ta 7TfpixP l o~QfvTa t^co* TTJV yXavKa TO vvKTepivbv opveov o~7revovo~iv 
at KopvdaXides eXetr, TW Te lw /cat TOIJ pa/SSot? dXi'o'/fovTai. See also Dio 
Prusiensis, Orat. 72 and 12, quoted in Schneider's Eel. Phys. i. 48. 

The owl itself ai>Topxovij.evos dXiV/ceTai, Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597 b, 
fr. 276, 1527 b. 


PAAYE (continued}. 

The War of the Owls and Crows : noXepia y\avg, Kopwvrj, o 

Arist. H. A. IX. I, 609 vvKT&p enifiov\evei rols wots rrjs Kopcoi/jyy, K. T. X. 

Ael. iii. 9, Antig. Mirab. 57 (62), Plut. Od. et Inv. iv (Mor. 537 C). 
The story is oriental, and is one of the chief tales in the Mahabharata. 
Cf. Indian Antiq. March, 1882, p. 87; also, 'The Night of Slaughter,' 
by Sir Ed. Arnold. The account in Julian. Imp. Orat. iv. 149 suggests 
that the story is simply a parable of the Sun and Moon ; vide infra. 
See also S. V. KOpcoyr). Cf. Prov. ii\\o yXavt-, aXXo Kopatvi] (pdeyyercn.' 
crrl Twv a\\r]\ois prj o-up.<poai>oiWa>i>, Suid. 

Milks the ewes like a goatsucker : uses a bat's heart to keep away 
. ants from its nestlings, Dion. De Avib. i. 15. 

Sacred to Demeter, Porph. De Abst. iii. 5. 

No Owls in Crete. Ael. v. 2, xvii. 10, Arist. De Mirab. 124 (130), 
83 (84), Plin. x. 29 (41). 

Fables of the very wise Owl, Acs. 105, 106, from Dio Chrysost. xii, 
Ixxii. A fabled metamorphosis, Nicand. ap. Anton. Lib. 10 ; s. v. |3ua : 
see also Boios ap. Ant. Lib. 15. 

The allusion to the Owl in Ar. Av. 358 is unexplained: it contains 
some obscure reference to the sacred \vrpn and probably to the feast 
of the gvrpoi. 

yXau can scarcely be said to be a generic term, except in the sense 
that the Little Owl, as the commonest species, is taken as typical 
of the rest. It is still extremely common about Athens (cf. Ar. Av. 301 
y\avK els 'A^ray, cf. Antiph. 3, 96 (Meineke), Lucian, Nigr. I, Diog. L., 
Vit. Plat., Cic. ad Quint, ii. 16, &c. ; Propert. ii. 20, 5 nocturna 
volucris funesta querela, Attica), as indeed it is, in one or other of its 
local forms, all round the Levant. It is the bird of Athene (cf. Ar. Av. 
516, Eq. 1092, c., &c.), doubtless in her primitive character of the 
Goddess of Night ; the epithet yXavKooTns- is quite obscure, but I fancy 
we have it used in a very ancient sense when applied to the moon, e. g. 
Eur. fr. (ap. Schol. Ap. Rhod. i. 1280) y\avi(>nis re o-rpe<percu p.r)vr) : cf. 
Emped. ap. Plut. ii. 934 C ; cf. also yXauxca, a name for the Moon, 
Schol. Find. Ol. vi. 76 (cit. Fick, Beitr. Indog. Spr. xx, p. 156, 1894). 
On Athene as a moon-goddess, cf. Porph. ap. Euseb. P. E. iii. n; 
Creuzer, Symb. iii. 380, &c. It was represented on Athenian coins 
(yXavKes AaupiomKm, Ar. Av. no6, Schol. in Ar. Eq. 1091, Plut. i. 442, 
Philochori fr. p. 83, Suid., Hesych.), and is still the city's badge. 
On a very ancient colossal Owl from the Parthenon, see Friederichs, 
Bausteine, p. 22 J cf. Hesych. y\av ev TrdXei' Trnpot/iia, dvaKflrui yap VTTO 
3?ai8pov ev rf) dffpoTroXei. The owl of Athene is always a hornless, and 
never a horned or eared species (cf. Blumenbach, Sp. Hist. Nat. Ant. 
p. 20, Gottingen, 1808). 

A dance called yXai), Athen. xiv. 629 f. ; also a/con//-, q, v. 

FAAYE rYO> 47 

rAQTTl'l. An undetermined bird. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597 b. Departs with the quails : y\5>rrav e|cryo- 
tievrjv e^ei pexpi 7roppo>. Cf. Plin. X. 23 (33). 

Supposed by Sundevall (op. c. p. 129) to be identical with iVy, the 
Wryneck, on account of the protrusible tongue ; as also by Niphus, 
in Arist., v. Camus, ii. 383 ; the Wryneck however winters in Greece 
(Lindermayer p. 41). Belon identified it with the Flamingo, Gesner, 
followed by Linnaeus, from a confusion with Ger. or Sw. Glutt, with 
the Greenshank, in connexion with which latter bird the name survives 
in modern zoology. Vide s. v. c\a<f>is. 

PNA'<I>AAOI. An unknown bird. 

Arist. H. A. ix. l6, 6l6b (pwvrjv c^ei dyaQrjv, KOI TO .^pco/ia /caXo?, Kai 
(3iop,t]xavos, KOI TO ddos evrrpeTrqff. 8oKel 8' flvai gevixos opvis' 6\iyaKis 
yap (paiveTai ev rots pf] oiKfiois TOTTOIS. 

Gesner suggests the Bohemian Waxwing, Ampelis garrulus, L., 
which however has not T^V (pcwrjv ayaOr^v, nor is there any evidence 
of the Waxwing reaching Greece. Probably the foreign name of 
a foreign bird. 

TOINE'EI' nopals, Hesych. Perhaps for [f]o/as, q. v. 
ro'AMII* ^dp, TO opveov, Hesych. 
ro'PTYE- ZpTvg, Hesych. Quasi fo'pru. 

rPA'nil* eifiof opveov, Hesych. Perhaps akin to ^pawn-is: cf. J. G. 

Schneider in Arist. H. A. viii. 5. 4, p. 590. 
rPAY'KAAOI- opvis Tempos, Hesych. Cf. icauicaXi'as. 

PPY'riAl* at v0<r<nal T>V yvn&V ol 8f yvnai, Hesych. 

rPYHArETOI. A fabulous bird. Ar. Ran. 929. 

TY'rHI. A fabulous bird : supposed to be connected with Lith. gufa, 
guzutys, a Stork. 

Dion. De Avib. ii. 16 yvyijs opvis eVrtV, avaftoav net Kai qftfiv TOI/TO 
doKciiv, os TOVS opveis ev VVKT\ Karecrdiei TOVS dfj.(pi^iovs. Tf]v fKfivov y\a)o~a'av 
e'i TIS f/TTore/MOt ^"^^ Ka ' <payew Soiy TCO fj-^Tra) \O\OVVTI iraidico, Travrco? 
avrov Ta\(Ds \vcrei Tt)V O-IU>TTI]V. 

TY'vl/. A Vulture. See also deros, aiyuirios, i/epros, irepKKoirrepos, 
$r\vi\. Mod. Gk. opveov, dyiovwa (Byzantios). 

Frequent in Homer, usually with the idea of feeding on carrion, 
II. iv. 237, xi. 162, xvi. 836, xxii. 42 ; Od. xxii. 30, &c. Cf. Eur. Tr. 595 
cr<afj.ara vfKptov yu\^l (pepeiv rc'rarat : Eur. Rh. 5^5 7rc Tf LV0 ^ S 

. Ov. Tr. vi. n, Lucret. iv. 680, Sil. Ital. iii. 396, &c. 
Used metaphorically, Eur. Andr. 75. 



Arist. H. A. vi. 5, 563 i/correuei eVi Tre'rpaty dTrpoarpdrois (also Antig. 
H. Mirab. 42 (48), cf. Aesch. Suppl. 796 *pep,a.c yuTrias TreVpa)' Sto crndviov 
I8clv veoTTtav yvirbs Kal VCOTTOVS. Kal 8ia TOVTO KOI 'Hpo&opoy 6 Epvcrcoi/oy 
ToG a-o<piarov Trarr/p (pr)(rlv flvai TOVS yvnas a(p' cVf'pas 777$-, dS^Xou T/p-ti', 
TOVTO Te Xf-ycoi/ TO arj/Jiflov, OTI ovdels ecopa/ce yvrrbs veoTTidv, Kal OTI TroXXot 
eai<pvr)s (fraivoVTai aK.o\ovQovvTfs TO"IS o-Tpareupao-ii/ [as the Griffon 
Vulture did at Sebastopol], cf. Ael. ii. 46, Basil. Hexaem. viii 'ibois av 
p.vpias a-ye'Xa? yviru>v rots o~TpaToire8ois TrapeTro/xei/a? : &C. How the 
Vultures divine beforehand the place of battle, npo fjpfpwv eWa eV 
avrof irapayivofjieiHu, Horap. i. ii ; cf. Ael. ii. 46 ; Umbricius ap. Plin. x. 
(6) 7 ; Plaut. True. ii. 3. 16, Martial, Ep. 62, 6. 

Arist. 1. C. TO 8' eoVt xaXe-jrbv p.ei> t&f li> } tWTrrm 8' O/JLCOS. TIKTOVO-I Se dvo <pa 
01 yvTres (cf. Plin. x. 7). Cf. H. A. ix. n, 615, which latter passage has 
ev mbv r) 8vo TO. rrXf to-Ta. 

On the mythical generation of vultures, how they are all females, 
are impregnated by the East wind, lay no eggs, and bring forth their 
young alive and feathered, see Ael. ii. 46, Arist. De Mirab. (6c) 835 a, I, 
Horap. i. n, Dion. De Avib. i. 5, Phile, De An. Pr. 121, Plut. Quaest. 
de Us. Rom. 93 (Mor. 286 A, B), Ammian. Marcell. xvii, Tzetz. Chil. 
xii. 439, Euseb. Pr. Ev. iii. 12, and innumerable other references in 
Patristic literature. On the mythical genealogy of the vultures, see also 
s. vv. deros, dXideros, 4>i^i/Y]. These are Egyptian myths. Vultur 
fulvus was sacred to Maut, the Goddess of Maternity, cf. Deut. xxxii. 
II, 12 | cf. Horap. i. II p.rjrepa de ypd<povTS yinra j^co-ypfKpoCo-i, eVeiS^ 
appyv ev Toi/rco rep yevei T&V &a>v ov% vndpxei. Hence also the obstetrical 
value of a Vulture's feather, Plin. xxv. (14) 44. The Common Egyptian 
Vulture or Pharaoh's Hen, Neophron percnopterus, was sacred to Isis, 
cf. Ael. X. 22 AtyuTTTioi 8e"Hpas peV iepbv opvtv clvai TreiriaTevKCKTi rbv yvira^ 
Korr/Liovo-i Se rr]v TTJS "ividos K(>a\r)v yvirbs TTTepols. In Horapollo, yv\js is 
always feminine. The Vulture being sacred in Egypt, was an unclean 
bird among the Jews ; cf. eiro\|/. 

On the (piXoo-Topyia of the Vultures, cf. Od. xvi. 216, Aesch. Ag. 49, 
Plut. Q. Rom., Mor. 286 A, B, Opp. Hal. i. 723; cf. aiyumos. 
The Vulture is stated to feed its young with its own flesh or blood, 
a myth afterwards transferred to the Pelican; Horap. i. n, cf. Georg. 
Pisidas, 1064 (cit. Leemans) rbv fjujpbv fKTf^ovrfS, ^p-aTco/zevoiy FaXaicTor 
6\Kols ^toTTupoCo-i Ta /3pe'(pr/. On the connexion between the Vulture 
and the Pelican, see s.v. |3aiTJ9. The stories of the Vulture's tenderness 
and affection coincide with the resemblance between the Hebrew words 
DH1 compassion, and DiVI a vulture (Boch. Hieroz. ii. 803, &c.). 

How a Vulture's feather, if burnt, drives serpents from their holes, 
Ael. i. 45, Piin. xxix. (4) 24. How the pomegranate is fatal to vultures, 
Ael. vi. 46. How* the odour of myrrh is fatal to Vultures, Ar. De 



Mirab. (147) 845 a, 35, Ael. iii. 7, iv. 18, Geopon. xiii. 16, xiv. 26, 
Theophr. De C. PI. vi. 4, Clem. Alex. Paedag. ii. 8 ; and why, Dion. 
De Avib. i. 5. Doves do not fear the Vulture, Ael. v. 50 ; the hawk is 
hostile to it, Ael. ii. 42. Most of the above mythical attributes of the 
Vulture are summed up by Phile, c. iii De Vulture. 

The stories of Prometheus and Tityus, Od. xi. 577 ; Aen. vi. 595 ; 
Lucret. iii. 997; Ov. Met. iv. 456; Val. Fl. Argon, vii. 357, &c. See 
also s.v. deros. 

How the Persians exposed their dead to the Vultures, Herod, i. 140. 

Cf. Ael. X. 22 BapKcuoL (s. BaKKatot, 'lo-iravias eQvos, Steph.) rovs Iv 
7TO\(fj.(a TOV j3iov KaTCKTrptyavTas yvtyl 7rpo/3aXXov(rii', lepov TO <aov dvai 
KfTTio-TevKOTes (cf. Sil. Ital. iii. 340, xiii. 470). 

The augury of Romulus, Plut. Romulus ix, Quest. Rom. 93, Dio 
Cass. xvi. 46, Dion. Hal. i. p. 73, Ael. x. 22, Liv. Hist. i. 7, &c.; of 
Augustus, Sueton. Aug. c. 95. The prophecy of Vettius, drawn from 
the vultures of Romulus, as to the duration of Rome, Censorin. xiv. 

The Vulture is sacred to Hercules, Plut. Mor. 286 A; is associated 
with Pallas, Eur. Tr. 594. The Vulture and Scarab together, according 
to their order and position, represented Neith or Phtha, Athene or 
Hephaestus, Horap. i. 12 ; cf. Creuzer, Symb. iii. 338, and Lauth op. cit. 

In the system of Egyptian hieroglyphics the Vulture and the Beetle 
are associated or contrasted with one another. This relation bears 
upon certain statements made by Greek writers. The beetle, KavQapos, 
is devoid of females (Ael. x. 15) as the Vulture is of males ; it is killed, 
as is the Vulture, by the odour of myrrh (Ael. i. 38, vi. 46, Phile 120, 
1215); it shares with the 'Eagle' the gift of the renewal of youth 
(Arist. H. A. viii. 17, 601). For further details concerning Egyptian 
Vulture-myths and for many references to other sources of information, 
see Horap. ed. Leemans, pp. 171-191 ; and for the connexion between 
the statements of Horapollo and the phonetic value of the Vulture- 
symbol, see Lauth, Sitzungsber. Bayer. Akad. 1876, pp. 81-83. 

A fabled metamorphosis, Boios ap. Ant. Lib. 2i*Aypios 6e pfrffiaXev 

IS yVTTO., TTaVTtoV 6pl'id<t)V %6l(TTOV dfols T K.O.I avBptoTVOlS. 

A medicinal application, Dioscor. ii. cap. De stercore : yvnos a<po8os 
aTrodvp-iaflelo-a epfipva eKTivdaa-fiv rrapadedoTai (a statement frequently 
made by the Arab Doctors, Bochart). For other medicinal uses of the 
vulture's liver, heart, and feathers, see Plin. xxix. (4) 24, (6) 38, Galen 
iv. 8, Sext. Platon. ii. 2, Quint. Seren. c. 47, &c. 

Proverbs. yvnbs ovaa* eVi T<UI/ prjSevbs \6yov atW (cf. ovov oxta), 
Suid. ; the proverb may refer, on the other hand, to the shadow of 
coming events, in allusion to the Vulture's fabled prescience (vide 
supra; cf. also Erasm. in Proverbiis s.v. vulturis ztmbrd). darrov av 
dySovas p/z^o-airo, Luc. Pise. 37. 




yty is, like alyvmos, a generic word for Vulture. In Arist. H. A. 
viii. 3, 592 b, two species are distinguished, 6 fj.ev p.iKpbs KOI e/cXeuKorfpoj, 
6 de pdfav Kal CT-TToSoeiSeo-repoy. Four vultures occur in Greece, Gypaetiis 
barbatus, the Lammergeier, Vultur fulvus, the Griffon Vulture, V. cine- 
reus, the Black or Cinereous Vulture, and Neophron percnopterus. 
Sundevall and others have tried to apportion among these four the 
names (prjvrj, irepwoTrTepos, and the two varieties mentioned of ym//-. 
But I think it certain that here the small white Neophron is meant 
as the one variety, and that the larger darker sort includes the other 
three. The true Vultures were usually spoken of as dark-coloured or 
black ; e. g. Plin. x. 6 vulturum praevalent nigri, cf. Phile 130 ; Juv. Sat. 
xiii vulturis atri poena ; Senec. in Thyeste, visceribus atras pascit 
effossis aves. 

A Macedonian name for the Jackdaw = KO\OIOS, Hesych. 

AA'KIA* TO. ciypia opviQdpia, Hesych. 

AAKNl'l, Hesych. An unknown bird. Also SaKvds, Festus: Dagnades 
sunt avium genus, quas Aegyptii inter potandum cum coronis 
devincire soliti sunt, quae vellicando morsicandoque et canturiendo 
assidue non patiuntur dormire potantes. 

AA'NAAAOI* 6 cptdaKos, TO opveov, Hesych. 

AEl'PHI. A name for the Sparrow in Elis. Nicander ap. Athen. 
ix. 392 a. 

AlTHPEI- vTpovdoi, Hesych. Cf. SpTJyes. 

Al'KAIPON, also SiKmov (Ael. iv. 41) = Arab, zikanon. An Indian 
* bird ' as large as a Partridge's egg, whose dung causes a pain- 
less death like sleep; Ctesias p. 313, Ael. iv. 41, Phile, De 
Anim. Propr. 33 (32), v. 761. The 'bird' was the Dung-beetle, 
Scarabaeus sacer, L., Arab, zikanon] the 'dung' was probably 
confounded with charas, a resinous preparation of Indian hemp. 
Vide Valentine Ball, Indian Antiq. xiv. p. 310, 1885; also Proc. 
R. I. Acad. (2) ii. 

Al'KTYI' 6 i'/mi/o?, VTTO AaK<ava>v, Hesych. : cf. tKrt'r. The word is more 
than doubtful as a bird-name, and is applied to a Libyan animal 
by Herod, iv. 192. 

APAKONTl'l. An unknown or fabulous bird, into which one of the 
nine Emathidae, daughters of Pierus, was metamorphosed; 
Nicand. ap. Anton. Lib. Met. c. 9. 


APEnANl'Z, from Spenavov, i.e. * sickle-wing.' Also dpairavis, Hesych. 
Arist. H. A. i. i, 487 b. A bird similar to arrovs and xeXi8o>i/, evVrepos, 
oparai KOI dXurKerm oral/ vo-y TOV Bepovs' oXa>? de KOI cnrdviov 

Probably the larger Alpine Swift, Cypselus melba, L., and also 
perhaps the Common Swift, C. apus, both conspicuously ' sickle- 
winged/ On the other hand, Aub. and Wimm. p. in, also 
Bochart ii. 62, as well as Gaza and Scaliger, say the Sand- 
Martin : v. Kv^eXos. Cf. Plin. x. (33) 49, xi. 47 (107), xxx. (4) 12. 
The brief account indicates that the bird is comparatively scarce, 
and that its period .of residence in the country is short ; both 
circumstances telling in favour of a Swift as against the 

Spe-iraki's is translated Keyxpis by Hesychius. 

APH*[r]EZ' o-Tpovdoi, Mane'doves, Hesych. Also Myrjpfs and diprjyes. 
Cf. Seiprjs, Spuc^ai, q. v. 

APIKH'AI* opvea void, Hesych. Also 8pi, arpovQos, ap. Cyrill., Lob. 
Parall. p. 102. Cf. SpfJYes, &c. 

APYOKOAA'IITHI. Also fyuj/KoXaTm??, fyvKohdnTr)* (Ar. Av. 480, 979), 
fywKoXm//- (Hesych.), SpvoKonos (Arist. De Part. iii. i, 662 b). 
Cf. Sk. darvaghata (Keller). 

A Woodpecker. Mod. Gk. &* Xt8 P a (v. d. Mtthle). See also 

8puo\|/, nrnr], Ke\e<5s, ireXeKaK, TTITTW. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593, vide s. v. mirw. Ib. ix. 9, 614, a full and 
accurate description : KOTTTCI 8e ras 8pvs 6 dpvoKoXdnTrjs r&v ovoX7}Kcoy KOI 
<TKvnra)v evfKfv, tj* e^t'oxTij/. aj/aXeyerat yap et-eXdovras avrovs rfj yXwrrrj' 
TrXarelav 8* e^fi KOI fjLeydXrjv. KOI Tropevtrai enl rols Sv8pf(Ti ra^ecos Trdvia 
Tpo-jTov, Kai VTTTIOS KdQdirep ol ao"KaXa3wrai. e^et de KOI TOVS owlets fteXriovs 
TU)V KoXoiwf TTffpvKoras Trpbs rrjv dcr<pd\eiav rrjs eVi rots devdpecriv f<pe8peia$' 
TOVTOVS yap f^.rrrjyvv<; Tropeverat. ecrn de TCOV Spvo/coXaTrrcoi/ ev p.ev yevos 
eXaTTOj/ TOV Korrixpov, e^6i S' vTTcpvdpa piKpd, eTepov Se yevos [j.elov i] 
KOTTV<})OS' TO 8e rp'irov yevos avrcav 6v TroXXw eXarrov O~Tiv dXfKTopiSos 
dyXfias. vforrevei 8' eVt T>V devdpav, fv ciXXois T TUV oev&pcw Kal ev 
eXaigis . . . Kal Ti6acro~v6p,vos 8e TIS fjdrj dfj.vyo'aXov els pwyprjV vXov evBeis, 
orras fvappoo-dev viropeivftcv avrov rf)V irXrjyrjV, ev rrj TptTfl nXrjyf) dieKo^f 
Kal Karrjo-die TO paXaKov. Cf. Arist. De Mirab. 13, 831 b: the hard bill 
of the woodpecker, Arist. De Part. iii. i, 662 b. 

Four well-defined species occur in Greece, (a) the Great Black 
Woodpecker, Picus Marttus, which evidently answers to the last and 
largest variety mentioned above ; (b) the Green Woodpecker, P. viridis y 

E 2 


APYOKOAAFITHI (continued}. 

with its close ally, P. canus ; (<:, d) the Greater and Lesser Spotted 
Woodpeckers, P. major and minor. The Green Woodpecker is 
described under the name KeXeo's-, and accordingly Sundevall and 
others make the remaining two of the three Aristotelian varieties 
to be the Greater and Lesser Spotted Woodpeckers respectively. 
But as P. viridis, whether it had another name or not, would certainly 
be still classed as dpvoKoXiiirTrjs, it is better to take it as the middle- 
sized sort, uniting the Greater and Lesser Spotted Woodpeckers as 
the last and least variety. 

The Woodpecker is not in Greek, as it is in Latin (e. g. Ov. Met. xiv. 
321, F. iii. 37, 54, Virg. Aen. vii. 191, Plin. x. 18 (20), Plut. Q. Rom. xxi. 
268 F, Romulus iv; Aug. Civ. Dei, xiii. 15), a bird of great mythological 
importance, though the Dryopes were probably, like the descendants of 
Picus, a Woodpecker-tribe. It figures in the oriental Samir-legend 
(vide s. v. eiroij/) in Ael. i. 45 as making its nest in a tree, and, by 
virtue of a certain herb, removing a stone with which one shall have 
blocked up the entrance ; cf. Plin. x. (18) 20, xxv. 5 ; Plut. p. 269 ; 
Dion. De Avib. i. 14 ; and is accordingly spoken of as a rival power 
to eVo^ in Ar. Av. 480. Cf. Alb. Magnus, De Mirab. 1601, p. 225. See 
also Baring-Gould, Myths of the Middle Ages, p. 397. The Woodpecker 
and the Hoopoe come into relation also in the version of the Tereus- 
myth given by Boios ap. Anton. Lib. Met. II, where the brother of 
Ae'don is transformed into the bird CTTO^, and her husband into 

APY'CW. A Woodpecker = fyvo/coXaTrrjjs, Ar. Av. 304. 

AY'riTHI. A diving bird, identical with aWvia (q. v.), ewot 
Etym. M. 

Callim. 167, ap. Etym. M. 8vnrai r e a\bs tpx&fuvot ; with which cf. 
Arat. 9^4? S. V. epojSios. Lye. 73 OTeva> (re, Trarpa, KOI T<i(f)ovs 'ArXai/rt'Sos', 
dvTTTov KeXoapo?. Applied to a professional diver or sponge-fisher in 
Opp. Hal. ii. 436, and possibly also, therefore, in the preceding reference. 


AYTfNOI. An unknown water-bird. Dion. De Avib. ii. 13, iii. 24. 
El'AAAl'l, also iSuX/y. opvis voids, Hesych. 

"EAAIOI s. eXaios. According to Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ii. 65 B 
a kind of alyi6a\6s or titmouse, called by some trvppias (MS. 

7riptas\ crvKaXis S' fon dXi'oveercuJ orav a.Kp.dr) TO. crvKa. Conj. in Anth. 

Pal. vii. 199 ed. Mackail xi. 13 <i'\' eXaie. Probably one of the 
many Warblers which frequent the olive-gardens, e.g. Salicaria 
olivetorum, Strickl., and S. elaeica, Linderm. (v. Lindermayer, 
pp. 88-92). 


"EAANOI = falvos, Hesych. 

'EAAZA'I. An unknown bird, Ar. Av. 886. 

'EAA<t>l'I. An unknown water-bird. 

Dion. De Avib. ii. II i\a$ls 6' opveov eon TO. Trrepa iravTa tiri rots 
VWTOIS eXa<po>i/ fX ov ^ OiKO ' ra dpii, Kal rpecperai Kara TOVS xepcrai'ouy 'ivyyas, 
Trjv yXa>o~o~av p.rjKia'Trjv ovo~av a)0~7Tp 6pp,iav els TO vdwp tin TTO\V Ka$teio~a, 
K. r. X. The hair-like feathers on the back suggest, if anything, a Heron 
or Egret. A gem in the British Museum represents a Heron or Stork, 
with the antlers of a Stag ; v. Torr, Rhodes, pi. I, Imhoof-Bl. and K., 
pi. xxvi. 59. 

'EAE'A. MSS. have also e'Xata, (qy. = eXfta Sundev.), IXeia Callim. 

s. eXecls Ar. Av. 302, s. eX^as, Hesych. Cf. e'Xaios. 
A small bird, probably the Heed- Warbler, Salicaria arundinacea^ 
Selby, and allied species. 

Arist. H. A. ix. l6, 6l6 b opvis cvffioTOS, KaOifci Oepovs /xeV ev 7rpoa-r]Vfj.M Kal 
cr/aa, ^eip.(ji)vos 8' fv U7/\t6), Kal eVicrKeTrei eVt T>V bovaKcov Trepi ra eXrj' 
e(TTi 8e TO p.ev peyedos jSpa^vy, (fxavrjv 8' e'^fi dyadrjv. In Ar. AV. JO2 eXeay 

may or may not be the same bird. Callim. ap. Schol. Ar. Av. 302 eXeta 
fj.LKp6v t (f)a>vfj dyadov. 

The Reed-Warbler is a permanent resident in Greece, and is very 
common in all marshy places (Kriiper, &c.). 

'EAEIO'r efSof iepaKos, Hesych. 

Sch. conjectures IXeio? fialustris in Arist. H. A. ix. 36, i, and for 
the common reading Xeloi writes 'in 8' eXeioi of Kal (j>pvvo\6yoi. Cf. A . 
and W. ii. p. 264. Vide s. v. emXelos. 

'EAEO'I. A kind of Owl. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b; mentioned with, and said to resemble, 
alyo>\ios and CTKCO^ : peifav d\CKTpvovos, flypevti TO.S KLTTUS. ix. I, 609 b 
*pe erXew TroXe/ntos (alternative readings, KoXfw, -yoXew). 

The size accords with that of the Tawny Owl, Syrnium Aluco, L., 
which is common in Greece and is not definitely ascribed to any 
other classical name. Scaliger so identifies it, taking eXcds from the 
owl's cry, cf. e'XeXfO, &c., also Lat. ulula. Sundevall reads e'Xeo'y 
s. e\ios = palustris, supporting this view by the mention of Crex 
in the context, and identifies the bird with Strix brachyotus, L., the 
Short-eared or Marsh Owl. But both etymological suggestions are 
more than doubtful, and neither Tawny nor Short-eared Owl Qrjpcvet 
TCIS KLTTas. Artemidor. iii. 65, Zonar. c. 684. 

'EAQ'PIOI. A water-bird, similar to Kp<-' (verb. dub.}. 

Clearch. ap. Athen. viii. 332 E (Casaubon), where later editors read 
os : numbered among TOVS opvtOas TOVS irapevdiao-Tas Ka\ovp.evovs. 


'ENOY'IKOI' 6 d<r(pd\6s, TO opvcov, Hesych. 

"EFIIZA- opvfa, Kwpioi, Hesych. (<nriia, conj. Salmas.) 

'EniAAl 1 *!. An unknown small bird. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis o-Ka>\r)Ko<pdyos. Sylburge, Schneider, 
Piccolos and others read irrroXats, q. v. 

'EniAEfOI, s. emXeos. A bird of prey, perhaps the Buzzard, Buteo 
vidgaris, Bechst. 

Plin. H. N. x. 9 epileum Graeci vocant qui solus omni tempore 
apparet, caeteri hieme abeunt (vide s. v. aladXwi/). This passage, 
following on a reference to Buteo, and stating a fact recorded by 
Aristotle of rpiop^s (q. v.), suggests that all three are identical. 
Perhaps connected with, or a mere variant of, eXeio's- or Aetos, q. v. 

'Eno'AIOI. fldos opveov wKrepivov, Suid. Ambiguum an illud, quod ab 
Aristotele alya>\i6s, H. St. Thesaur. App. p. 942 E. 

Note. We have above (IXcuos, eXe'a eXeos, cmXcus, emXcios) 

a succession of bird-names all very similar, whose meaning and deri- 
vation are alike obscure. 

The Hoopoe, Upupa epops, L. Hesych. has also 6770770?, 

opveov '. errojTra, aXeKTpvova aypiov '. and also a7ra<f)6s. 

Mod. Gk. Ta\oTTT(iv6s or ro-aXoTremj/o's (Erhard, Heldreich), dypio- 
(Boch., Jonston ; still on Mt. Taygetus, Heldr.), dypwKOKopag 
(v. d. Miihle). eVo^ is, in form, onomatopoeic, like upupa> but is very 
probably based on an Egyptian solar name, ""ATroTrir, 'HXtov dSe\(p6$, 
Plut. De Is. xxxvi ; with which cfSEncxpos Herod, ii. 153, &c., &c.; also 
"ETTI^I, Plut. Is. et Os. lii. p. 372 B : the form dncKpas preserved in 
Hesychius is identical with the name used by the Syriac Physiologist. 
For fanciful derivation see Aesch. fr. 305 en-or//- eVoTn-T?? T&V avrov K.a<wv : 
cf. Hesych. s. v. See also s. vv. Kouicoitya, irouiros. 

First mentioned by Epicharm. ap. Athen. ix. 391 D (fr. 116, Ahrens) 
CTK.5>7ra$ fTTOTras yXavxas. 

Description. Arist. H. A. i. 488 b opvis opeior, cf. ix. n. 615 a (vide 
Boch. Hier. ii. p. 343 for similar interpretation of Heb. or Arab, dukiphat, 
duk kepha, gallus montanus). H. A. ix. 15, 616 b OVK e^a T^S y\<arTT)s TO 
6v, vide s. vv. dY]8wy, (ULeXayKopu^os : cf. Giebel, Z. f. ges. Naturw. 
X. 236. Pausan. x. 4 6 8e erro^f es ov e^ei \6yos TOP Trjpea aXhayrjvai, 
peyedos p,v o\iyov to~T\v inrep oprvya, eTTi rfj K(pa\fj 8e cl TO. Trrepa es Xd^ou 
o-xni^a e|^prai. Cf. Ar. Av. 94, 99, 279; Ovid, Metam. vi. 671 cui stant 
in vertice cristae, Prominet immodicum pro longo cuspide rostrum, 
Plin. x. (65) 36 cum fetum eduxere abeunt. Is destructive to bees, Phil. 
De An. 712. 



The cry represented, e7ro7ro7ro7ro7ro7ro7ro7ro7ro7rot, Ar. Av. 227, &c. Vv. 
237, 243, 260 rto rto &c., though incorporated in the same speech, are 
evidently from the nightingale and other birds behind the scenes : 
Kifoca/3a{5, v. 261, is the owl's hoot. 

Nest. Arist. H. A. vi. I, 559 a povos ou Trout-rat veornav ru>v KaO* eavra 
veoTTfVovTwv, a\\' el&dvofjievos els ra o-reAe^jj ev Tols KOI\OIS avraiv -rue-ret, 

eV (TV[Ji,<f)opovp.vos. Ib. ix. 15, 6l6b veoTTiav TToteirat K rrjs avdpcojrivrjs 
According to Heldreich (p. 38) the Hoopoe is a spring and 
autumn migrant through Greece, but does not now breed there : it 
however seems to breed in Macedonia and perhaps in Epirus (Kriiper). 
The story of the nest e* Konpov av0pa>7rii>r)s (also in Ael. H. A. iii. 26) 
arises (i) from the Hoopoe's habit of seeking its insect food among 
dung (avis obscoeno pastu, Plin. H. N. x. 29 ; cf. Fr. coq puant, Germ. 
Kothhahn, <Stinkhahn, Mistvogel, &c.), and (2) from the nest having 
an evil smell from the accumulation within of excrement, and perhaps 
also from a peculiar secretion of the birds (see for scientific references, 
Aub. and Wimm. i. p. 91). 

Myth and Legend. The Tereus-myth (see also s. v. dTjSwf, dXidcrog, 
XcXiSwy) Aesch. fr. 297, in Arist. H. A. ix. 49 B, 633 a (more probably 
from the lost Sophoclean tragedy of Tereus, cf. Schol. Ar. Av. 284, 
Welcker, Gr. Trag. i. 384) TOVTOV ' erroTrrrjv enona TU>V avrov K(i<a,v \ 
TTTroiKiXa>Ke Ka7ro8r]\(0<ras e^ei | dpatrvv Trerpalov opviv ev iravrevxia' \ os r/pi 
p.ev (fravevri SiarraXXei nrcpov \ KipKov \7rdpyov' K. r. X. Cf. Arist. H. A. 
ix. 15, 617 a, and 496, 633 a T^y Ideav /uera/SdXXa roO Oepovs KOI TOV 
Xeipuvos, Plin. x. (30) 44. With the phrase eTroTrrrjv TWV avroO KQK&V, cf. 
Plat. Phaedo p. 86 A <a<7t dia XVTTTJV adciv : also Ach. Tat. V. 5 6 Trjpevs 
opvis yivfTdi' Kal Trjpov&i en TOV nddovs rfjv eiKova. In the use of the 
word eVoTrrjy?, we have not merely a fanciful derivation of eVo^, but also 
an allusion to the mysteries. 

In this very obscure story we have frequent indications of confusion 
between Hoopoe and Cuckoo, and the 'metamorphosis' is in part 
connected with the resemblance between the Cuckoo and the Hawk ; 
cf. Arist. vi. 7, Theophr. H. PI. ii. 6, Geopon. xv. i, 22, Plin. H. N. 
x. 8, ii. See also Lenz, Zool. d. Gr. u. R. p. 318. For the relations 
between Hoopoe and Cuckoo, der Kuckuk und sein Kiister, v. Grimm, 
D. M. p. 646, Grohmann, Aberglaube aus Bohmen, Leipzig, 1864, 
p. 68, &c. On the metamorphosis of the Cuckoo into a Hawk in 
English and German Folk-lore, see Swainson, Provincial Names of 
British Birds, p. 113. 

How the Hoopoe first appeared at Tereus' tomb in Megara, Paus. 
i. 41, 9. The Tereus-myth also in Aesch. Suppl. 60, Apollod. iii. 14, 
Ach. Tat. v. 5, Ovid, Metam. vi, &c. 



On the Tereus-myth, and the mythology of the Hoopoe in general, 
see in particular E. Oder, Der Wiedehopf in d. gr. Sage, Rhein. Mus. 
(N. F.), xliii. pp. 541-556, 1888. 

A weather-prophet, Horap. ii. 92 ecii> irpb rou Kaipov rS>v a/x7reXa>i/ 
TroXXa Kpa&7, evotviav o-rjpaivfi. The same of the Cuckoo, Plin. H. N. 
xviii. 249, Hor. Sat. i. 7, 30. With ep. mo-toy, Anton. Lib. xi. 

Phil. De An. Pr. 667 <p0iW 8e rots eVo^i dopKadav o-reap (also 
Ael. H. A. vi. 46). Ib. 724, uses aypavns as a remedy (cf. icopuSos). Ael. 
i. 35 places a&iavrov or KaXXiT/n^oy (cf. deros) as an amulet in its nest or 
heals itself when injured, Horap. ii. 93 ; also written, Geopon. 
xv. i, 19. 

How the Hoopoe by means of a certain herb (the same ablavrov] 
liberates its imprisoned young, Ael. iii. 26, cf. Ar. Av. 654, 655. The 
same story of Picus, Plin. H. N. x. 18 (20), vide s. v. SpuoKoXd-nrris. 
This is a version of the well-known Samir-legend (the * open Sesame ' 
of the Forty Thieves), and is told also of the Hoopoe in connexion 
with Solomon (Boch. Hieroz. ii. 347). See also Buxdorf, Lex. Talmud, 
col. 2455 : on similar German superstitions see Meier, Schwab. Sagen, 
Nr. 265. On Indian versions of the story of the Hoopoe which shel- 
tered Solomon from the sun, see W. F. Sinclair, Ind. Antiquary, 1874, 
also ib. 1873, p. 229, Curzon's Monast. of the Levant, c. xii, &c. The 
story of the Indian Hoopoe, Ael. xvi. 5, which buried its father in its 
head (vide s. v. KopuSos) is probably connected with the same legend ; 
see Lassen, Ind. Alterth. 2nd ed. i. p. 304. The statement (Ael. 1. c.) 
that the enofy 'ivSiKos is dnr\d<riov rou irap fjfuv, KOI wpaiorepov ISelv, is 
purely fabulous. 

Filial affection of the Hoopoe, Ael. x. 16, vide s. v. KouKOitya, 
irc\apY<5s. The Hoopoe on coins of Antoninus as a symbol of filial love, 
Eckhel, Doctr. numm. vi. 531, Creuzer, Symbolik, ii. p. 64, Zoega, 
Numm. Eg. Imp. pi. x. i, Seguin. Scl. Numism. p. 152. 

The evil smell of the Hoopoe suggests a connexion with Pitumnus 
in the story of Pilumnus and Pitumnus or Sterculinius ; Serv. Aen. ix. 4 
fratres fuerunt dii ; horum Pitumnus usum stercorandorum invenit 
agrorum, Oder, op. c. p. 556 : cf. Jordan-Preller, Rom. Myth. i. 375. 

The Hoopoe was a sacred bird in Egypt, as it still is among the 
Arabs (cf. Creuzer, I.e., Denon pi. 119, 8, c., &c.). From its rayed 
crest it was a solar emblem, and it is in part as such that it comes into 
relation with KipKos, the sacred hawk of the solar Apollo. The wood- 
pecker, with its red or golden crest (cf. Ov. Met. xiv. 394) becomes in 
like manner a solar emblem, and there is a curious parallel in the con- 
nexion between Circe and the metamorphosis of Picus. As a solar 
emblem also, the Hoopoe figures in the version of the Phoenix-myth 


EHCW (continued}. 

in Ael. xvi. 5. To a like source is traceable the Samir-legend, and 
possibly also the obscure origin of the Tereus-myth. From its sanctity 
in Egypt it became an unclean bird among the Jews, Lev. xi. 19, 
Deut. xiv. 1 8, where its name nB'On dukiphat (cf. icouicou<f>a) is rendered 
Lapwing, as being the crested bird with which the translators were 
most familiar (cf. Newton, Diet, of Birds, p. 505). 

In the Birds of Aristophanes we have many veiled allusions to the 
mythology of the Hoopoe. The confusion with KOKKV (vide s. v. 
Kouicou(J>a) is indicated throughout ; the fables of Tereus and Procne 
are frequently referred to, e. g. y yap aj/#po>7ror, v. 98 rr]v e/^i/ dydova, 
vv. 203, 367, c. : the Hoopoe's first cry, avoiye rfjv vXijv, v. 93, is 
a reference to the Samir-legend ; the kindred fable of Kopvdos appears 
in vv. 472-476 ; the mysterious root in v. 654 is the magical dblavrov : 
the mention of rjXtaa-rrjs, v. 109, is a pun on fjXios : the allied solar 
symbolism of SpvoKoXdirr^s is suggested in v. 480 ; and the nauseous 
reputation of the nest is probably hinted at in the Hoopoe's pressing 
invitation to Peisthetairus, v. 641, that he should enter in. 

'EPI'GAKOI, s. epi0aKos (Arist., Ael.), epi0eu's (Arat, Theophr.), epi'OuXos 

(Schol. ad Ar. Vesp.). The Robin, Erithacus rubecula, L. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis o-KQ>\r)Ko(pdyos. ix. 496, 632 b /*fra- 
ftdXXovo-iv of epiOaKoi Koi ol KaXovp-evoi (poivinovpoi e dXXr]X(DV' eVri 8' 6 
/xei/ cpiQaKos xeifjLfpivov, ol 8e (poiviKovpoi Oepivoi, 8ia(pepou(Ti 5' 
ovdev as etVeiv dXX' 77 rfj XP$ f^ovov : Geopon. XV. I. 22. 

A weather-prophet, Arat. Phen. 1025, Theophr. fr. vi. 3, 2 
fjifya o-fjp-a KOI op^iXoy KOL epiBtvs, dvvav es KoiXas o^eas. Arist. fr. 241, 
I522b epiOaKos es TO. av'Xia KOI TO. oiKovpeva Trapivv dfjXos ean ^ei/iSvos 1 
firiSrjuiav d'Trobidpdo'Kcov, Cf. Ael. vii. 7- 

A mimetic bird, fjupovvrai KOL p.pvr]VTai %>v av aKovo-cooriv, Porphyr. De 
Abst. iii. 4 (epidaicos here is either an interpolation, or is used of some 
other bird). 

Proverb, Schol. in Ar. Vesp. 922 (927) /u'o Xo^/ii; dvo cpidaKovs ov rptyft. 
earl 8e opveov VTTO /zeV nvav KaXovpevov epiSevs, viro &e eVepcoi/ epidvXos, 
vno TO>V nXeiovav epidaKos I cf. Photius. Also eptdcvs' 6 epiQaKos, TO opveov, 
Hesych. epiBaKos' opveov p,ovrjpfs Kal povoTponov, Suid. 

Sundevall derives cpi&ucof from epvffpos, QCLKOS (cf. Eng. redstart, 
Germ. Rothsteiss), and identifies the bird in Arist. with the Redstart, 
Lusciola phoenicurus, L., in winter plumage : vide s. v. (jxuyiicoupos. 
The derivation is far-fetched, and the identification is discountenanced 
by the fact that the Redstart does not, at least in Attica, remain 
through the winter (Kriiper p. 245), during which season the Robin 
is as common there as with us. See also cuaaicos, 

"EPMAKON' opveov, Hesych. Probably by error for fpi 

opvis TTOLOS, Hesych. Probably for en-ox//-, or else 

'EPYGPO'nOYZ. In Ar. Av. 303, usually translated Redshank, which 
bird, Totanus cah'dn's, L., is common in Greece in winter. 
Used as an epithet of WXeia, Arist. H. A. v. 13, 544 b. 

'EPQrA'l* pa>8i6s, Hesych. A very doubtful word. 

'EPflAIO'l (polo's-, Hippon. 59, ap. Etym. M. Also c'&oXtor, Hesych.) 

A Heron, L. ardea ; etym. dub. 

Various species are mentioned : 6 Tre'XXor, the common Heron, Ardea 
cinerea, L. ; 6 XeuKor, the Egret, A. alba and A. gazetta ; 6 da-rtpias 
Ka\., A. (Botaurus) stellaris, L., the Bittern; Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609 b ; 
cf. Dion. De Avib. ii. 8 corn/ avrutv yevrj p.vpia' 01 /nev yap (Spa^els T' etat 
Kal XeuKoi, aXXoi 6e TToiKt'Xot Kai p.ei^ovS } p.aoL S* eWpot, Kai rots' fj,ev OVK 
<TTIV eVi TTJS Ke(j)a\rjs 7r\6K(ip,os, a\\ois 8' &(nr(p ns /SoCTrpu^o? aTT^eop^Tai. 
Plin. x. 60 (79). 

The above identifications of TreXXos and dorepms (q. v.) are doubtful : 
the same words occur in relation to one another as proper names in 
Apoll. Rh. i. 176; cf. Pott in Lazarus and Stemthal's Zeitschrift, xiv. 
P- 43- 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b Trepi ras \ip,vas Kai TOVS Trora/zou? /Storeuft. 
Ael. H. N. v. 35, x. 5 oo-rpea c<r6i*iv Seivos eari (?) ; cf. Pint. Sol. Anim. x. 
(Mor. 9670). Its flight described, Arist. De Inc. 10, 710 a, fr. 241, 
1522 a. 

Mentioned also Ar. Av. 886, 1142. With ep. fj.aKpoKap.rrv\avxfvfs, 
Epich. 49, ap. Athen. ix. 398 D. 

Myth and Legend. Sent by Athene, to Odysseus and Diomede, 
as a favourable augury, II. x. 274. Here from the nocturnal appearance 
of the bird and its loud cry, Netolicka (Naturh. a. Homer p. 10) and 
others suggest the Night-Heron, Ardea Nycticorax, L., which is 
abundant in the Troad ; cf. Hippon. 1. c. Kve<palo$ eXd&v p'o>8i&> Karrjv- 
Xio-drjv. In II. x. 275 there is an alternative reading ire\\ov 'Adqrau? 
(Zopyrus, De Mileto Cond. iv (Schol. Venet.), cf. Groshans, Prodr. Faun, 
pp. 15, 16, Buchholz p. 119; for a discussion of important Scholia on 
this passage, and for notes on e'padufc in general, see J. G. Schneider, 
in Arist. vol. iv. pp. 45-47; vide s. v. ireXXos). See also s. v. d^oirata. 

The Heron as a symbol of Athene on coins of Ambracia and Corinth 
(Imh.-Bl. and K. p. 38, pi. vi). Said also to be sacred to Aphrodite, 
Etym. M. A bird of good omen, Ael. x. 37, Plut. Mor. 405 D, especially 
the White Heron, Plin. xi. 37. A weather-prophet, Arat. Phaen. 913, 
972, Athen. viii. 332 E (where Casaub. reads eXwpio?), Ael.vii-7, Theophr. 
De Sign. i. 18, ii. 28, Virg. Georg. i. 363, Lucan, v. 553, Cic. Div. i. 8, 
Callim. s. v. SUTTTTJS ; hence beloved of men, Dion. De Avib. ii. 8. 


EPHAIOI (continued}. 

Hostile to TrtTra), ra yap a>a Karfcrdifi KOI roiis VCOTTOVS TOV f'pcoSiov, 
Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609, cf. Nicand. ap. Ant. Lib. Met. 14 ; aerw iro\fp.ios, 
apndfci yap avrov, Kal aXooTreja, (pflelpei yap avTov rrjs VVKTOS, Kal Kopvdcp, TO 
yap <ua avrov K\eirTfi, Arist. H. A. 609 b ; hostile also to 6 XCVKOS \apos, 
Ael. iv. 5, Phile, De An. 682, and to sorex, Plin. x. (74) 95. Friendly 
with KopwvT], Arist. H. A. ix. i, 610, Ael. v. 48. 

Erodius, who tended the horses of his father Autonous, was turned 
into the bird e'pwSio'r, his father being metamorphosed into OKVOS, and 
the groom into epcoSidy. aXX' oit% op.oiov' fjo~o~ov yap eo~Tiv iKavSas TOV 
TTtXXoG : Boios ap. Ant. Lib. Met. 7. 

Swallows a crab, napKivov, as a remedy, Phile 724, or places one 
in its nest as a charm, Ael. i. 35, Geopon. xv. i. Noted, like the 
stork, for filial and parental affection, Ael. iii. 23. 

On the painful generation of the Heron cf. Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609 b, 
Plin. x. (60) 79 ; hence a fanciful derivation of epooSids in Etym. M. and 
Eust. ad II. x. 274. Vide infra, s. v. ireXXos. 

Fable of \VKOS KOI pco8ios (s. ytpavos) '. ap/cel eroi <ai TO JJ.OVQV (ra>av 
TTJV KfCpaXrjv, Acs. Fab. 276, Babr. 94. A fragment : epcoSto? yap 
Matav^pirjv Tpiopxov tvpvv fvQlovT afpeiXtTo, Simonid. ap. Athen. 
vii. 299 C. 

Deprived by Neptune of the power of swimming, and why, Dion. 
De Avib. ii. 8. The Island of Diomedea, Ael. H. A. i. i KaXctrai TIS 
AiopjSeia 1/770-09, Kat epwdtovs e^ei TroXXouy, and how these epcofiioi, once 
the comrades of Diomede, give welcome to Greek visitors ; also Lycus 
ap. Antig. Mirab. 172 (188), Anton. Lib. Met. 37, Phile, De Anim. Pr. 
152. Cf. Ovid, Metam. xiv. 498, Aen. xi. 271 et Serv. in loc., Plin. x. 44 
(61). Cf. also S. Augustin, De Civ. Dei, xviii. 16, Lachmund, De Ave 
Diomedea diss., Amstelod. (1672) 1686. There is evident but obscure 
connexion between the story of the birds of Diomede, and the meta- 
morphosis above alluded to : where the son of Autonous and Hippo- 
dameia is killed by his father's horses, and his father and his servant 
are turned into epa>8ioi. A story similar to that of the birds of Diomede 
is wide-spread, and usually told of the Stork, cf. Alex. Mynd. ap. Ael. 
iii. 23 ; for Modern Greek references, see Marx, Gr. Marchen, 1876, 
PP. 52, 55- 

See also curiSo^, dorepias, eXwpios, XeuicepwSio's, OKI/OS, ireXXos. 

EY'PYME'AQN' aero'?, Hesych. (verb. dub.\ for aero's, Kuster CJ. Atq 
ZA'PIKEI' (iri6cToi> TreAafpjywi', Hesych. (verb. dub.). 
'HAY'TEPAI- a! rpvyoW, Hesych. (verb. dub.}. 

'HE'POnoi* A bird doubtless identical with aepo^ ; vide s. v. /uep 

According to Boios ap. Ant. Lib. Met. 18, the boy Botres was 


HEPOnOI (continued}. 

transformed into the bird ^eporro?, 6y ert v\iv riKrei fiev vno y^f, alel 8e 

'HTKANO'I' 6 dXfKrpvuv, Hesych. Cf. KIKKOS: forte Kuwait, Schmidt. 
'HMIO'NION- o/ms Trow?, Hesych. 

'HPIIA'AnirE' opveov rt eidos, Hesych. Also epKraXniyt;, Callim. Schol. 
ad Ar. Av. 884. 

EO'KPONOZ. A fabulous bird. 

Dion. De Av. ii. 15 els T>V d/i<t/3iW opviBav eori KOI 6 deoKpovoS) os e 
afT&v flvai vodos KOL iepaKcw Tncrrfverai, K.r.X. 

PA'E. A water-bird, mentioned with Sura/os and KoXv/^/Sos, Dion. De 
Avib. ii. 13, iii. 24, q. v. 

PAYni'l. (eXvnis in Cod. Med. C a . Gpanis, 6\mis also occur. 
Perhaps identical with y\dms, ypdms, Hesych.) An unknown 
species of Finch. Cf. J. G. Schneider in Arist. 1. c. 
Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis aKav6o(pdyos, mentioned with aKavdis 
and xpwo/u?}Tpis. 

fiO'J' opvis TTOIOS, Hesych. 
"IBINOZ- acro'y, Hesych. 

"IBII, s. t|3is; also tpof, Hesych., Suid. The Ibis. 

An Egyptian word, bahu : cf. hib or hip in copt. vers. Lev. xi. 17 (for 
P]1tW A. V. great owl\ cf. Is. xxxiv. II ; tr. ibis in LXX and Vulg.) ; 
vide Scholtzii Lex. Aegypt., Oxon. 1775, p. 155. Another Egyptian 
name leheras still survives as Arab, el hareiz, and is preserved in the 
following fragment: Albert. Magn. vi. p. 255 Avis autem, quae ab 
incolis Aegypti secundum Aristotelem ieheras (s. leheras) vocatur, et 
habet duos modos, et unus illorum est albus et alius est niger. 
Cf. Gesner, iii. p. 546 Avis (inquit Albertus, de ibide sentiens) quae 
ab Aegyptiis secundum Aristotelem leheras (s. ieheras) dicitur, secun- 
dum Avicennam Caseuz vocatur. Cf. Belletete, Annot. ad op. Savigny 
(infra cit.), p. 39- 

Of the two species of Ibis, the Whits or Sacred Ibis, which was 
first recognized by Bruce (Travels in Abyss, v. p. 173, 1790) is Tan- 
talus aethiopicus, Latham, Numenius Ibis, Savigny, or Ibis religiosa, 
Cuv. : the Abou Hannes or Father John of the Abyssinians (Bruce), and 
Abou Mengel or Father Sickle-bill of the fellaheen. The Sacred Ibis 
still regularly visits Lower Egypt at the time of the inundation, coming 
from Nubia (cf. Newton, Diet, of Birds, s. v.). Before the time of 
Bruce's discovery, the name had been variously assigned to several 

HEPonoi IBII 61 

IB II (continued}. 

birds : having been likened to a Stork by Strabo, it was identified 
with that bird by Belon, by Prosp. Alpin., Hist. Eg. Nat. p. 199, 
and by Caylus, Antiq. Eg. vii. p. 54, though such an identification 
was expressly rejected by (e.g.) Albertus Magnus (vi. p. 640 non 
est ciconia: quia rostrum longum quidem sed aduncum habet), and 
Vincent. Burgund., Bibl. Mund. i. p. 1212; it was supposed to be 
a Curlew (falcinellus) by Gesner (H. A. iii. 546) and Aldrovandi (Orn. 
iii. p. 312) and an Egret or White Heron by Hasselquist (Iter Palest. 
(2) cl. 2, no. 25), an identification adopted by Linnaeus (Syst. Nat. 
ed. x. p. 114); by Perrault (Acad. des Sc. Paris, iii. p. 58, pt. xiii) 
it was taken to be a much larger bird, the Tantalus ibis of Linnaeus 
(Syst. Nat. ed. xii) ; and yet others, e. g. Maillet (Descr. de 1'Egypte, 
4to ii. p. 22) confounded it with the Egyptian Vulture or ' Pharaoh's 
Hen.' The White Ibis is figured on the Mosaic of Palestrina (cf. the 
coloured figures in the Pitture ant. di Petr. S. Bartholi) and in the 
Pitture ant. d' Erculaneo (ii. pll. 59, 60). 

The Black Ibis of Herodotus, the Glossy Ibis of ornithologists, is 
Ibis falcinellus, Temm., Falcinellus igneus or P legacies falcinellus of 
more recent writers. It is confounded by L. & Sc. with the Scarlet 
Ibis, an American bird. To it the Arab name el hareiz is said 
especially to apply. 

On both species, see Cuvier, Ann. du Mus. iv. pp. 103-135, 1804; 
and especially the learned memoir of J. C. Savigny, Hist. nat. et 
mythol. de 1'Ibis, 8vo Paris, 1805. On Ibis mummies, cf. T. Shaw, 
Levant, 1738, pp. 422, 428, G. Edwards, Nat. Hist. 1743-1764, 
Blumenbach, Phil. Trans. 1794, and later writers. 

The Sacred Ibis is said to nest in palm-trees, Ael. x. 29 TOVS alXovpovs 
aTi-oSiSpdovcouo-a, cf. Phile xvi ; according to Vierthaler, ap. Lenz, Z. d. Gr. 
u. R. p. 379, it breeds in Sennaar, nesting on mimosa-trees, and building 
twenty to thirty nests on a tree : see also Heuglin, Ornith. Nord. 
Afrikas, p. 1138. 

Herod, ii. 75, 76 eon de x&pos TTJS 'Apa/37? Kara Bovrovi/ iroXiv /ud\mi 
K.TI Kei^evos' KCU es TOVTO TO ^copt'op rj\dov } nvvdavo/jievos Trepl T&V Trrepcorcov 
o(piW. . . \6yos 5e eori, afia ra> eapi irrepaTovs o<pts CK. rrjs 'Apa/Si^ff 
Tre'recr&u eV AlyvnTOV' raff de 'i@is ras opviQas aTrairaxraff es rr]v eV/3oXj)i/ 
ravTT]S rrjs ^copjj? ov Trapitvai TOVS o(pts, dXXa KaraKreiVetv* KOI TTJV 'iftiv 
dia TOVTO TO epyov rfrtju^cr^ai \eyovo~i 'Apd/3ioi p.fyd\cos Trpbs AlyvrrTLav. 
6/ioXoyeovcri de Koi AlyvTTTioi dia raura rijuai/ TO.S opvidas TavTas. eldos de 
TIJS p,ev 'ijBios Tode' /ueXati/a deiv>$ Trao-a, (TiceXfa de (popeei yepdvov, TrpocrooTroy 
de es TO. /uaXiora eiriypVTrov, peyaQos o&ov Kpe. TWJ/ pev drj 
rS)V p,axopev(ov irpos TOVS o(piS, fjde Iderj. TCOJ/ 8' eV TTOO-I juaXXov 
Tolan dvdpanoio-C (dial yap drj io~i at i/3i) \fsi\r) TTJV K(pa\r]V, KOI Tr]v 
detpfjv Traaav' \evKrj Trrfpoicrt, 7rXj)i/ Ke(pa\rjs Kal TOV av^evos Kal 


IB II (continued}. 

T>V TTTepvyw KOI TOV Trvyaiov aicpov' raCra e ra elirov Trdvra, /ne'Xatra e'ort 
8eivS>s' ovceAea 8e KOI Trpoa-wnov, ffj,(pepr)S rrj freprj. Cf. Arist. H. A. 
ix. 27, 617 b fv /iei> ovv TTJ a\\rj hlyvTrrq) at \evnai tio-iv, nXrjv ev TlrjXovaiw 
ov yivovrai' ai 8e[ /ueAaii/at ev rfj a\\rj AlyvrrTq* OVK elo-iv, ev Ur)\ov(TL<o ' 
elviv. Cf. Plin. x. (30) 45, Solin. xxxv. p. 95. On the geographical con- 
fusion implied in these accounts, vide J. G. Schneid. in Arist. vol. iv. 
pp. 493-496. 

The annual fight between the Ibis and the flying serpents is also 
alluded to: Cic. Nat. D. i. 101, Ael. ii. 38, Phile, De An. xvi, Solin. 
xxxv, Pomp. Mela iii. 9, Amm. Marcell. xx. 15, Isidor. i. p. 306, Albert. 
M. vi. p. 640, &c. 

The Ibis in conflict with a winged serpent on coins of Juba II, 
and Cleopatra of Mauretania (Imhoof-Bl. and K. p. 37), The 'Winged 
Serpents' were probably the hot winds and sandstorms (cf. Diod. 
Sic. i. 128) of spring, which disappeared as the Etesian winds (opvtBiai 
tu/e/iot) supervened, and the Ibis returned in the month of Thoth from 
its migration, with the season of the inundations which freed Egypt 
from all her pests : cf. Savigny, op. cit. pp. 91, 134, Pluche, Hist, du 
Ciel, i. i, p. 77 ; an interpretation of the Winged Serpents, more subtle 
than this, is however possible : cf. the o<pis icpaK6fwp$os, Philo ap. 
Euseb. Praep. Evang. i. p. 41, Lydus De Menss. pp. 53, 137, Creuzer 
Symb. ii. 246, &c. On the other hand the Indian ocpas Trrepwroi of 
Megasthenes (ap. Ael. xvi. 41) seem to have been real, not mythical, 
and were very probably ' Vampire ' Bats, Pteropus medius, Temm. 
(Val. Ball). On the Ibis as a useful destroyer of ordinary serpents, 
see Cic. Nat. D. i. 36, ii. 50, Diod. Sic. i. 97, Strabo, Geogr. xvii. p. 823, 
Plin. N. H. x. 28 (40), &c. How Moses brought it in cages of 
papyrus to destroy the serpents of the Ethiopian desert, Joseph, ii. 10. 
p. 127. How serpents are terrified by an Ibis' feather, Ael. i. 38, Phile, 
De An. v. 715, or even paralyzed by it, Zoroast. in Geopon. xv. I, cf. ib. 
xiii. 8, Theoph. Simoc. Quest. Phys. xiv. p. 19, &c. ; likewise the 
crocodile: an indolent and rapacious man symbolized by a crocodile 
crowned with a plume of Ibis' feathers, TOVTOV yap eav i'/Seco? 7rrepo> Biyrjs^ 
uKivrjTov evpfoeis, Horap. ii. 81, Pier. Valer. xvii. 22. The Ibis was also 
hostile to the scorpion, Ael. x. 29, including ' winged scorpions,' Phile, 
De Ibi : and is associated [obscurely] with the Scorpion on the small 
zodiac of Dendera, Savigny, op. cit. p. 131, Denon, Voy. pi. 130; cf. 
Kircher, Oedip. ii. pp. 207, 213. The Ibis also destroyed locusts 
and caterpillars, Diod. Sic.; it fed on fish, avoiding strong currents, 
Physiol. Syr. c. xviii, Procop. Comm. in Levit. p. 344, Vincent. Burg. 
Specul. i. p. 1212; and on the refuse of the markets of Alexandria, 
Strabo, 1. c. Its flesh was poisonous and fatal, Vine. B. i. 1212, ii. 1489 
ejus ova si quis comeditur, moritur ; cf. Albert. M. xxiii. 24, Gesner, 

BIZ 63 

IB II (continued']. 

cap. De Ibi. How the basilisk springs from an egg, the product of 
poison eaten by the Ibis : ex aliquo quod ilia peperit, ut putredinoso, 
magnum aliquid malum enascitur basiliscus, &c., Theoph. Simoc. 1. c. ; 
cf. Pier. Valer. p. 175. 

It was foul-feeding and insatiable of poison, Ael. x. 29, Phile xvi ; 
cf. Gesner v. 547 apud Graecos lexicorum conditores ibin 6<pio(pdyov 
ab esu serpentium, et pvrrapocpdyov ab impuritate victus cognominare 
invenit. Nevertheless, it was in other respects cleanly (Ael. x. 29), 
and the Egyptian priests washed in water from which the Ibis had 
drunk (Ael. vii. 45), ov TriWt yap rj voo~)8cs r) nfcpcipyij.fvov, Plut. De Is. 
p. 381. It is killed by hyaena's gall, Ael. vi. 46, Phile 666. 

Mentioned with name AuKovpyos-, Ar. Av. 1296. Compared with 
the Stymphalian birds, Paus. viii. 22, 5. Its tameness noted, Strabo, 
1. c., Joseph. Antiq. Jud. p. 127, Amm. Marcell. p. 337. 

Its name a term of reproach, Ovid, Ibis, v. 62 Ibidis interea tu 
quoque nomen habe : cf. Callim. Alciati embl. 87, in sordidos. 

The Ibis was sacred to Isis, the Moon- Goddess : Ael. ii. 38 icpa rrjs 
(T\r)VT)s f) opvis e'ori, roo-ovrtov yovv fjntpwv ra &>a Ky\v<pi, oVooi/ f/ Qebs 
avf-ei re KCU Aqyei (cf. ib. ii. 35). rrjs de Alyvrrrov ovTrore aVo^/iel, TO 8e 
aiTiov, roTicorarry %wp5)V anacrtov AiyvTrrd? ecrTi, Koi f) cr(\r]VT] Se voTKOTarr] 
TO>V TrAai/oojueVcoi/ aWpcoi/ TTfTrio-reuerai, cf. Plin. x. 48. Hence an emblem 
of Egypt, Pier. Valer. xvii. 18, Kircher, Oedip. iv. p. 324, and as such 
on coins and medals of Hadrian and Q. Marius. See also Phile xvi 
Kal rrjs o~e\T)vr]S ov rraprjXOe TOVS 8pop,ovs p.iovfjivi]S . . . KOI 7r\r)povfievr)S. 

Plut. De IS. p. 38l Tl 8e f) TQ)V lJL(\aV<t)V T7Tep>V TTfpi TCt \CVKO. TTOlKlXta Kttl 

pit-is cpfpaivei (reXrjvrjv dufpiKvprov, also Symp. 4, 5. Cf. Pignor. Mens. 
Isiac. Expl. p. 76; Wilkinson, Anc. Egyptians, (2) ii. pp. 217-224; 
Renouf, Hibbert Lectures 1879, pp. 116, 237. It is figured together 
with the new moon on the southern Temple of Jupiter Ammon at Karnak 
(Descr. de I'^gypte, Thebes, ii. 261, pi. 52 ; Creuzer, ii. p. 208, c.). 
On the connexion between Thoth and the Moon, discussed in explana- 
tion of the Ibis" relation to the latter, see Leemans in Horap. p. 247. 

It represented the moon (as a hawk symbolized the solar Osiris) 
at Egyptian banquets of the gods, Clem. Alex. Stromat. v. 7. Its mode 
of generation was probably related to lunar superstitions : Ael. x. 29 
fjiiyvvvrai de rois 0To'/xacri /cat TratdoTroioui/rat rbv rporrov TOVTOV : cf. Anax- 
agoras ap. Arist. De Gen. iii. 6, 756 B, Schol. in PL Phaedr., Solin. 
xxxv, &c. Its ashes prevent abortion, Plin. xxx. (15) 49. 

The Ibis was sacred also to Thoth or Hermes : cf. Socr. ap. PI. 
Phaedr. p. 274 ; Ael. x. 29; Plut. Symp. ix. 3 ; Diod. Sic. i. 8 ; Horap. i. 
capp. 10, 36 ; Pier. Valer. xvii. 19 ; Kircher, Obel. Pamph. iv. 325, Oedip. 
i. 15, ii. 213, &c. Thoth was the patron or emblem of Sirius, which 
star on the small zodiac of Dendera is represented close to a double- 


IBII (continued"). 

headed snake with ibis-heads; cf. Savigny, op. cit. p. 159, Kircher, 
Oedip. iii. p. 96, c. : on the same zodiac an ibis-headed man rides 
on Capricornus, under which sign Sirius rose anti-heliacally (Dupuis, 
Orig. de tous les cultes, v. i) ; in this connexion, cf. Timoch. 3. 590 
nS>s av o-<b(Ticv "(3is rj KVCOV. Thoth is figured as an Ibis, or with 
an ibis-head, Plut. Symp. ix, cf. Pherecydes, Hymn. Merc. T Q 'Epufjs 
tj3i'/nop0f, dpxnyos oftvooio, o-uyypa/^ar<oi> yevvrjrajp, /ue^o-ccos re 7100-77? : 
Hermes, pursued by Typhon, changed himself into an Ibis, Hygin. 
Astr. P. ii. c. 28, Ant. Lib. Met. c. 28, Ovid, Met. v. 331. Many of 
the bird's peculiarities, real or fabulous, are mystically associated with 
the same god: e.g. its dainty walk (Ael. ii. 38) with the inventor 
of the dance ; its numerical constants (e. g. its intestine 96 cubits long, 
and its pace of one cubit, Ael. x. 29) with the inventor of arithmetic ; 
the equilateral triangle or A that its beak and legs made (Plut. Is. et 
Osir. 381 ; or its legs alone, Pier. Valer. xvii. 18, xlvii) with the inventor 
of letters (cf. also Kircher, Obel. Pamphil. pp. 125-131), its knowledge 
of physic with the founder of the medical art. On the Ibis as the inventor 
of clysters, cf. Cic. N. D. ii. 50, 126, Plut. De Sol. Anim. p. 974 C TTJS i'/3eo>s 
TOV {iTTOKAvoTzoi/ a.\fj,rj KadaipofjLevrjs AlyvTTTLOi crvvidelv KOI p.ip.rja'ao'dai Xeyovaiv I 
id. De Is. et Osir. p. 381, Ael. ii. 35, x. 29, Phile xvi, Plin. viii. (27)41, x. 30, 
Galen, De Ven. Sect, i, &c. ; the same story of the Stork, Don Quixote, 
ii. p. 63 (edit. Lond. 1749) : cf. N. and Q. (4) ix. p. 216: see also 
Bacon, De Augm. v. 2. The opposed black and white of the Ibis' 
plumage, as sometimes of Mercury's raiment, suggested various sym- 
bolic parallels, the opposition of male and female, of light and darkness, 
of order and disorder, of speech and silence, of truth and falsehood : 
cf. Ael. x. 29, Schol. in PI. Phaedr., Plut. De Is. 381 D, Clem. Alex. Str. 
v. 7. The Ibis is a symbol of the heart (Trtpi ou \6yos eVrt nXelaros 
nap* Alyvnriois (^epofj-evos, Horap. i. 36), an organ under the protection 
of Hermes ; and the bird has a heart-shaped outline (Ael. x. 29 <ap8ias 
TO.V {.'TTOKpuxJ/^Tcu TTJV Seprjv KOI rrjv KecpaXrjV rois VTTO TO> orepvo) 
as indeed its mummies have still ; a weight as it issues from 
the egg equal to the heart of a new-born child (Plut. Symp. 670), 
or a heart of its own of exceptional size (Gaudent. Merula, Memorab. 
iii. c. 50) ; in this connexion we may compare the Eg. bahu with ba or 
<foz the soul (Lauth, op. cit.); cf. supra s. v. j3au)6. The Ibis was em- 
blematic of the ecliptic or zodiacal ring : dpidpov yap emvoias nal /xeVpou 
uaXicrra T>V <*)a)v 77 ijSis apxrjv Trape^ecrdai rols Alyvirriois SoKet, <us TCOV 
KVK\UV Xoos, Clem. Alex. Stromat. p. 671. It enjoyed freedom from 
sickness, longevity, or even immortality (Apion ap. Ael. x. 29) ; it was 
buried at Hermopolis (Herod, ii. 67, Ael. 1. c.). 

*IBY5. Hesych., Suid. ; vide s. v. i|3is. 
'IAAAI'1, also eidaAiV opvts TTOIOS, Hesych. 

* IBII IEPA= 65 

- i8os [e&os, cf. Schmidt] deroC, Hesych, 
C IE'PA= (Ep. and Ion. iprjg, s. ?pf?: 1}. Not connected with lepos (i); 

perhaps from root pi swift (cf. Maass, Indo-Germ. Forsch. i. 
p. 159), but the etymology is quite obscure. 

A Hawk. The generic term especially for the smaller hawks and 
falcons. Mod. Gk. lepdu or yepdici, applied to the Sparrow-hawk, 
Kestrel, Hobby, &c., and also to the Kite (Erhard). Dimin. 

icpaKiSfvs, EuSt. 753, 56; lepaKio-KOs, Ar. Av. 1 1 12. 

In Horn, with epithets VKVS II. xvi. 582, wKvirrepos xiii. 62, &KIOTOS 
TreTerjvwv xv. 237, ehacpporaros ncrtrjvcov xiii. 86 : also Od. v. 66. In Hes. 
Op. et D. 210 wKVTrerrjs tpyt;, ravvaiTrrepos opvis : cf. Ar. Av. 1453. In 
Arist. with ep. ya^^vv^os, o-apKOfpdyos, wp.o(pdyos, &C. Alcman 1 6 ap. 
Athen. 373 ^vcrav 8' airpaKra vcavides, v Q.o~r > opvfis lepaKos vnc pirrafj-evai '. 
Eur. Andr. 1141 ol 8' OTTOOS 7reXeui8e? lepa< I8ovo~ai npbs (pvyrjv eVamo-av. 

Varieties. Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 620 TODJ/ 8' iepaKuv /cpartOTO? p.ev 6 
rpiop^rjs, 8evTpo$ 8' 6 at(ra\o)i/, rpi'ros 6 Kipnos' 6 8' dcrrepias Kal 6 (patraro- 
(povos KOI 6 nrepvLS dXXotoi* ol 8e TrXarvrepot lepaKes worptop^ai /caXovj/rai, 
aXXoi 8e rrepKoi KOI cnri&cu, ol 8e Xelot Kai oi <ppvvo\6yoi' yevrj 8e TWV 
IfpuKoav (pao~i rives tivai OVK eAarrco r5>v 8Ka, 8ta0epou(ri 8' dXXjjXcoi', K. T. X. 
Cf. ib. viii. 3, 592 b. That there were ten species of hawks is asserted 
by Callimachus, Etym. M. Vide Callim. fr. p. 468, ibique Bentleii ; 
cf. Schol. ad Ap. Rhod. i. 1049. For lists of the species, cf. Ar. Av. 
1178, Ael. xii. 4, Dion. De Avib. i. 6, Plin. x. 8, 9, 10. The Egyptian 
hawks were smaller, Arist. H. A. xii. 4. The various hawks migrate 
during winter (cf. Job xxxix. 26) except rpiop^;?, Arist. H. A. viii. 3, or 
epileus, Plin. x. (8) 9. 

Anatomical particulars. \o\r)v apa Trpos TW rjirari KOI rots fvrepois 
X<>vo-i, depfj-Tjv rr]V KoiXiav, p,iKpbv rbv o-TrXr/i/a, Arist. H. A. ii. 15, 506 a, l6, 
5o6b; De Part. iii. 7, 670 a. 

Breeding habits. Arist. H. A. vi. 6, 563, incubates twenty days ; ix. 1 1, 
615 eV aTTOTOfioi? vforrevfi. De Gen. ii. 7> 746 b SOKOVO-IV ol diacpepovres TO) 
i'8ft fuyvwrticu Trpos dXX^Xovy (an error naturally arising from the sexual 
difference in size and plumage in many species). H. A. vi. 7, 564 
ylvovrai ol j/eorroi r)8i>Kpeco o~(p68pa Kal Trioves. Ael. H. N. ii. 43 8iva>s 
(pi\6drj\vs, cf. Horap. i. 8. Antig. Mirab. 99 (107) rpia /nei/ nVrftv, 
avavop.fvav 8e TU>V VCOTT&V K\eyfiv rbv eva } K. r. X. See also supra S. V. 
deros, and cf. Horap. ii. 99. 

On Hawking. Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 620 eV QpaKrj rfj Ka\ovfj.vr) TTOTC 
KeSpetTroXct ev ro> e\ei 0r)p*vawnp ol (ivdpwrroi, ra 6pvi0ia KOivrj pera TK>V 
IfpaKwv. Cf. De Mirab. vi. 118, 841 b, Ctesias in Phot. Excerpt, and ap. 
Ael. iv. 26, Ael. ii. 42, Antig. Hist. Mirab. [Amphipolis], 28 (34), 
Plin. H. N. x. 8 (10), &c. The account in Dion. De Avib. i. 6, iii. 5, and 



IEPAE (continued}. 

probably also in Martial, Ep. xiv. 216, refers to bird-catching with 
a captive hawk, as with the owl. See also for much curious informa- 
tion, 'lcpaKo<T6(piov, s. rei accipitrariae scriptores, ed. Paris, 1612, and 
Leipzig, 1866, also Schlegel's Fauconnerie, &c. 

Metamorphosis with the Cuckoo. Arist. H. A. vi. 7, 562 b, Plut. 
Arat. cap. xxx, Tzetz. ad Lye. 395 ; Geopon. xv. I. Theophr. De PI. ii. 
4, 4. Vide s. vv. eirovj/, KOKKU. 

Myth and Legend. Worship of Hawks in Egypt, Herod, ii. 65, 67 ; 
Ael. x. 14 AlyvTTTioi TOV lepaKct 'ATrdXXooi/i Tipav e'oiKCHTt (cf. II. xv. 237? Od. 
xv. 526 and Eust. in loc., Ar. Av. 516, Eq. 1052), KOI TOV p.ev Oebv'Qpbv 
KaXovcrt TTJ (ptovfj TT} (r<pTepa . . . 01 -yap lepaKes opvidtov povoi rals afcrlcrt 
TOV 17X101; pqdius KOI afiaa-avHTT&s avTifiXerrovrfS, K. r. X. : cf. ib. xi. 39 and 
vii. 9, where the priests are called iepaKo/3o<m>i ; cf. also Plut. Is. et Os. 
Ii. p. 371. Ael. xii. 4 6 p.eV TrepdiKodrjpas Kal wKvnrepos ' A.n6\\a)v6s eVri 
QfpaiTtoV (poo*/, (pyvijv fie Kal apTrrjv 'Adrjva 7rpoaW/zovo~tj>, 'Ep/zoC fie TOV 
<j)ao~o~o(p6vTr)v cidvpp.a elvai (pacrii/, "Upas 8e TOV Tavvo~i i rrTpov ) Kal TOV 
Tpiopxyv OVTO) Ka\ov[j.fvov 'Aprep.iSoj. f^rpi Se 0(S)V TOV p-eppvov. See 
also Strabo, Geogr. xvii. i. 47, Horap. i. 8, Pier. Valer. Hierogl. xxi, 
&C. Ttves de <f)ao-iv cv rots ap^atot? ^poi/ots, tepaxa /StjSXt'ov fVfyKelv els 
Otjftas Tols tepevcrt (poiviKa pd/u/Ltan 7rpiL\T}p,p.evov, e^ov yeypap,/xeVas TCLS 
TO>V OepaTTfias re Kal Tinas' dto?rep Kal TOVS tepoypap-fiaret? (popelv (poiviKovv 
pap/Lta Kat Trrepov lepaKos (irl TTJS KffpaXrjs, Diod. Sic. i. 87, 8. The 
Egyptian Sun-god Phra with a hawk's head, tepa/cop.op<po?, ItpaKorrpbo-- 
o)7roy, Philo ap. Eus. P. E. 41 D, 116 D (i. 10, iii. 12), Horap. i. 6. 
In the Rig-Veda the sun is frequently compared to a hawk, hovering 
in the air. The hawk associated with fire-worship, Ael. x. 24. A three- 
legged hawk sometimes seen in Egypt, Ael.'xi. 39. Moult before 
the inundation, ib. xii. 4 ; live seventy years, ib. x. 14 ; the leg-bone 
has an attraction for gold, ib. ; throw earth on an unburied corpse, 
ib. ii. 42. Salve their eyes with OpidaKivrj or wild lettuce, ib. ii. 43 
(also Dion. De Avib. i. 6); hence, as well as by reason of their sharp 
sight, the Hawk or Eagle in medicine constitute a remedy for diseases 
of the eye, Plin. xxix. (6) 38, &c.; as does the herb t'epa/uoj/, Horap. i. 
6, Plin. xx. (7) 26, xxxiv. (ii) 27: it is seldom possible to trace any 
meaning in the mystical herbs associated with particular animals, and 
it is therefore worth noting in this instance that dpiftaKivrj is the sacred 
herb of Adonis. Are supposed by some to be bastard eagles, Ael. ii. 
43 ; how a hawk caused the apprehension of a sacrilegious thief at 
Delphi, ib. ; how the hawks in Egypt repair to certain Libyan islands 
to breed, having sent two messengers in front, ib. (cf. Plin. H. N. x. 8, 
Diod. Sic. i. 87); do not eat the heart, ib. ii. 42 ; hostile to the fox, the 
eagle, and the vulture, ib. Are exempt from thirst, Damasc. V. Isid. 
97 (cf. s. v. aeros), but drink blood instead of water, Horap. i. 7. Their 


IE PAH (continued}. 

heart is eaten, to obtain prophetic powers, Porph. De Abst. ii. 48. A 
Hawk sitting on a tree a sign of rain, Theophr. Sign. fr. vi. 2, 17. 

The Fable of the Hawk and the Nightingale, Hes. Op. et D. 201, 
Aes. fab. 9. 

A metaphor of the Hawk and the Crows, Ar. Eq. 1052. 

The metamorphosis of Hierax, Boios ap. Anton. Lib. iii ; cf. that of 
Deucalion, Ov. Met. xi. 340. 

The Hawk entered in Egypt into innumerable hieroglyphics, in 
which its image is, in the main, a phonetic element, the symbolic 
ideas being, for the most part, secondary (cf. supra, s. v. jSai-^O). 
According to Horap. i. 8 *Apea ypd(povTes KOI 'Afppodirrjv, 8vo iepanas 

faypacpovviv ; these are the symbols >,\ and HM , Horus and 

Hat- H or, the latter being the OIKOS "Qpov of Plutarch. According to 
Chaeremon, fr. 8 Vv)(r)-rj\ios-0f6s = iepat-. On the sanctity of hawks in 
Egypt, and the solar symbolism associated with them there, see also 
(besides the references quoted above), Porph. De Abst. iii. 4 ; the Sun 
called tVpa, ibid. iv. 16, Plut. De Is. et Osir. c. 51, Eus. P. E. iii. 10, 
Clem. Alex. Strom, v. 7. 

For other words and phrases in which the hieroglyph of the Hawk 
had part, see Horap. i. 6 Qebv ^ov\6p.evoi cnyftgwu, 77 v^os, rj 

17 vnepoxfjv, rj ai/ui, 77 VIKTJV, iepaKa a>ypa(pov<ri I id. ii. 15 iepa 
ray Tfrepvyas ev aepi, otov nrepvyas e\ovra avep.ov crr]p,alvai I id. ii. 99 
diTOTa^iipevov TO. 'i8ia reKva 81 drropiav jSovAo/zcj/oi o'Tjp.fjvai, IepaKa 
<oypa(f)ov(Tiv : Diod. Sic. iii. 4. 2 iepat; avrols arrjuaivei rravra TO. 
ogcas yevofieva. Cf. Klaproth ad Goulianoff De Inv. Hierogl. Acrolog., 
cit. Leemans in Horap. p. 150, and especially Lauth, Sitzungsber. Bayer. 
Akad., 1876, pp. 77-79- 

See also alordXwi/, apaicos, |3aiY|'0, jSdppa^, peXXou^s, cXeios, eiriXcios, 
, TrepKos, Trrepi'is, (riri^ias, Tpiopx^S, uTTOTpiopx^S, ^ao'O'O^oi'OS, 

, &C. 
MZl'NEZ' oitovoi, opviQcs, Hesych. Cf. deii/oi. 

IKTEPOI. A bird with fabulous attributes; according to Pliny, 
identical with galgulus, the Golden Oriole. 

Plin. xxx. ii (28) Avis icterus vocatur a colore, quae si spectetur, 
sanari id malum [t/crepoi/, malum regium, the jaundice] tradunt, et 
avem mori. Hanc puto Latine vocari galgulum (galbula, Mart, 
xiii. 68). Cf. Dion. De Avib. i. 27 ; Coel. Aurel. Chron. iii. 5 passio 
vocabulum sumpsit secundum Graecos ab animalis nomine, quod sit 
coloris fellei. Cf. Schneider, in Arist. H. A. ix. 12 ; and Suid., who derives 
the word from IKTWOS. Vide infra s.v. 

F 2 


'IKTfNOI, or "KTIVOS (Aristoph., cf. Suid.): also IKTIS (Ufpyaioi, Hesych.). 
In plur. iKTives (Ael. i. 35, ii. 47) or licrivcs (Paus.). For other 
grammatical forms, see L. & Sc., &c. Derivation unknown; 
sometimes said to be connected with Sk. yyena. 

A Kite : including the Common Kite, Milvus regalis, Briss., M. 
ictinus, Sav.. and the Black Kite, M. ater, Gm. The Black 
Kite is still called IKTIVOS in the Cyclades, where it is the com- 
moner species of the two (Erh.). The Common Kite is also 
called To-tyTTjs in Attica (Heldreich). 

In minor references frequent, usually as a robber, e.g. Theogn. 1261, 
1302 ; Soph. Fr. 890 LKTLVOS us e/tXa-y^e Trapa<rvpas Kpeas ; Plat. Phaed. 82 ; 
Men. 4, 329 (493) ; Plat. Com. 2, 695 (69) : Aristoph. fr. 2, 1192 (71), 
Ar. fr. 525, Etym. M. p. 470. 34 IKTIVO. TravrofpdaXfjLov apiraya : Simon. 
Iambi. II, Automed. viii, in Gk. Anth. ii. 192 OVTOS e^ei -yap apnayos 
IKTIVOV x ' l P a KpaTaiorepjjy. 

Description. Arist. De Part. 670, 34 fjiiKpos 6 <rn\r)V rr)v ^oX^i/ e^et 
trpbs r<j5 fjiran KCU irpos rfj Koi\ia : H. A. vi. 6, 563 5uo <uu' fv'iorc 8e KOI 
rpia' eVooaffi Trepi CIKOVIV f) p.e pas I ib. viii. 3, 592 peyfOos o<rov Tpi6p%r)s '. 
ib. 594 oXiyaKis TTLVfi, 27rrni Se irivav. Very destructive to poultry ; ovdev 
av TIS avaibearcpov eiTroi, Dion. De Avib. i. 7 ; cf. Theogn. 1302 IKTLVOV 
<rxfT\iov rjdos. 

A migratory bird : it arrives before the swallow, at the spring 
shearing-time, Ar. Av. 714; in Egypt it does not migrate, Herod, ii. 
22 ; it sometimes hibernates, Arist. H. A. viii. 16, 600 oi fiev irXrjo-iov 
ovTts TOIOVTMV Tonw, v ols ael diapevovo-i, KO.I IKTWOI KOI ^eXiSoi'ey, airo- 
X<t>pov(riv evravQa, oi 8e Troppcorepco 6Vre? OVK KToniov(Tiv aXXa Kpinrrovo-iv 
eavTOvs' fjdr) yap (oupevai TroXXai %\tdovs flalv ev dyytLOis e\/^iXo)fii/ai 
7ra/i7rai/, Kai iKTii/oie/c rotovrav eWero/xei/oi x<0piW, orav (paivavrai TO rrpa>Tov. 
The common Kite is merely a bird of passage in Greece, a very few 
remaining to winter there (Kriiper) ; the Black Kite is a rare visitor to 
the mainland of Greece. Both species are common, and breed, in 
Macedonia (Kriiper, Elwes, &c.). 

The statement 'ixrivo? (pmVrai appears in various Calendars, e. g. 
Geminus, I sag. in Arat. Phaen. c. xvi, who dates its advent, according 
to Eudoxus thirteen days, to Euctemon eight, and to Callippus one day, 
before the vernal equinox. According to Grotius, Arat. Phaen. notae 
ad imagg. p. 55, Milvus, in Latin, refers to the constellation Cygnus ; cf. 
Ov. F. iii. 793 Stella Lycaoniam vergit declivis ad Arcton Milvus. 
Haec ilia nocte [xvi. Kal. April.] videnda venit ; see also Plin. xviii. 6 ; 
but according to Ideler, Sternnamen, p. 77, the dates given do not 
tally with this hypothesis, the heliacal rising of Cygnus being three 
months earlier ; and he prefers to assume that the statements in the 
older Calendars referred to the bird of passage, and were mistakenly 


IKTINOZ (continued}. 

attributed to a constellation by Ovid and Pliny. I am for myself 
inclined to think that Ovid did allude to the constellation, but that he 
did not mean (nor say) that on the date in question it rose with the 
sun ; as a matter of fact it then rose at midnight, and was on the 
meridian when it disappeared at sunrise. 'IKT'IVOS is also the name of 
one of the mystical XUKOI or ZK proves (q. v.) in Opp. Cyneg. iii. 331. 

Myth and Legend. Hostile to Kopag, Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609, Ael. 
iv. 5, Phile, De An. 688, Cic. De Nat. Deor. ii. 49 ; friendly to 7n'<iy 
and apnrj, Arist. 1. c., Ael. v. 48. Use Opvos as a remedy, Phile 725 ; 
place pdpvov in the nest as a charm, Ael. i. 55 ; how a stick from a Kite's 
nest is a remedy for headache, Plin. xxix. (6) 36, xxx. (4) 12 ; detest the 
pomegranate, /5oia, so that they never even alight on that tree, and 
why, Dion. De Avib. i. 7. Suffer at certain seasons from sore feet, 
Dion. I.e., namely, at the time of the Solstice, Plin. x. (10) 12 ; and 
from sore eyes, Suid. s. v. i/crepoy. See also Albert. M. De Animal, xxiii. 
24, p. 641. Cf. supra, s. v. Up<x. How the Kites in Elis rob men 
in the market-place (cf. Ar. Av. 1624), but never molest the iep66vroi 9 
Ael. ii. 47, Arist. De Mirab. 123, 842 a, Theopomp. ap. Apollon. Hist. 
Mirab. x, Pausan. v. 14, Plin. 1. c. ; on the Kite as dangerous to 
sacrifices, cf. Ar. Pax 1099, Av. 892 ; cf. r< tVnV&> r<u eVrtoy^w, Ar. 
Av. 865. How the Kite was once a King, Ar. Av. 499. The story 
in Plin. 1. c., milvos artem gubernandi docuisse caudae flexibus, does 
not seem to occur in Greek. In Latin, Milvus is proverbial for its 
powers of flight and of vision ; cf. Pers. Sat. iv. 26, Juv. ix. 25, Martial 
ix. Ep. 55. 

Fable of IKT'IVOS that lost its voice trying to neigh, Aes. Fab. ed. Halm, 
170, Babr. 73 ; Suid. ; cf. Julian in Misopogone, p. 366 (cit. Schneider in 
Arist. H. A. vi. 6) TOV IKTIVO. entdfO'dai ra> xpfpfTifciv, axnrfp ol yevvaioi TWV 
eira TOV p.ev eViXatfd/uei/oi/, ro 8e p.rj dwrjOevra eXetj> fjcap&f, ap.<poiv erre'- 
KOI (pavXoTepov T>V aXXcov opviOw eii/ai TJ?J> (pavrjv : cf. ac0os. Fable 
of \dpos Koi IKTWOS, Aes. 239. Proverb, irpoK.vXivSe'ia-dai iKriVots, Ar. Av. 
5OI j cf. Suid. eapos yap dp%op,evov LKTIVOS (paivercu. ol rrevrjres ovv 
dira\\ayevTes x ft P-^vos TrpoeKvXivdovvTo /cat Trpoo-CKvvovv avrovs. 
See also apirif], jSaTuppTjydXir), SIKTUS, eXayos. 

'IAIA'1. Also IXXds, Athen. ii. 65 a, Eust. 947, 8. In some MSS. 

of Athen. also rv\ds. Perhaps akin to i'x^ a > i. e. Kt^Xa. 
A kind of Thrush : for references, see KIX\T). 

Gesner, Belon, and others identify l\ids as the Redwing, Turdus 
iliacus, L., on account of its small size (Arist. H. A. ix. 20, 617). Sundevall 
points out that the expression TJTTOV Trot/aX?? (1. c.) is inapplicable. In 
Athen. ii. 65 a (c. 68) these words are omitted from a corresponding 
passage; and the account of the nesting habits of ict^Xi; (H. A. vi. i) 


IAIAI (continued}. 

are transferred to iXXay. Both the Redwing and the Fieldfare are 
now winter-migrants in Greece, and not very common (Kriiper, Linder- 
mayer, &c.). The word was probably an old or dialectic form, meaning 
simply thrush, to which it was sought to apply a specific meaning 
in Aristotle. * 

'IMANTO'nOYI. A wading-bird; the name is now allotted to the 

Dion. De Avib. ii. 9 a * ^' ipavTcnroo'es XeTrroI? p.ev o~<e\eo~i xpcovrai, KCU 
e^ov(ri TTJV Trpoo~r)yopiav CK TOVTOV. KCIIVOV S' eV avrfov eo~Ttv, on T/)I> Karatdev 
yevvv %ovT(s ireTrrjyviav, JJLOVOV KIVOVO~I TTJV avadev. Cf. Plin. x. 47 (64). 

'INAIKO'I "OPNII. The Phoenix (q. v.), Aristid. ii. p. 107 ; cf. Creuzer, 
Symbolik, ii. p. 167. 

"IN YE' opvcov TI, w xpcoi/rai ot (papp.aKides, Hesych. Vide S. V. tuyl. 

'lEOBO'POI, or igo(pdyos, Athen. 65 a (*os = viscum, mistletoe, cf. 
Ital. vi'scada, the Missel- thrush). 

The Missel-thrush, Turdus vtscivorus, L. Mod. Gr. Kipiaplva (v. d. 
Miihle), Sej/Sporo-t'xXa on Parnassus, Kvpa Elprjvr) in Eurytania, 
powoTo-ix^a in Laconia (Heldreich). The only one of the true 
thrushes resident in Greece throughout the year (Kriiper). 
Arist. H. A. ix. 20, 617. Vide s. v. KixXtj. 

'innAAEKTPYfi'N* TOV p.fyav a\KTpvova } rj TOV ypa(pop.evov tv 

7Tpi(rTpa>fj.a(ri. ypafyovrai 8e olov ypvnes. evioi yvrra, Hesych. 
Cf. Ar. Ran. 932 (959), Pax 1177, Av. 800 TOV govdbv t 
cf. Aesch. Myrm. fr. 130, &c., &c. 

Note. The epithet {-ovOos is applied to various creatures, e.g. aj 
d\Kv<av, xeXiScov, /zeXio-cra, Terrt|, all of which agree in being closely linked 
with religious symbolism. The meaning of the adjective is quite un- 
known. With the various conjectures of modern commentators cf. 
Photius : j-ovOov' XeTrrov, drraXov, eXcxppov, xXoopdV, vypov, av66v t Ka\6v, 
ITVKVOV, o^u, Taxy. ol 8e TroiKiXov, eveiSes, dtavyes. 

opvcov TTOIOV, irapa7r\r)o~iov ^vaXcaTreKt, Hesych. 

, (s. tirira, s. iirTtt, s. lira). 6 Spvo/coXax^, cdvix&s, Hesych. The 
root is supposed to be trr, Lat. ic-o (Vanicek 82), cf. LTTOS ; and 
the word is taken to be identical with mirw (q. v.) ; but the irra 
suggests identity with O-ITTTJ. 

Doubtless identical also with iimr], Boios ap. Anton. Lib. 21 KOI 
eo~Tiv dyadbs OVTOS 6 opvis eVl Orjpav 'IOVTI. 

IAIAI ivr= 71 

'mno'KAMriTOZ- o-rpov&W , Hesych. (verb. dub.}. 
"IIKAA, v. ixXa. 

"IZTPAE* opvis TTOIOS, Hesych. Perhaps for Terpaf (q. v.). 
"ITYE. opvfov, Suid., Phot, Lex. Seg. Cf. iuy. 

"lYPE. Perhaps from the hissing cry, cf. Ivyfj, a snake's hiss, Nic. 
Th. 400 ; but more probably a word of foreign and unknown 

The Wryneck, Yunx torquilla, L. Mod. Gk. oxpfj/So'Xi, pvpp.riKo\ayos 
(Heldreich). See also iVu, ITU, Kii>ai8io>, crcio-oiruyis. 
Arist. H. A. ii. 12, 504 a (a full and accurate description) oXi'yoi <=' r<i>es 

8uo p.V [SaKrvXovs] epTrpoo-Qev 8to 8' oiriadev, olov 17 KaXovpevr) 'ivyg [cf. De 
Part. iv. 12, 695]. aurr; d' e'ari /LUKpco pev jueicoj/ (nrifrs, TO 8' eiSos notKiXov, 
idiq d' ex el T< * T iftpi- [TOVJ SaKruXouy /cat] TJ^V yX corral/ ofioiav rols 
e^et yap eVt fj.fjKOS eKTaariv KOI eirl rerrapa? SaKryXous, KOI TrdKiv 
fty eavnjv* en fie Trepiarpe^ei roi' rpa^^Xor ety Tovnicra) TOV \OITTOV 
r)p(p.ovvTos, KadaTTfp oi ofais. ovv%as ' e^ft /zeyaXous /xew ofJLoiovs 
ne(pVKOTas rols T>V KoXoiaii/' rjy Se (poavf] Tpiei (cf. Plin. xi. (47) 107). 
Ael. H. A. ix. 13 wyyar, epcoTLKas av0pa>7roi (paaiv elvai rives: cf. ibid. XV. 
19. Mentioned among mimetic birds, Ael. H. A. vi. 19 vrroKpiveTai TOV 
tikayiov rj tvyt- av\6v. 

Superstition, interwoven with a phallic symbolism (cf. Dion. De 
Avib. i. 23), used the iuy as a charm to bring back a strayed lover. 
Find. P. iv. 214 (in connexion with Jason and Medea) TTOTVIO. 8' o|vrarou/ 
jSeXecov TroiKiKav Ivyya TtTpaKvap-ov Ov\vp.Tr6Qev ev aXurcp fevj-aiaa KVK\(O 
[icuvdd* opviv KvTrpoyei/eia (pepev 7rpS>Tov avQpamoia'i. Theocr. Id. ii"luy 
\Ke TO TTJVOV ep.6v TTOTi SwfjLd TOV avdpa. Gk. Anth. (Jac. iv. 140, Anth. 
Pal. V. 205) "luy^ f) NIKOVS 77 KCU biairovTtov \Keiv \ avdpa Kal CK OaXdfjiav 
naidas Trio-TafJ.evrj. Cf. Soph. Oenom. iii. I IVyya OrjprjTrjpiav epcoro?. The 

bird was bound upon a wheel and spun round, cf. Theocr. ii. 30; 
Schol. Pindar, 1. c. ap. Suid. ed. Gaisford \anpdvovo~ai yap UVTO 

dO~fJ.VOVO~lV K TpO^OV TIVOS, OV 7TplppOfJ.^OVO~lV O^ia TTa8oVO~ai. oi de <pdO~LV 

OTt TO. evTfpa O.VTOV ee\Kvo~ao~ai K.a6dirTovo~i rw rpo^w. Cf. Hesych., 
Suidas, Tzetzes in Lycophr. 310, Ael. H. A. ix. 13, &c. In Pind. P. iv. 
214 ivyya TeTpaK.vap.ov is supposed to be the bird thus bound, and 
cross-fixed or spread-eagled ; cf. Pind. P. ii. 40 TCTpaKva^ov Se<Tfj.6v. See 
also King, Ant. Gems, i. 381. 

In Xen. Mem. iii. 12, 17 eX<aj/ tuyya eVi TIVI is to work the bird 
against some one (Schn.), and perhaps the word is here used for the 
wheel itself or for a charm in a more general sense ; cf. Aristaenet. 
ii. 1 8 TOV (pi\Tp07roibv i/ce'reve irdkiv near* Keivrjs dvciKivrjo-ai ray luyyas : cf. 
also Pind. Nem. iv. 35 uryyi 8' eX/tOjuai ^rop Vop.r)viq 6iyi\itv I Luc. Dom. 
13 co(77rep OTTO 'ivyyos rep /cdXXei eXKopevosl Ar. Lys. IIIO, Diog. L. vi. 2, 76; 


E (continued"}. 

Ael. xv. 19, Opp. Hal. iv. 132 ; still more loosely used in Ael. ii. 9, v. 40, 
xii. 46, xiv. 15, c. Compare also Virgil's translation of Theocritus, 
Ducite ab urbe domum mea carmina, ducite Daphnin. The magic 
wheel was properly called pd/u/3or, Theocr. ii. 30, Orphic, fr. xvii 
(Hermann) ap. Clem. Alex. Strom, p. 15. 8, Luc. D. Meretr. iv. 5, c.; 
o-rpd(aXos, Schol. ad Synes. 361 D, Psell. in Schol. ad Orac. Chald., 
TpoxiWoy, Tzetz. Chil. xi. 380 (trochiscilus, Apul. De Mag. xxx), cf. Clem. 
Alex. Strom, v. 8, or PLKOS, Suid., and in Lat. rhombus. Mart. ix. 30, 
Propert. iii. 6, 26, rota, Plaut. Cistell. ii. i. 4, or turbo, Hor. Epod. xvii. 7. 
It was probably similar to, though not identical with, the poTrrpov, or 
tambourine of the Corybantes, and the bird was, like that instrument, 
associated with the worship of Rhea, Dion. De Avib. i. 23. According 
to Marcellus in Nonn. Dionys. ix. 116, the pop.pos was (and under the 
same name still is, in Italy) an instrument twirled round at the end of 
a thong, which means to say, I suppose, that it was a ' bull-roarer ' ; if 
this be so, the tvyg TTpa<vap.os was not rotated round on its own axis, 
but spun at the end of a string, as we spin cockchafers. Concerning 
the magic wheel, see also Selden, De Diis Syr. i. i, 33. 

The bird is represented on a vase in connexion with Dionysus, Brit. 
Mus. Vase Cat. No. 1293 ; and the Pindaric epithet TTOIKI'XJ? has been 
interpreted as a link in its Dionysiac character (cf. R. Brown, jun., 
Dionys. Myth, i. 339). In this connexion the name'Ivyyiu for Dionysus 
(Hesych.), is very interesting. Another vase (No. 1356) represents 
Adonis holding out the bird to Aphrodite. 

wyg was also used metaphorically for love or desire, cf. Aesch. Pers. 
989, Lye. 310 and Schol. Heliodor. iv. 15, &c. 

The ivyg in Anth. Pal. v. 205 was engraved on an amethyst, xpvcro> 
TTotKtX&io-a, diavyeos e dp.(6v<rTov \ yXvirrr) : it is represented on a gem, 
associated with Jason and the Golden Fleece (Imh.-Bl. and K. pi. xxi. 
21, p. 131) probably in illustration of Find. Pyth. iv. 

According to Nicander, ap. Anton. Lib. Met. 9, one of the nine 
Emathidae, daughters of Pierus, was metamorphosed into the bird 

The ivyg was equally sacred among the ancient Persians and Baby- 
lonians, Marini Proclus, xxviii, cf. Hopf, Thierorakel, p. 144. See also 
the remarkable description of the Royal Judgement-seat at Babylon, 
Philostr. V. Apollon. i. 25, where however the precise meaning of tvyg is 
not clear I 8iKaei p,ev df) 6 f3a.(ri\tvs eWa$a' xpixrai 8e Zvyyes aTTOKpep-avrai 
TOV opofpov TeTrapfS, TrjV 'ASpaoTeiaj/ avro) TrapcyyvSxrai, Kai ro virep rovs 
avBpwirovs aipeadai' ravras ol fiayoi avrot (paaiv dp/JLOTreadai, (poiTO)VTS es 
ra /3ao-iXeia* KaXoutri 8f avras 6e>v -yXaxro-as ; cf. Creuzer, Symb. ii. 221. 

See also Pseudo-Zoroaster, fr. 54, ed. Cory. 


IYFH (continued}. 

Bury (J. of Hellen. St. vii. pp. 157-160) supposes, chiefly from 
Theocritus Id. ii, and Pindar Nem. iv, that the 'ivy was originally a 
moon-charm or invocation to the Moon-Goddess J Io>, a theory supported 
by Mart. ix. 30, where rhombus is in like manner a moon-charm, as 
also by such parallel passages as Virg. Eel. viii. 69, and Tibull. i. 8. 21. 
The ury was undoubtedly thus used in lunar rites, but the bird does 
not cry 'lo>, 'Ia>, and the suggested derivation of its name and sanctity 
from such a cry cannot hold. It is interesting, however, to find that 
lo and ivyg do come into relation with one another, the witch who by 
her spells had made Zeus enamoured of lo, being transformed by Juno 
into the bird 'ivyg, Niceph. in Schol. ad Synesium, p. 360, Creuzer, Symb. 
iii. 249 ; see also Schol. Find. 1. c. It is thus quite possible that 'lo> and 
?vyg are after all cognate, though the bird's cry had nothing to do with 
their etymology. 

ivyg and 'l(Bis come into relation with one another, as both connected 
with moon- worship ; and the dialectic form of the latter, tpvg (Hesych., 
? i'fi^) suggests perhaps an ancient confusion between the two names. 

"IXAA. A form of K^Xa, Hesych. Cf. Lob. Path. p. 107. Also 
icr/cXa, I'xaXq, Hesych. : cf. Mod. Gk. i-or^Xa. 

'iXNEY'MftN. An unknown or fabulous small bird ; mentioned by 
Nicander ap. Anton. Lib. c. 14. 

'IftNA"!' ncpicrTfpd, Hesych, Vide s. v. oivds. 

'IQNI'X. An unknown bird; mentioned among the opvidas Trora/uiW 
a/ta KOI Xi/ui/aiW, Aristoph. Hist. Anim. Epit. i. 24 (Supplem. 
Aristot. i. i. p. 5, Berolini, 1885). 

KAKKA'BH,,?. icaKicapis. *iJ/3a, Hesych. (Cf. Sk. kukkubha.) A name 
for the Partridge. 

Athen. ix. 390 a Kakovvrai 8* of TrepSiKes vn ei/tW KaKKaftai, a>s KOI UTT* 
'AXAC/xai/of* err?? rciSe KOI peXos 'AXfc/zap | evpf, yey\a>(r<Tap.Vov \ 
o-rd/xa [Svopa, Casaub.] a-vv6efj.evos (Alcman, fr. 25 Bergk). Hence 
piCfiv, Arist. H.A. iv. 9, 536 b ; Athen. I.e.; cf. Anthol. Lat. 733 (ed. 
Riese) Interea perdix cacabat nidumque revisit. Cf. Stat. Sylv. ii. 4. 20 
quaeque refert iungens iterata vocabula perdix. Vide s. v. Wp8i. 

KAAAMOAY'THI. An unknown bird. 

Ael. vi. 46 KeSpou TOV Ka\ap.odvTr]v aTrdAXtxri <pv\\a. Cf. Phile, 664. 

KA'AANAPOZ. The Calandra Lark, Alauda Calandra, L., Melan- 
corypha calandra, auctt. The Chelaundre or Calendre of 
Chaucer, who distinguishes it from the lark or laverokke, Rom. of 
the Rose, 662, cf. v. 655. Skeat (in loc.) derives the word, 


KAAANAPOI (continued']. 

through O. F. calandre, caladre, from L. caradrius, Gk. 

(cf. Babr. Ixxxii ; and vide infra s. v. xapaSpios). Said by others 

to be connected with "L.caliendrum, a tufted head-dress, a top-knot. 

Dion. De Avib. iii. 15 SXw&poi de OVK. av TIS eXoi paSiW, et /LIT) rr\r]o-iov 

vfiaroy Oeir) TO \Lvov' 6 fj.ev yap TOV TTOTOV xprjfav TrpocriTTTarai, 6 de dypevT^s 

Teens ev KaXvQjj Xav6dva)V KOI eTTiTcivwv TO SLKTVOV, TTIVOVTU KaXv^ei TOV K<i\av- 

8pov. The same device is still used for the capture of small birds in 

Italy; cf. Frederick II, De Venat p. 32; J. G. Schneider, Anm. z. d. 

Eel. Phys. p. 41 ; see also Bechstein's * Cage Birds,' &c. 

KA'AAPIZ. (In MS. Da K 6\apis). An unknown bird. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 TOV de KaXapiv 6 alywXibs KOI ol aXAoi yajur^a)- 
vvxfs KaTeadiovo-iV odev 6 7ro\fp.os a^Tols. Gesner suggested /coXXvpi(oi/a, 
Billerbeck KiXXvpov s. Ki\\ovpov : cf. J. G. Schneider in loc. The whole 
chapter is replete with difficulties, and, in my opinion, with signs of 
foreign influence or even of spurious origin. 

KA'AAI>OI' d(TKaXa<j)os, Hesych. 
KAAI'APIZ. Vide S.v. 

KA'AAflN. A name for the Cock. 

KaXXaia, ra VTTO ra yeveia T>V d\KTpvova>v, ovs KaXXcova? of 'Arri/col 
\eyowrivy Moeris. Cf. xeiXurcs. 

KAAOTY'nOI' 6 SpuoKoXan-rj;?, Hesych. Cf. gvXoKonos. 
KA'PYAOI, KAPY'AAAOI, Hesych. Vide s. v. K<5pu8os. 
KA'P<I>YPOI' ot vcotrtroi, Hesych. 

KAIANAH'PION- IKTWOS, Hesych. A very doubtful word ; an emended 
reading is KCLO-W' 6rjpiov (Schmidt). 

KA'iniOI "OPNIZ. A remarkable bird, of three varieties, of which 
one croaks like a frog, one bleats like a goat, and the third barks 
like a dog. Full description in Ael. xvii. 33, 38. It is not 
identified by Gesner. 

KATAPPA'KTHI, s. KarapdKTTis (Arist., Codd. Med. Vatic., &c.). An 
unknown bird ; the references to which are so discordant as to 
suggest that the meaning was early lost, if indeed the name was 
ever applied to an actual species. It is the ' Cormorant,' j?9, 
of the LXX. 

Mentioned in Ar. Av. 886. In Soph. frr. 344, 641, applied to the 
Eagle and to the Harpies (cf. Hesych.), as KaTappaKrrjp is to /a'pKos, Lye. 


KATAPPAKTHI (continued}. 

169. In Aristotle, said to be a sea-bird, but not web-footed: mentioned 
as opvis Trorapoy, Aristoph. H. A. Epit. i. 24, and tfaXuo-o-io?, ib. i. 23. 

Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 509 TOV o-rdpi^oi; CX L (vpvv KOI TrXarvv o\ov. Ib. ix. 
12, 615 opvis o~xiCo7rovs' fj p.(v Trepi $uXaTrc>, orav &e KUC% O.VTOV (is TO 
XP OVOV OVK eXdrTova f) oo~ov nXedpov die\doi TIS' eo~Ti 8' eXarrov 
From this account and from its mention in ii. 17, between 
TO. o-xi&TToda (con's) and ra (TTeyavoiroda (Xdpos), Aubert and Wimmer 
identify KarappaKTrjs with Podiceps auritus, the Eared Grebe, Mod. Gk. 
KapauaTaiKiov (Erh. p. 48) ; Sundevall, on the other hand, with the Little 
Cormorant, Phalacrocorax or Graculus pygmaeits (vide icoXoios, J3). 
Neither of these birds, however, suggests by its habits the name 
KaTappaKTTjs : and neither is white in colour, so that they at least conflict 
with the following excerpt from Dion. De Avib. ii. 2 cos ot T>V Xdpuv e'Xdcr- 
crovfs, la"xyp os &* Kct ^ T *l v XP oav Xev/cdy, Kat rails ras (pdo~cras dvaipovcriv iepai 
npoaro/jioios . . . (is TOV TVOVTOV ola TTITTT^V otWrai . . . Tols (TKOTreXois Kat TO'IS 
alyia\ols ((pi(dvei. Further, a fabulous account of the breeding-habits. 
According to the same author (iii. 22) aaviviv (iKovas eVi-ypa^aj/res i^ycov 
TOVS KaTappaKTas' criV 6pp,fj yap cos eVi Tiva KUTdTTTavTes l\6vv 
TOIS (raviai KOI diafpOdpovTm. These accounts are usually 
applied to the Gannet or Solan Goose, Sula bassana (cf. Oedmann, Act. 
Acad. Stockh., vii. 1786, Schneid. in Arist. vol. ii. p. 88) ; but the size 
is incompatible with such an identification, and the bird is not a native 
of Greece. The account in Plin. x. (44) 51 is wholly fabulous, and 
includes the story of the Birds of Diomede, ot KaTctpdo-vovaiv els ras 
TO>V ftapfidpcov K((pa\ds, Arist. De Mirab. 79, 836 a ; cf. Ael. i. i, and 
vide s. v. epwSio's. 

Gesner, who is followed in modern ornithological nomenclature and 
by the lexicographers, identified /carappaKrrjs with the Skua, Lestris 
catarrhactes, L., a bird which does not occur in the Mediterranean. 

KATPEY'l. An unknown or mystical bird. 

Cleitarch. fr. 18, ap. Ael. xvii. 23 /ueyetfor Trpos TOV racov* ra 8e aKpa 
rS)V nTp(ov (OIKS cT/uapciyScp Kal 6pS>v p,(V a'XXcos, OVK oldas olovs 6<p6a\- 
fjiovs cx l ' et ' &* *L S a * aTTi'Soi, epeis Kivvdfiapiv TO o/Lt/Lia, K.r.X. Cf. Strabo, 
XV. i. 69. Nonn. Dion. xxvi. 206 Karpeus S' eWo/ieVoio irpoticcnri&i xv~ tv 
o'/ijSpou | av6o<pvr]S \iyv<pa>vos' OTTO /3Xe(papcoi> de oi a'lyXr] | Tre/LtTrerat, op- 
Bpivfjai ftoXais dvrippOTros TJOVS. | TroXXdici S' f)vefJi6(VTos vnep 8(vSpoio 
\iyaivav, | trvvdpovos copiWos dveir\(K. ydrova fjLoKirrjv | (poiviKeais TTTepv- 
yco-o-i K(Ka(rp.(vos' rj Ta^a (patrjS) | fteX7rop.ej/ov KaTprjos eco'iov vpvov dtfovuv, | 
opdpiov alo\68eipov drjftova KS>p.ov v(paiveiv. 

The description of the plumage in Aelian has suggested to some 
commentators the Manal or Impeyan Pheasant, Lophopus impeyanus 
(cf. Val. Ball, Ind. Antiq., xiv. 305, 1885), which bird is very possibly 


KATPEYZ (continued). 

meant by the partridge larger than a vulture, Strabo, xv. i, 73, and by 
the a\(KTpv6i>es /xeyiorai of Ael. xvi. 2 : but the identification of Karpevs 
with that bird is precluded by the comparison of its voice with the 
Nightingale's, a statement which suggests comparison with Sk. kdtdra, 
melodious. The various accounts are all fabulous or mystical, and 
the bird is always coupled with the equally mystical wpiW. The dypeus 
of Ael. viii. 24, though described as TO yevos Koa-a-vfyw (ppyrup KOI 
(rvyyevrjs, is probably akin. 

KAY'AE (=Kd/ r a^) ) s. K<XUT). Apparently a Doric form of KTJU: also 
KauTjs, Hippon. 5. Root unknown: a comparison with such 
words as Lith. kovas> Dutch kauuw, Eng. chough, is tempting, 
but unwarranted : cf. Fick, ii. 63. A diving sea-bird. 
\dpos, Hesych. 

Antim. fr. 2 (57), ap. Schol. in Apoll. Rhod. i. 1008 T)VT( ns 
SvTTTrjaiv es aXpvpov v8<op. Cf. Lye. 425 *A\vros OVK aira>0e Kavr)<as TTOT>V : 
Euphor. 87 ; Leon. Tar. 74 ; Anth. P. vii. 652. Vide s. vv. KT)U, KTJ. 

KAYKAAl'AI, s. KaimaXos, s. KauKidXrjs. opvis TTOIOS, Hesych. 
KE'APOI- oprvl, Hesych. A very doubtful word. 

KEBAH'flYPII. In Ar. Av. 303 usually translated Redpoll (from K^ 
= K<pa\r]), which bird, Fringilla linaria, L., only occurs in 
Greece rarely, during severe winters. The meaning is unknown. 

KErXPHl'l (Arist. H. A. ii. 17, Ael. ii. 43), teyxpis (Arist., Ael. xiii. 25), 
Kfpxvrjts or Kepxvys (Aristoph., Ael. xii. 3, Eubul. fr. ap. Athen. ii. 
65 e, Photius), Kfyxprj (Aristoph. H. A. Epit. i. 22, i. 28), ripx**}* 
Hesych. Cf. also Epical, Ke'pKyos. 

A Kestrel-Hawk. Mod. Gk. itpdiu, KipKivefr dvepoydpos (Heldr.). 
The Common Kestrel, Falco tinnunculus, L., is a permanent 
resident in Greece, and not rare ; but the Lesser Kestrel, F. cen- 
chris, Naum. or F. tinnunculoides, Natt., a summer migrant, is 
in its season the commonest of Greek hawks ; cf. G. St. Hilaire 
ap. Bory de St. Vincent, More'e, Oiseaux, p. 29, pi. ii, Hi : Aub. 
u. Wimm., Arist. De Gen., Introd. p. 28 ; Kruper, op. cit., p. 161 ; 
and Lindermayer, p. 14, who says ' Ich habe im Jahre 1848 von 
5-7 Uhr Morgens an dem Thore der Akropolis 1 4 Stiicke erlegt, 
ohne mich von der Stelle zu bewegen.' 

Derivation unknown. L. and S. compare neyxpos, Keyxpyis with 
Lat. mtHum, mil-uus ; but derive the name from Kepxvo?, ' hoarse ' : 
cf. Fr. cresserelle, O. F. quercerelle. Scalig. in Arist. p. 251 


KEfXPHII (continued}. 

Quercerellam vocant Franci, non corrupta voce, quasi Cenchrel- 
lellam, ut ait Ruellius, sed quasi Querquerellam ; nam Quer- 
querum, lamentabile, dixerunt veteres; semper enim stridet et 
queri videtur. The derivation from Keyxpos is also old, cf. Camus 
ii. p. 257 'parce qu'elle a le plumage couvert de petites taches 
comme de petites graines.' 

Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 509 rij? KoiXia? avTrjs n e\et o/xoioi/ 7rpoXo/3o). (Cf. 
Gesner, p. 284 Dieses Vogels Magen ist dem Kropf gleich und gar 
nicht fleischigt). Ib. vi. I, 55&b ^fio-ra TIKTCI ra>v yaa\^a)vvxa)V. COTTTOI 

(J.6V OVV KOL TTT(lpa fjdrj, TlKTCl fie KCtl 7T\LO). Ib. vi. 2, 559 0)01 epvdpd <TTIV 

&<T7r(p /ui'Xroff. Aristoph. H. A. Epit. i. 28 povrj rt'/crei wa (poiviKa. De 
Gen. iii. 750 /^aXtora fie 17 Keyxpis iroXvyovov' povov yap (T^efioi/ TOVTO KOI 
mVei T&V yajM^coi/y^ft)!/, 17 S' vyporrjs KCU rj crvfjicfrvTos Kal fj (TTUKTOS (rTrep/zari- 
KOV /nera rrjs VTrapxoixrrjs avrfj 6epp.oTTf]TOs. TLKTCL fi' ovfi' avr) TroXXa Xiay 
aXXa re'rrapa TO TrXftorov. Cf. H. A, viii. 3, 594 ; Plin. X. (37) 52. On 
the other hand, according to Ael. ii. 43 m <pCXoi/ tepa/ccoj/ 6 KaXetrai 
Keyxprjis, KOI TTOTOU fieernt ovdev. 

Mentioned also in Ar. Av. 304, 589, 1181 : Ael. xii. 4. One of the 
daughters of Pieros was transformed by the Muses into the bird 
Keyxpis, Nicand. ap. Anton. Lib. c. 9. 

In Ael. xiii. 25, Keyxpis seems to refer to a different bird, being 
mentioned as a dainty with <rvKoXis, and Kepxvrjs is mentioned in 
a similar way by Eubul. ap. Athen. ii. 65 e. 

KEfXPl'THI. Apparently a sort of wild duck or goose, Dion. De 
Avib. iii. 23. 

KEf PII' opvcov iepag, ol fie' dX/evo'j/a, Hesych. 

On the fabled metamorphosis of Ciris, Nisus, Pandion, &c., vide 
supra, s. v. dXideros ; cf. also KtjpuXos, Kipis. 

KEfHA' Ktacra, ACIKOWCS, Hesych. 

KEAEO'l (MSS. have /t^Xio's, Ka\i6s, KoXios). The Green Woodpecker, 
Picus viridi's, L. (a scarce bird in Greece, Lindermayer). Mod. 

Gk. TreXeKavos, rcriKXifiapa, devdpotydyos, Heldr. 
Arist. H. A. ii. 4, 504 : has feet like ivy|. Ib. viii. 3, 593 TO 
rpvyav, TO fie xP^P- a X^ w P of 0X05* eo*Ti fie ^V\OKOTTOS 

errl TO>V v\(ov TO. TroXXa, (powfjv re fjLeyaXrjv e^et* yiverai fie 
Trepi neXoTroi'v^a-oi/. The preceding reference is as accurate as the 
following is unmeaning or mystical : Ib. ix. I, 609, 610 (pi'Xoi Xaefioy 
Kal K\f6s' 6 fiev yap KeXeos Trapa TTOTapbv oi/cei Kal Xo^fta?' TroXefUoi KeXeos 
Kai Xi/3uo'?. Suid. opj/eoi/ Ta^vTaTov. The identification of KeXeo's with 


KEAEOI (continued}. 

the Green Woodpecker is said to have been first given by Gesner, 
cf. Schn. in Arist., vol. iii. p. 592. 

The bird KfXeds- figures, together with Xai'ds and others, in a very 
mystical story of Boios, ap. Anton. Lib. c. xix. 

Celeus is also the name of a mystical king of Attica, in connexion 
with the story of Ceres and Triptolemus ; this circumstance may be 
correlated with other Woodpecker-myths in Greek and Latin referred 
to s. v. SpuoKoXdirrris : cf. Mythogr. Vatic, i. 7. 8, iii. 7. 2 ; Schol. ad 
Greg. Nazianz. p. 48, ed. Gaisf., &c. On other relations between 
Celeus and the Ceres-myth, cf. Horn. Hymn. Cer. 475 ; Ar. Ach. 48 ; 
Pausan. i. 14, 38, 39, ii. 14; Anton. Lib. c. xix; vide also Creuzer's 
Symbolik (ed. 1836) i. 152, iv. 368, 384. 

KE'I~I4>OI. MSS. have also *ep,(pos, KiV^oy, yetyos. An unknown water- 
bird ; usually, but without warrant, identified (after Schneider in 
Arist., and Promt. Lips. 1786, p. 501) with the Stormy Petrel, 
Thalassidroma pelagica, L. According to Hesych., identical with 
icrjf. The accounts are fabulous, and the name is very probably 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b, a sea-bird, mentioned with \dpos and 
aWvia. Ib. ix. 35, 620 dXlcrKovTai rw a<pp&>* Kcnnovvi yap avrov, 5to 7rpo<r- 
paivovTes Qrjpevovaiv. ex. t &* T *l v P* v "XXqy crapta evtobr), TO de nvyalov 
IJLOVOV 6ivbs o. ylvovrai de moves. Cf. Nic. Alexiph. 165-169 dfppov 
(TTfyKepdo-aio doov dopirrj'ia Keircpov, K. r. X. See also Lye. 76, 836, and 
Tzetz. ad Lye. 76 OaXdacriov opveov \apofides, onep dfj,(pcj) (sc. dfppw) 
6r)pa>(riv ol Tiaides TO>V dAtecof. Cf. also Suidas, s. v. According to the 
Schol. in Ar. Pax 1067 emu TTO\VV eV rols Trrepois, 6\iyov 8c cv TOIS 

Dion. De Avib. ii. IO C'K TTJS KovtporrjTos ol aXiel? ovop-dfrvviv' TO yap 
vdoi>p aKpov Tols TToalv eVtrpe^ei Kat o~r}p,aivfi Tols d\iev(Tiv flTlTV^iav. Feeds 
on small fish killed by tunnies and dolphins ; sleeps seldom ; afraid of 
thunder. Arat. Prognost. 916 nai TTOTC <al Kerrcpoi OTTOT' evdioi Trorecoj/Tai | 
dvTia p,e\\6vT(iov dvn<>v ei\rjo'a (pepovTai : cf. Schol. ; see also Theophr. 
Fr. vi. 28 ; Symmach. (Schol. Ar. Pax 1067) p. 217. See also Hesych. : 
eldos 6pvov KovfpoTarov Trepl Trjv 6d\ao~aav fitarpi/Sovros 1 , o ev%fpS)S VTTO 
dvefj-ov [MTayeTai' ev6ev Xeyerni 6iis Kal Kovcpos avdpwTros Kerrfpos (i. e. 
a booby] ; cf. Ar. Pax 1067 Keir(poi Tprjpuves: Id. Plut. 912 S) Kerrcpe 
(Schol. KaXemu de KOIVWS \dpos, B. gull). Hence K7T(p(odeis, Prov. vii. 22 
(ed. LXX) j cf. Cic. Att. 13. 40. 

KEPAr*!' KopavT), Hesych. Cf. Lye. 1317. avTOK\rjTov Kfpatda applied 
to Medea. 

KE'PBEPOI. Mentioned as a bird-name in Anton. Lib., Met. c. xix; 
cf. s. v. Xae&o's. 


KE'PGIOI. Perhaps the Tree Creeper, Certhia famih'aris, L. Vide 
S. v. KwiroXoyos. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 17, 616 b opvidiov p.iKpov' TO p,ei> rjOos Opavvsj KOI otm nepl 
devdpn, Kal eon tipiirotydyos, TTJV 8e dtdvoiav ev/Sioroy, Kal ri}v (pavfjv e^ti 

The passage contains several birds difficult to identify. The descrip- 
tion of KepQios suggests the Tree Creeper, with which it is usually 
identified (Belon, Sundevall, &c.), but wnroXoyos is certainly the Creeper, 
and the above description is not enough to reveal an indubitable 

KE'PKAE- tVpa|, Hesych. 
KEPKA'r *cpe r6 Zpveov, Hesych. 
KEPKIGAAI'Z, s. KpKi0a\Xis f epw&icfc, Hesych. 
KEPKI'Z- cidos opvfov, Hesych. 

KEPKl'flN. (For a discussion of possible Sk. roots, see Temple, 
infra cit). An Indian talking bird. 

Ael. xvi. 3 ; is the size of a starling, particoloured, docile, and learns 
to speak ; it is impatient of captivity, and gets its name eVeiSj) 
Kal avros Siacret'ercu rbv oppov, a>s TTOIOVVTCLI ol K/ycXoi. .In spite of these 
two discrepant statements, it is possible that Aelian refers to the 
Common Mynah, Acridotheres tristis, the Talking Mynah, Gracula 
religiosa, or allied species, Hind, sarak or shdrak ; Temple, Ind. Antiq. 
1882, p. 291 ; Val. Ball, ib. 1885, p. 305; cf. Lassen, Ind. Alterth. iii. 
p. 321 (1858). 

KE'PKNOI- tipag, f, a\fKrpvo>v, Hesych. 

KEPKOPQ'NOI. An Indian bird, probably identical with 

Ael. xv. 14. 

KE'PKOI' aXeKrpua)!/, Hesych. 
KEPXNH'I. Vide s.v. 

KH'AAI. Cf. Hind. Hargela. An Indian bird; the Adjutant, Lep- 
toptilus argala, L. See Val. Ball, Ind. Antiq. xiv. p. 305, 1885. 
Ael. xvi. 4 To p-fjfdos TpiTrXdaiov cort'Sos 1 , KOI TO o~Top.a yevvctiov dtivwS) 
Kal p.aKpa rci crKeXr;. (frcpet de TOV Trprjyopeava Kal fKelvov p.cyto~Tov, Trpocrc/u- 
0ep)) KcopvKGj), <p6eyp.a 8e e^t Kal p.d\a any^es, Kal TTJV p.V a\\rjv TTTtXoxrtV 
eort Tempos, Tas de TTTepvyas aKpas co^po? eVri. 

KH'=. An unknown sea-bird. Probably the same word as icaiiag, 
KT|U|. In Hesych. KdiKa, probably for KCIKO, K^KU. 
Od. XV. 479 avT\a> d' cv8ovTrr)0- TTCO-OVO-' as dvahir) KTJ^. Cf. Schol. opvfov 


KH= (contimied}. 

6aXdo-aiov napaTrXrjaiov ^fXi8dj/i' evioi e Xdpov avrov Xeyovcriv, ol 8e aWviav. 
Cf. Hesych. KTJ' 6 \dpos /caret 'Anrtcoi/a. Xeyerai 8e Kal Kavrjf-, rives <al 
aWviav d7rodi86ao-iv' ol 8e KfTTfpov' ol 8e Si'Xfiepovra dXXqXooj/. 

Usually identified with the Gannet, Sula bassana, L. (vide s. v. 
KaTappdKTTjs), which does not occur, save by the rarest chance, in 
Greece. Among other more than dubious hypotheses, Netolicka 
(Naturh. aus Homer, p. 14), with whom Buchholz, Korner, and others 
agree, suggests the Great Crested Grebe, Podiceps cristatus, L., whose 
cry is keck, keck. (Cf. s.v. KTJU|.) 

KHPY'AOI, s. KrjpvXos, s. KfipvXos (Ar. Av. 300), s. KrjpvXXos (Eustath. ad 
Horn.), s. KipvXos (Hesych.). A doubtful, perhaps foreign, word, 
sometimes applied to the Halcyon, sometimes compared with it. 
Sundevall's identification of KrjpvXos with a second species which 
occurs in Greece, Alcedo (Ceryle] rudis, the Smyrna Kingfisher, 
is quite untenable, the poetical and mythical use of both KrjpvXos 
and d\Kvwv being opposed to so concrete an interpretation. 
The suggested connexion with Lat. coeruleus (O. Keller, Lat. 
Etym., 1893, p. 15) is in equal degree improbable. 

Alcman, 12 (20) /3aXe S;;, /3aXe KrjpvXos eirjv, | os T' eVi KV/JLO.TOS avdos a/n' 
a\Kv6v((T<ri irorrjTai | vrjXees r}rop e^tov d\tn6p<pvpos eiapos opvis. Cf. S. v. 

Mosch. iii. 41 ovSe roa-ov yXavKols cvl KVfj.a(ri KrjpvXos qSev. Arist. H. A. 
viii. 3, 593 b Trtpl rrjv QaXarrav KO\ aXwow Kal KrjpvXos. Ael. v. 48 a\Kvova 
Kal KrjpvXov nodovvras dXXfjXotv TrdXai 'icrp.fv. Ib. vii. 17 KrjpvXos 
6(jLa>vvp.oi Kal auft^toi, Kal y^pa yf Trapeipevovs avrovs emfle/Jifvai al 
nfpidyov&iv 7rl TG>v KaXov p.fva>v p.(o~o7TTepvyi<i)v. Cf. Antig. H. Mirab. 
23 (27), where KrjpvXos is said to be the male kingfisher; cf. also 
Hesych. KtpvXos' apcrr/i/ opvis o~vi>ov(Tiao~TiK6s, rives 8e d\Kvova I also 
Tzetzes ad Lye. 387 ; Schol. Ar. Av., Schol. Theocr. vii. 57 ; Eustath. 
ad Horn. II. i. 558. In Clearch. ap. Athen. x. 332 E, numbered among 
TOiy opvidas rovs 7rapev8iao~ras KaXovp-evovs, with rpo^iXoy and 6 rfj KpeKi 
npoo-ep.(pfpf)s epcoSioy. Mentioned also by Archilochus, fr. 121 ap. Ael. 
xii. 9 Kiy<Xos Ktvel 8e Kal ra ovpala Trrepa, wcnrepovv 6 Trapa rco 'Ap^iXo^a) 

In Ar. Av. 299, usually written KeipvXos, as if from Ket'peo. Cf. infra 
s. v. o-TTopytXos. 

The names and attributes of KrjpvXos are undoubtedly akin to those of 
Kfipis or Ciris ; and it is interesting to note that, according to Hesy- 
chius, the name Ktlpis applies either to a hawk or to the Halcyon. 
I would place the legend of aXwav and KrjpvXos side by side with the 
astronomic parable of Haliaetus and Ciris. Vide s. vv. dXideros, 


KH'V'E. (See also s. vv. icaua, iclji.) A sea-bird. 

Babr. cxv. 2 Xapoi? re ral Krjvj-iv elirfv erypaHrrai?. Apollod. 28, ad 
Lucian. i. 178 ; said by Schol. to be the male aXKv&>i>, and identical with 
KrjpvXos. In Dion. De Avib. ii. 7, applied rather to the female O.\KVUV' el 
TOV appeva Te\evTr)<rai crvpjSati}, fiopas an-e^o/ifi/ai Kal TTOTOV TTUVTOS eVl TTO\V 
Kal SiafpOeipovrai, Kal Tag (o8as 8' ft Karcnravfiv jueXXoief, K'/V 
fi7roi)(rai (riyworiv. K.TJVKOS de (ptovrjs /n^r' ey^? / LtI 7 7 "' "XXov 
aKovo-ai TIS' (ppovridas yap Kal reXeuras <rr]p,aivei Kal dvarvx^p-nra. Suidas, 
s.v. 'H/ifpw/a ^wa (whatever that may mean) mentions KrjVKes as sea- 
birds, together with a\Kvovfs and droves. On the fable of Ceyx, 
Alcyone, &c., see Ovid. Met. xi. 269, &c., &c. ; Ceyx comes into 
relation with Hercules and the Argonautic legends in Anton. Lib. 
c. xxvi ; and the Hesiodic myth of Ceyx and Cycnus is of the same 
order. We may, I think, rest assured that Kr)v was not originally 
a concrete and specific bird-name, but a mystical term associated with 
the Halcyon-myth (cf. s. v. lojpuXos). 

Kl'rKAOI. (MSS. of Arist. have Kiyx^os, KIX^OS, KO'^XOS-. Other forms 

are KeyK\os, KiyKaXos Suid., KiyK\ts, Etym. Mag.) Cf. Sk. can-cala, 

mobile (Burnouf, Diet. 237). 
A Wagtail, Motacilla sp. According to Hesychius, Photius, and 

Suidas, also called ici'XXoupos and aeicroiruyis (q. v.). 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b mentioned among the smaller aquatic birds 
with axomXos and Truyapyos ; is less than the latter, which is as large as 
a thrush. Travres S' OVTOI TO ovpalov KIVOIKTIV. Ib. ix. 12, 615 Trepl rfjv 
Oakarrav /3ioi. TO f)Qo$ rravovpyos Kal dv&drjpaTOS) OTav Se XrjCpdfj, TtQao~o~6- 
TaTos. Tvyxdvei 8' &v Kal dvdnrjpos' a/cpar^ff [cf. De Gen. ii. 99] yap rail/ 

OTTl(r&V fO~TlV. 

Ael. xii. 9 TTTTJVOV eVrt do-Qeves TO. KaToniv, Kal dia TOITO (pao-i fj.r) Idia 
fj.r)de Ka6* cavTov dvvdptvov UVTOV vfOTTiuv (rv/uTrXelai, eV TO.LS aXXwj/ oe TIKTCLV' 
fvdev TOI Kal TOVS TTTW^OV? KryxXous Ka\ovv at TO>V dypoiKcov TTapoipiai (cf. 
Menand.Thais4,ap. Suid. and Phot. (4.132, Meineke)Ki'yKXot> Trrw^oTtpos). 
Kivel df TO. ovpaui TTTepd. Cf. Aristoph. in Antiar. (2. 955) ap. Ael. 1. c. oo-<pi>v 
S' eg aKpav, 8iaKiyK\io~ov TJVTC KiyK\ov. Autocr. in Tympan. (2. 891) ap. 
Ael. 1. C. oia rraiovo-i -napOtvoi . . . oia KtyK\os aXXcrat. Cf. also Theogn. 
1257 KiyK\os rro\vn\dyKTos : also verb /ayKX/o>, Theogn. 303, npoo-Kiy- 
K\iop,ai, Theocr. v. 117 ; also KiyXo/3arai/ pvOpov Aristoph. fr. 6 (2. 997) 
ap. Ael. 1. c. Vide Hesych. /ay/cXo?, opveov TTVKVMS TTJV ovpav KIVOVV' acp* 
ov Kal TO KiyK\Leiv, o ean Siao-ei'ecr&u* TLVCS de o-[e]i(ro7ruyiSa. 

Sundevall takes KiyK\os to be a Sandpiper, Tringa sp., chiefly, as it 
seems, because vxoiviXos is doubtless a name for the Wagtail, Motacilla. 
But I prefer to believe that KiyK\os is also a Wagtail, firstly because the 
movement is much more characteristic and noticeable in that bird than 
in the Sandpiper, secondly because of the statement as to its size, and 



KITKAOI (continued}. 

thirdly because of its asserted tameness in captivity. The statement 
in Aelian, about the nest (also ap. Phile, 492), may perhaps be 
explained by the fact that, according to Kriiper, the Wagtails in Greece 
all leave the plains in summer to breed, resorting to the hills, or in the 
case of M. melanocephala to the salt-marshes and lagoons. At the 
same time it is evident that allusions to Kiy/cXoy, &c., are much influ- 
enced by notions and superstitions connected with the bird iuy. 

KirKPA'MAI- Spveov, Hesych. Cf. Ku'xpajJios. 

Kl'KIPPOI, s. KIKKOS, and KIKKTJ. Cock and Hen, Hesych. Cf. Mod. 

Gk. KOKKopas, 

KIKKA'BH. Also Kucu|3os, KiKujStjl's, KIKUJAOS, KITUJJUS, Hesych. KIKUJJLIS. 

Call. fr. 318. Perhaps connected also with KvpivSis, s. 
An Owl. Lat. cicuma (Festus). 

Schol. ad Ar. Av. 262 ; sub voce KiKKaftav. Tas yXavKas ourw 
\eyovcriv' oBtv KOI KiKKafBas extras Xeyovoui/, 01 5e Ki/cu/it'Sa?, oas 
"/capr' dyadfj KIKU/ZIJ," KOI "OfjLrjpos Se u ^aXfaSa KiK\r)orK.ov<ri Beoi" K.r.X. 

Cf. KovKovftayia, and KOVKKOS, the modern Athenian popular names for 
y\ai>. Vide s.v. KOKKopdpT]. 

KIKYMHTZ" yXav^, Hesych. Also ib. KiTUjJtii'a' yXaC/ca ; qy. KiKUfxiSa. 


KIAI'AI' <rrpov66s aparjv, Hesych. 

Kl'AAOYPOI. A Wagtail. With KiXX-ovpoy, cf. L. mota-cilla, and 
perhaps Kiy-K\-os. On the root, cf. Benfey's Zeitschr. viii. 1892. 
Fick, i. 527. Vide S. vv. iciyicXos, o-eiaoiruyts, aeiaoupa. 

KINAI'AION. A name for iuy, Hesych., Phot. Cf. Dion. De Avib. i. 
23, Schol. in Theocr. ii. 17. 

KINAA^OI'- fyvca, Hesych. 

KINNA'MnMON ''OPNEON. Also ifiwa/noXdyor, Plin. X. (33) 50; cf. 
Solin. (33) 46. The fabled Cinnamon Bird. 
Herod, iii. 1 1 1 ; how the Arab merchants left pieces of flesh which 
might break down by their weight the nests to which the birds carried 
them, and in which the cinnamon was found. In Arist. H. A. ix. 13, 
616, a variation of the same story, the nests being brought down with 
weighted arrows. Cf. Ael. ii. 34, xvii. 21 ; Antig. H. Mirab. c. 49 ; 
Phile De Pr. An. 28 (27) ; Plin. xii. (19) 42 ; Sindbad the Sailor, &c. 
Sometimes confused with the Phoenix; cf. Claud. Epist. ii. 15 Venit 
et extremo Phoenix longaevus ab Euro, Apportans unco cinnama 
rara pede ; Ovid, Met. xv. 399 ; Stat. Silv. ii. 6. 87. 


KINNYPl'AEI' TO. fJUKpa opviddpia, Hesych. (Perhaps akin to Kti>vpop,ai.) 
KINY'TIAOr xapaSpid?, Hesych. A very doubtful word. 

Kl'PlI* \i>xvos, opveov, r) * AaKuves, Hesych. Also Kippis' etSos 
lepaKos. o/zoiW 8e Xe-yerai Trapa Kvrrpiois Kippis 6 "Adavis, napa AaKaxri 

Se, 6 \vxos, Et. M. Cf. Kvpis, 6 "AScom, Hesych. These refer- 
ences are important in connexion with the solar symbolism 
underlying the stones of Ciris, KrjpvXos, &c. ; cf. the version of the 
Ciris-myth, s. v. <ippis (s. Kippis), Dion. De Avib. ii. 14. 

Kl'PKH. A poetic or mystical bird-name ; different from, and hostile 

tO, KlpKOS. 

Ael. iv. 5 aeiprjv, /ifXiWqs ovopa, rrpos KipKrjv expo's. KipKrj 8e frpos 
KipKov, ov r<$ yevei povov, dXXa xai rfj (pvcrei dicxpepovra Trefpapao-Oov. Cf. 
ib. iv. 58. 

Kl'PKOI. A poetic and mystical name for a Hawk : the sacred 
Hawk of Apollo ; in the main an astronomical, perhaps solar, 
emblem. In Mod. Gk. KipKivefr is said to be a name for the 
Kestrel (Heldr.), vide s. v. KYxpVs- 

In Homer, the bird of Apollo, 8fibs opvis, 'ATroXXwi/oy ra^vs ayycXos, 
Od. xv. 525 ; an emblem of swiftness, eXa^pdraros- TrerfT/j/oov, II. xxii. 139, 
Od. xiii. 87 ; cf. Apoll. Rh. ii. 935, Opp. Cyn. i. 282 j; nipKos ravafjan 
Tivaa-a-ofjifvos irrepvyeuviv : usually as an enemy of the Dove, II. xxii. 
140 (cf. iprjg, xxi. 493), Od. xv. 526, cf. Apoll. Rh. i. 1049 TJVTC KipKovs \ 
eo/cvTrcTa? ayeXrjdov diroTpeaaaxri rreXeiai : ib. iii. 543? S^ 1 ) lv * 4&6 I hostile 
to ^ap, KoXoto?, and other small birds, II. xvii. 757. Frequent in Aesch., 
usually, as in Homer, an enemy of the Dove ; Suppl. 223 eV/x6y tos 
TTfXeiaScov te(r$e, KipKoav T>V Ofj-onTepav (^)d/3w, Pr. V. 857 Ki'pccoi TreXeiaii' 
ov naKpav XeXei/z/zeVoi (note in this passage the association with Egyptian 
*Ena<pos) ; mentioned in connexion with the Tereus-myth, as metamor- 
phosing with eVo^, fr. 32, ap. Arist. H. A. ix. 49 b CTTOX^ ... 6s rjpi p.ev 
(paivovTi diaird\\i nrepov \ Kipnov XcTrdpyou : as a portent, pursuing an 
eagle, TrpoV eoxdpav ^oi^ou, Pers. 205 ; cf. Suppl. 60 OTTO ras Trjpetas 
prjTidos oiKrpas dXd^ov, fctp/cj/Xdrov T' drjdovos. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 620 rpiros TWV IcpaKatv [r<3 Kpdret]; ib. ix. I. 609 b 
dXo>7r/a 7roXejutos, cf. Ael. v. 48, Phile, 704, Wotton, De Diff. Anim. 
vii, 143, &c. In Plin. x. 8 circos occurs as an alternative reading for 
aegithus\ cf. circus as the name of a gem, similis accipitri, Piin. 
xxxvii. 10. 

Mentioned as hostile to the Dove also in Ael. iii. 46, v. 50 at 8 Trepi- 

(TTfpal Trpos aercov fj.(v K\ayyr)V Kal yvir&v flappov&i, KipKcoz/ de KOI dXtaera)^ 
OVKCTI : to rpvy&v and to Kopa)vrj, ib. vi. 45 ; to KIPKTJ, ib. iv. 5> 5^ 5 anc ^ 
to mice, Batrach. 49. How it places chicory (niKpis) in its nest as 
a charm, Ael. i. 35, Phile, 722, or wild lettuce, aypia dpidaKivrj, Geopon. 

G 2 


KIPKOI (continued}. 

xv. i. 19, with which it salves its eyes, Anatol. p. 297 (cf. iepa) ; and is 
killed by pomegranate-seed (poias o-idrjv Konelo-av) , Ael. vi. 46, Phile,637- 
Used by fowlers, Opp. Cyn. i. 64 CLVTOIS eVi dpvpa o-iW/iTropo? ea-nero 

The bird is not identifiable as a separate species, and is so recog- 
nized by Scaliger and others. Neither the brief note as to its size 
in a corrupt passage of the ninth book of the History of Animals, nor 
the mystical references to its alleged hostilities and attributes in 
Aristotle, Aelian, and Phile, are sufficient to prove that the name 
indicated at any time a certain particular species. The word is 
poetical, and is chiefly used in relation to TreXeta, or with reference 
to Apollo. The attempts on the part of commentators to assign KipKos 
to a particular species are all based on the epithet Xerrapyos. Thus 
Sundevall suggests the Hen Harrier or Ringtail, Circus cyaneus, of 
which the male is blueish-grey : while Belon and others of the older 
naturalists, followed by Camus, assigned the name to the Moor Buzzard 
or Marsh Harrier, C. aeruginosus, which is only white beneath the 
tail. But the meaning of \tirapyos is in reality unknown ; it will not 
bear using, nor is it likely to have been used, as a specific or diagnostic 
epithet. Cf. s.v. Truyapyog. 

The chief allusions to KtpKos are obviously mystical, though the 
underlying symbolism, involving also the symbolic meanings of the 
Hoopoe, the Dove, the Crow, the Fox, the Pomegranate, &c., is not 
decipherable. In this connexion, the passage in Opp. Cyn. iii. 293-339 
is important and suggestive, but I refrain from putting forward a tenta- 
tive hypothesis as to its meaning ; we have here enumerated five kinds 
of XUKOI, of which the first is ro^eur^p or ovd6s, the next three are 
Kipicog, xpiVeo?, IKTIVO?, and the last Orjpevei eiri 7rra>Keoro-ti/ opoucof, i.e. is 
Xayaxpovos (the last two are called axixoccg, q. v.) ; of these five names 
the last four are all also names or epithets of hawks. 

Kl'PYAOI, Hesych., for iceipuXog, KTjpuXos. 

Kl'ZIA, s. Ki-n-a, also Keto-o-a (Hesych.). The Jay, Garrulus glan- 
darms, L. Mod. Gk. KiWa (Heldr.); cf. Ital. Gazza, in its 
many dialectic forms. Perhaps one of the many bird-names 
connected with rt. kak, to cry, quasi ktk-ja (v. Edl., p. 52); 
cf. Sk. kikt, a Jackdaw, with which Von Edlinger connects 
O. H. G. heh-aro, Germ. Haher, the Nutcracker. See also s.v. 

Ar. Av. 302, 1297; with ed. ^vpaicovo-ios. Arist.H. A. viii. 3, 592 b 
persecuted by eXeor and alya>\io$. (Cf. De Gen. iv. 6, 774 b ; Plin. x. 
79 [60].) Arist. H. A. ix. 13, 615 b, 6l6 (jxovas /iera/3aXXei ir\fi<rrus (K(I(? 
ens elnelv rj^fpav aXX^j/ d<pirjai)' TiKTfi de irep\ evvea wa, Troietrat 


KIIIA (continued}. 

de TTJV veoTTtav eVi rwv 8fv8pa>v K rpi\S)V Kal epiow : makes a Store of 
acorns, orav 8' vrro\t7ra)(nv at fiaXavoi, dnoKpimTovora ra^teverat. Ib. ix. 2O, 
617 a, is the size of to/3opo?, the Missel-Thrush. 

Its garrulity: Alexid. Thras. i (3, 420 Mein.) XaXi<rrepai/ ov /array, 
oiV drjdov 1 ovTf rpvy6va\ Lye. 1319 rfjv \d\r)6pov Kicra-av '. and imitative 
faculty, Ael. vi. 19, Plut. De Sol. Anim. p. 973 C, Dion. De Avib. i. 18, 
Plin. x. 42 (59), Porph. De Abst. iii. 4; hence Kio-o-a/3io>, Poll. v. 90. How 
it is caught with a springe and bait of olive, Dion. De Avib. iii. 1 8. 
Mentioned also in frr. Antiph. 3. 145, Anaxand. 3. 185, Mnesim. 3. 
570 (Meineke). According to Nicand. ap. Anton. Lib. c. 9, one of the 
Emathides, daughters of Pierus, was metamorphosed into the bird /a'o-0-a ; 
cf. Ovid, Met. v. 294, 663 ; Mart. Ep. xiv. 76 ; Pers. Prol. ; Plin. x. 33. 

Sundevall supposes the Magpie (which is very much rarer in Greece 
than the Jay) to have been meant, but the description tallies much 
better with the Jay, which still retains the name. The Magpie is now 
called KctpctKaga (Heldr.). In Italian, gazza, che'ca, cecca, pica, &c., 
apply both to the Magpie and to the Jay, as very possibly Kicraa also 
did in Greek. Pliny (x. 29) gives an accurate account of the Magpie, 
describing it as a variety of pica of recent advent to the neighbourhood 
of Rome. 

KI'IIIPII, Suid., Kiaipias, Hesych. An unknown bird. 
KI'XAH. Dor. Kixfa (Ar. Nub. 339, Epicharm. in Athen. ii. 64 f (68)). 
A Thrush : the generic term including IXids s. IXXds, t|op6pos, 

rpixas, q. v. The root appears in Russ. kwickzol, a thrush, 

with which ouzel is perhaps cognate. Mod. Gk. r^Xa. Cf. 

also "x^a, 'ioxXa. 

Mentioned in Od. xxii. 468 Kt^Xai rawo-inrfpoi. Homer is said to 
have received a present of xt^Xat for reciting a certain poem, hence 
called 'Efl-tJuxXidre: Menaech. ap. Athen. ii. 65 b. 

Description. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b, ix. 22, 6l7b, is as large 
as Trvyapyos, and a little larger than fj-aXaKOKpavevs. Ib. ix. 49 B. 632 b 
/^6Ta/3dXXei 8e Kat rj KI'^XTJ ro xpaijua* TOV pev yap ^Lp.wvos ^apa, rov Se 
Oepovs TroiKiXa TO. nepl TOV av^eVa to-^ei' TYJV /xei/roi (pwrjv ovftev /Ltera- 
/3aXX. Cf. Ael. xii. 28. This would suggest a confusion of species : 
the more variegated birds being Fieldfares and Redwings ; the latter 
are said to occur in large flocks in Spring (v. d. Miihle), though all 
alike have departed by Summer. Its song alluded to, Ar. Ach. 1116 

noTfpov aKpides rjSi6v ecrnv, r) Kt'^Xai ; Ar. Pax 531, &C. 

Nesting. Builds in a spray of myrtle, 6a\\ov (jivppivrjs, or places one 
in the nest for a charm, Ael. i. 35, Phile, De An. 723, Geopon. xv. I, 19, 
Anatol. p. 298 : cf. Fab. Aes. 194. A different account, Arist. H. A. 
vi. I, 559 a * 8e Kt'^Xai veomav p.ev noLovvrai, ucrirep al ^eXi8dj/ey IK. rryXov 


KIXAH (continued}. 

TT\ rols v^qXoTs T>V dfvdpav, (p^ijs Se TTOLOVO-LV a\\rj\ais Kai 
WOT* dvai 8ia TTJV <rvvexf<-av axnrep 6pfj,adov veoTTiatv. A similar account, 
restricted to the variety t'XXay, Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ii. 65 a ^v /cat 
<rvvay\a<rTiKr)v elvai Kai veorrevfiv cos *at ray ^eXiSovas. Note. The Field- 
fare, T. pilaws^ L., which breeds only in Northern Europe, is the 
only Thrush which nests in colonies. Sundevall takes the above 
passage (Arist. H. A. vi. i) to indicate that the Fieldfare formerly nested 
in Greece or at least in Macedonia. In Anth. Pal. ix. 373, Mackail 
(P- 35 8) takes /a^Xr; to be either the Thrush or the Fieldfare, which 
latter however is a winter-migrant in Greece. (For other references 
to the Anthology, vide s. v. Koao-u<J>os.) The Missel-Thrush is, now at 
least, the only species, except the Blackbird, which remains to breed in 
Greece or Asia Minor. 

Migration. Arist. H. A. viii. 1 6, 600 $coXe?, f. e. hibernates. Cf. Plin. 
x. 24 (35) Abeunt et merulae turdique. Sed plumam non amittunt 
nee occultantur ; visi saepe ibi quo hibernum pabulum petunt : itaque 
in Germania hyeme maxime turdi cernuntur. 

Varieties. Arist. H. A. ix. 2O, 617 KIX^W $ etSq rptcT f] p.ev tgofiopos 
[lo<pdyos Athen.]' avrr) S' OVK ea-diei aXX' 77 toi/ Kai prjrivTjv, TO de ^ytOos 
oaov KITTO. ecrTLV. Tepa Tpi)(u.s' avTr) S' ov (pOeyyeTdi, TO Se p.eye6os oanv 
. 3X\rj S' TJV Kahovvi Tives IXiada [iXXaSa, s. rvXada, Athen.], 
TC TOVTVV /cat TJTTOV TroiKiXr). Cf. Athen. ii. 65 a. 

The Thrush as Food: frequent in Com. Poets, OTTTOI Ki'^Xai, Pher. 
2, 300 (i, 23), Telecl. 2, 362 (i, 12) ; ava/3paaroi Ki X \ai, Pher. 2, 316 
(i, 10) ; Kpea T opvLdcia KixnXav, Ar. Nub. 339, and elsewhere frequent; 
Ki'xXai /xeXtTt fJL6fj.iyp.evat, Plat. Com. 2, 674 (2, 8) ; e\aio(pi\o(pdyovs Kixf)Xas, 
Epicharm. 281 L. ap. Athen. 1. c., &c. &c. Cf. Athen. ii. pp. 64, 65, 
Geopon. xiv. 24, Colum. De R. R.viii. 10, Varro, De R. R. iii. 5, Pallad. 
i. 26, Martial, Ep. xiii. 51, 92, Hor. Epist. i. 15, 41, Plin. x. 23 (30), &c. 
&c. Prescribed as a remedy for Pompey, and obtained from the 
aviaries of Lucullus ; hence the saying Et M AOVKOV\\OS crpixpa, no/Lwnji'os 
OVK av e^o-e, Plut. i. 518 F, 620 B, ii. 204 B, 786 A. Capture by traps 
and nets, nayibas Kai ve(p\as, Athen. ii. 64: cf. Dion. De Avib. iii. 13, 
Pallad. xiii. 6, &c. 

A talking thrush, Plin. x. (42) 59. 

Proverb and Fable. KaxpoTepos Ktx^s, Eubul. iii. 22O (5). 
p.vp<nv(i)vi, Aes. Fab. 194. 

KAATroi. An alternative reading for irXdyyos, q. v. Cf. 
Lat. clangunt aquilae, Carm. De Philom., &c. 

KAAAAPO'PYrXOI, i. e. clapper-bill. A name for rpfyiXos, Ael. xii. 15. 
KAOIfTN. flSos opvcov, Hesych. Perhaps for Ko\oi5>v. 


KNIflOAOTOI. (MSS. have also Kvi8o\os, KviooXoyos, 
The Tree Creeper, Certhiafamiliaris, L. Vide s. v. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 TO p-eyedos piKpbs oo~ov aKavdvXXis, rfjv 8e %poav 
<nro8oeif)s Kal KaraoriKroy' (pavel 8e piKpov. e<m 8e Kat roCro vXoK07rov. 
(Mentioned at the end of the list of Woodpeckers.) Gloger, Sundevall, 
Aubert u. Wimmer, and others, agree in the above identification. 
The word is used by Nicander, ap. Anton. Lib. c. 14, as an epithet 
or synonym of mirw, q. v. 

KOKKO'AE* Kop&vr], Hesych. 

KOKKOBA'PH. An Owl = yXavg, Hesych. Cf. Kiicicd/Sir], also Mod. Gk. 
and Calabr. KovKovpayia, Neap, cucuveggta, Alban. kukuvatzke, all 
meaning the Little Owl, yXa : also Mod. Gk. x ov X ov P lo " r *i s > tne 
Tawny Owl, Sp. chucha ; vide O. Keller, Lat. Etym. 1893, p. n i. 
Bikelas cites, from Wagner's Carm. Gr. Med. Aevi, the form 
KouKou^as. Coray would read for KOKKopdprj, KOKKojSorj, and for 

KiKKaftrj (q. V.), KtKaj3oY]. 

KOKKOBO'AI "OPNII. 6 aXefcrpuwi/, vapa 2o<poK\fi. Eust. 1479, 44 
(Soph. fr. 900). 

KOKK00PAY'ZTHr opms TTOIOS, Hesych. 

KO'KKYH. Cf. Sk. kokilas, Lith. kukuti, O. H. G. gauh, Scot, gowk, &c. 
The Cuckoo, Cuculus canorus, L. Mod. Gk. KOVKKOS. 

Full Description and comparison with te'pa, Arist. H. A. vi. 7, 563, 564. 

Its Cry, freq. ; e. g. Hes. Op. et D. 484 ^p.os KOKKV KOKKV&I dpvbs ev 
TTfToXoKn I TOTrpmrov TepTTfi re fipoTOVs eV anflpova yaiav : Ar. Av. 507, Ran. 
1379, 1384. Cf. Lyc. 395 KOKKvya Kopna^ovra fjia^avpas (rroftovs. 

Note. KOKKvfciv is still more frequently used of the Crowing Cock ; 
vide S. V. dXcKTpuwi'. On Ar. Ach. 598 e'^eipoTOi/T/o-ap /ue KOKKvyes ye 
rpar, cf. Bind. Thes. iv. c. 1737 B, also L. and S., s. v. KOKKU. 

Nesting and Breeding. Arist. 1. C. veorrovs de KOKKvyos \eyov<riv ebs- 
ovdels ewpaKev' 6 de TLKrei fj.ev, aXX' ov Trou/cra/iei/oj veoTTidv. dXX' eVi'ore 
p.V V rrj TO>V cXaTTOvow opvidcov fvriKTfi KdTa<pay(0v TO. (pa TO, fKfivw, 
p,d\i(TTa 8' Iv TOLS rooi> (paj35>v veoTTials . . . TIKTCI 8' oXtyaKi? fiev 8uo, ra 5e 
7T\(l(TTa ev. cvTiKrei 8e KOI TTJ TIJS VTroXatSos i/eoTrta" f] 8' fKircTrci Kal 
eKrpeCpei. Id. H. A. ix. 29, 6l8a TIKTCI /uaXtora p.i> fv rals T>V (paftuv 
Kal ev VTroXaiSoff Kal Kopvdov X a / xat '> ^ SevSpov 8' ev rfj TTJS xXwpi'Sos xaXov- 
fJievrjs VCOTTLU. TIKTCI ev MOV. orav av^dvrjrai 6 TOV KOKKvyos veorros, 
K/3aXXei ra avrrjs [rj Tpe(pov(ra] Kal anroXXui/rai OVTWS. ol 8e Xeyov&iv a)S 
Kal drroKTeivacra 17 rpefpovcra 8i'8a)(ri KaTafpayelv' Sta yap TO KaXov elvai TOV 
TOV KOKKvyos veoTTOv d7roSoKifJ.d(iv TO. avTrjs. Id. De Mirab. 3. 830 b TOVS 
KOKKvyas TOUV ev Ty 'EXi/c^ (?), ev rats veoTTiais T>V <paTTQ)v f) TQ>V Tpvyovov 


KOKKYE (continued}. 

fVTLKreiv. See also Arist. De Gen. iii. I, 750, Ael. iii. 30, Theophr. Caus. 
PI. ii. 18, 9, Dion. De Avib. i. 13, Plin. x. (9) 26, Phile, De An. Pr. 

A species that builds its own nest : Arist. H. A. vi. 7, 564 veorrevei 
yevns TI aiiT&v Troppco Km fv aTroro/iois Trerpcus. [Ib. vi. I, 559> KOKKV 
probably for Korrvcpos]. 

The Cuckoo is said by Kriiper (p. 184) to lay in Greece chiefly in 
the nest of Sylvia orphea, and also of the species of Saxicola. Coccystes 
glandarius, the Great Spotted Cuckoo, which also occurs in Greece, 
(Mod. Gk. Kpavos), lays in the nests of the Jackdaw, Magpie and Crow. 
The repeated statement that KOKKV^ lays in the nest of <pdrra or (pd^ is 
inexplicable, unless such a statement be of foreign origin and refer 
originally to some Oriental species ; a little light is perhaps thrown 
upon the point by the circumstance that in certain Chinese legends 
the Dove and the Cuckoo are confounded together: vide infra s. v. 
ircpiorepd. This discrepancy deprives of all value the attempted 
identifications of t>7roXaiV, wihch are based on its being some bird in 
whose nest the Common Cuckoo habitually lays its egg ; see also 
S. v. irdmros. 

Migration. Arist. H. A. vi. 7, 563 b (paiWrai eV 6\iyov \povov TOV 
OepovS) TOV Se ^fi/zcai/a d<pai>terai. Ib. IX. 49 B, 633 /xera/3dXXei TO XP&>M a 
Kal rfj fytovfj [ov] o-a(pr]vi(i, orav pe\\rj d(pavifcrdai' d(pai/ifrai 8' VTTO Kvva, 
(pavepbs de yiverat OTTO TOV eapos ap^a^-evos l*-*XP L Kvvos fViToX^s 1 . Cf. Ael. 
iii. 30 oparai 6 KOKKV^ rjpos vnap^of^fvov els avaToXas Seipi'ou : Dion. De 
Avib. i. 13 irp&TOS TU>V Xonr&v TTTrjv&v fjfjuv TO cap dyycXXcoi/. 

Metamorphosis with the Hawk, Arist. H. A. vi. 7, 563 b, ix. 49 B, 633. 
Cf. Plut. Arat. xxx (i. 1041 C) KOI Kadd-rrep rep Koiwvyl (fyrjviv AUTOOTTOJ 

TOVS XfTTTOVS OpVlOdS, OTl <pl>yOlV dVTOV, LnLV tKflVOVg O)? eCTTdl 

e teVa| (Acs. Fab. 198, ed. Halm). Cf. also Tzetz. ad Lye. 395. 
See also supra, s. vv. TTOI|/, Kipicos. 

Other Myths and Legends. How Jupiter, in the shape of a Cuckoo, 
sought Hera on Mount Thornax ; and how for this reason the cuckoo 
figures on Hera's sceptre, Pausan. ii. 17, 4: cf. Schol. ad Theocr. 
xv. 64 ; hence the mountain was called 6'poy KoKKvyiov, Pausan. ii. 36, i ; 
cf. Creuzer, Symb. iii. 248; cf. also the Teutonic Gauchsberg, Grimm,. 
D. Myth. p. 646, &c. 

From its propinquity to Sparta, and from the circumstance of the 
Cuckoo having come in a cloud, Creuzer (1. c.) conjectures an allusion 
to the same story in Ar. Av. 814; cf. also the weather prophecy in 
Hesiod, 1. c. 

How the Cuckoo was king over Egypt and Phoenicia, Ar. Av. 504. 
In these latter statements we have evidence of a confusion with the 


KOKKYE (continued}. 

Hoopoe, vide s. vv. eiro\|f, KouKou<f>a ; for the relations between the 
Cuckoo and the Hoopoe, Der Kuckuk und sein Kiister, v. Grimm, 1. c. 

On the mythology of the Cuckoo, see also (int. al.} Von Mannhardt, 
Zeitsch. f. d. Myth. iii. pp. 209-298 ; Hardy, Pop. Hist, of the Cuckoo, 
Folk-lore Record, pt. ii ; Hopf, Orakelthiere, p. 152. 

How the Atnphisbaena, alone among serpents, appears before the 
Cuckoo is heard, i.e. in early spring, Plin. xxx. (10) 25; a magic 
remedy for fleas, Plin. I.e.; a Cuckoo in a hare-skin, a remedy for 
sleeplessness, Plin. xxx. (15) 48; the Cuckoo as food, Plin. x. 9 ; cf. 
Arist. H. A. vi. 7, 564 (spurious passage). 

KO'AAPII. Vide s. v. 

KOAAYPl'fiN, s. Ko/ttAA/eoi', Hesych. An undetermined bird. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 23, 6l/b ra aura eV$/ ra> Korru^w . . . dXiVKerai Se 
Kara ^eijuwi/a /ndXtara. Is of a size with KOTTV<pos, TrapfiaXos, p.a\a.KOKpai>vs, 

Belon's unsupported hypothesis of the Shrike (Observ. ii. 98) is 
handed down in the modern scientific name of Lanius collurio. 
Buffon, quoted by Camus, ii. p. 238, says (Hist. Des Ois. ii. p. 70) that 
in Mod. Gk. the Shrike is called xoXXuptW ; there is no recent 
evidence of this. Gloger suggests with more probability, Turdus 
j L., the Fieldfare, 

KOAOIO'I, a. The Jackdaw. Corvus monedula, L. Root very doubtful. 

Mod. Gk. KoXotoy, KaXoiciKovda. Hesych. KoXoidV [opi>eoi/] 6 oti ra^a 
oparat tv 'AAeai>pei'a '. also, KoXoiot' (TKooTres'j p-i/epai nopwvai. 

II. xvi. 583 ; xvii. 755 fyapwv ve<pos ep^erai ^e KoXoi&v, \ ov\ov K(K\r)yovTS. 
In regard to the Jackdaw's cry, cf. Pind. N. 3, 143 (78) KoXoiol xpayerat : 
Antip. Sid. 47 KoAoicov Kpoo-y/uds : J. Poll. vi. 13 KO\OIOVS K\a>fiv : hence 
the verb KoAoiaa), Poll. v. 89. 

Frequent in Aristophanes ; Av. passim, Ach. 875, Vesp. 129, Eq. 
1020, &c. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 24, 617 b 6i5j/ rpia* KopaKias, XUKOS, j3a>fj,oXox S 5 q. v. 
Ib. ii. 17? 5^9 T ^ Trpo? Trjv KoiXiav relvov f\(i evpv KOL TrXaru. Its claws 
are weaker than those of 8pvoKo\dnrr]s ) ib. ix. 9, 614 (here Schneider, 
followed by Sundevall, would read for KoXoieov, Ko\iS>v s. KeXeoiv). De 
Gen. iii. 6, 756 b f) Tols pvy^ari els a\\rj\a Koivavia d>j\ov eVi ratv ndao'evo- 

How the Jackdaw, a victim to sociality, is caught with a dish of oil, 
into which, looking at his own reflection, he falls ; Ael. iv. 30, 
Athen. ix. 393 b, Dion. De Avib. iii. 19. Caught also with springes 
baited with an olive, Dion. ib. iii. 18. 

A weather-prophet, of KoXotot e* T&V vr\<j&v Trero/ueixn rols yeapyois 


KOAOIOI (continued}. 

(rrj(j.flov avxnov /cat acpopt'us etVtV, Arist. fr. 240, 1522. A sign of rain, 
dye\r)8a /cat IpfjKfO'cnv opolov \ <p$eydp.epot, Arat. Ph. 965 5 cf. ib. 
Kopat; Se av Kopavrj /cat KoXoibs deiXrjs ox/nay ft (pOeyyoLVTO ^ftjwcoi'os 
ai TWO. eViS^/Miay 8i8d<TKOV(Ti' /coXotoi de iepaK.iovTS } /cat 7reTop.tvoi TTJ} 
fj.ev aVwTepo) nrj de Kara>repa>, Kpvfj.ov /cat verov drjXovai, Arist. ap. Ael. vii. 7 j 
cf. Theophr. De Sign. vi. I ; Arat. 1023, 1026 ; Ovid, Amor. ii. 6, 34 
pluviae graculus auctor aquae ; Lucret. v. 1082. 

In augury, frequent. Ar. Av. 50 x<u KO\OIOS ovroo-l ava> K^vfv : cf. 
W. H. Thompson's note on Plat. Phaed. 249 D. 

How the Jackdaws, destroying the grasshoppers' eggs, are cherished 
by the Thessalians, Illyrians, and Lemnians, Ael. iii. 12, Plin. xi. 29. 
How the Veneti bribe the Jackdaws to spare their crops, and how 
the Daws respect the compact, Ael. xvii. 16, Antig. Hist. Mir. 173 (189), 
Arist. De Mirab. ii. 9, 841 b. On the construction of scare-crows, cf. 
Geopon. xiv. 25. 

Story of a Jackdaw enamoured of a certain youth, Ael. i. 6, xii. 37. 
The Jackdaw in medicine, Plin. xxix. (6) 36, xxx. (n) 30, &c. Uses 
laurel as a remedy, Plin. viii. 27. 

Fables. The Daws and the Husbandman, Babr. xxxiii. The Daw 
in borrowed plumes, ib. Ixxii : also KO\OIOS KOI y\avg, in Fab. Aes. ed. 
Halm, 200 ; Phaedr. i. 3 ; cf. Luc. Apol. 4 KoXotos aXXorpiois vrrepot? 
cryaXWai : Hor. Ep. 1.3. 19, 2o moveat cornicula risum, Furtivis nudata 
coloribus. See also Aes. Fab. 201, 202, 398. 

Proverb. KO\OIOS irapa KO\OIOV idvei, Arist. Rhet. i. II, 1371 b ; cf. 
Nic. Eth. viii. 2, 1155, &c. KaK&v navdpiore Ko\oiS>v, Lucian, Fugit. 30 
(3, 382). Of chatterers, TroXXot yap /utWi o-$e KaraKpa>^ov<n /coXotot, Ar. 
Eq. 1020. 

KOAOIO'I, p. The Little Cormorant. Phalacrocorax pjygmaeus, 
Bonap.; vide s. v. KaTappdic-nis. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 24, 617 b eon 8e /cat aXXo yevos /coXotcov irepl rf)V AvSiav 
Kal tyvy&nr, 6 areyavoTrovv eariv. Is friendly with Xapos (6 /caX. /coXotos), 
Ael. v. 48. 

Sundevall ingeniously suggests the above interpretation, the large or 
Common Cormorant, ' corvo marine,' being known as /cdpa (Arist. 
H. A. viii. 3, 593 b). Ar. Ach. 875 (883) vdWus, /coXotous, drrayas, (paXa- 
, &c., is quoted by Athen. ix. 395 E as a list of water-birds. Cf. s. v. 

r| GaXdaaios. 
KOAO|'<I>PYE' Tavaypalos aXe/crp^toi/, Hesych. 

KOAOKTPYfli'N. In Hesych., supposed to be based on an ancient 

error in MS. Ravenn. of Ar. Ran. 935, for Kd\cKTpv6va. 
KOAYMBI'I, s. KoXvrfos (Ar. Ach.), KoXu/ujSas (Athen. 395 e, Anton. Lib.). 
A water-bird ; especially a Grebe. 


KOAYMBII (continued}. 

Ar. Av. 304, Ach. 875, brought to market from Boeotia. Mentioned 
among the water-birds in Arist. H. A. i. I, 487, viii. 3, 593 b; Alex. 
Mynd. in Athen. ix. 395 d 77 p.iKpa KoXv/u,/3is 7rai/ra>i> Aa^um} TO>V evvSpcov, 
pVTrapofjieXaiva rfjv XP oiav KOI TO pvyxos ov e^ei, {TKeVroi/ re (lect. dub.) ra 
o/up.ara, ra Se TroXXckKaraSuerai. Dion. De Avib. ii. 12 roi? KoXvpfiois eo~T\v 
del TO vrj\0~6ai <piXoi>, KOI ovS' ay VTTVOV X l *P lv % Tpofprjs eVi r>)i> yrjv eX$oiep, 
K.r.A. : ib. iii. 24, capture of KoXvpfiis at night, with net and lantern. 
The above passage from Alex. Mynd., so far as it is intelligible, is 
a good description of the Little Grebe or Dabchick, Podiceps minor, L., 
which is a common resident in Greece (Mod. Gk. /SourqKrdpa). In 
Arist. De Part. iv. 12 we find a minute account of the Grebe's foot, but 
without a name. 

According to Nicand. ap. Anton. Lib. c. ix, one of the Emathides, 
daughters of Pierus, was metamorphosed into the bird Ko\vp,pas. 

KO'MBA* Kopavrj, noXvpprjvioi, Hesych. 

KONTl'AOI- ddos opve'ov, ^ 6pri;, Hesych. It is possible that the word 
may be connected with KoVros, and that it may relate to the game 
of opTvyoKOTTta, or quail-tapping. 

KOPAKI'AI. Also KopaKiKos (synonymous according to Hesych.). 
A Chough. Pyrrhocorax alpinus, the Alpine Chough, and Fregilus 
graculus, the Cornish Chough ; both found in Greece, the latter 
more rarely. Mod. Gk. KaXiaKovda in Attica, Kopuvo-n-ovXt in 
Laconia (Heldr.). 

Arist. H. A. ix. 24, 617 b. A sort of KO\OLOS' oa-ov Kopo>j>?7, 
pvy%os. Hesych. 6 p.e\as KoAoio'y, KOI Kopaicivos 6/ 

KO'PAE, a. The Raven. Corvus corax, L. Cf. Sk. kar-dvas, L. cor-vus t 
Sw. krd-ka, O. N. hro-kr, A. S. hro-c, Eng. crow, rook, O. N. hra-fn, 
Eng. raven : the same root in Kpo>, crepare, raucus, O. H. G. 
hruofan, Ger. rufen, Eng. croak. Mod. Gk. Kopag, KopaKas, Kop- 
Kopag (Erh.). Dim. Kopaicii'os, Ar. Eq. 1053 ; KopaicurKOs, Gloss. 

Not in Homer. Poet., frequent, with the idea of ravenous, carrion- 
feeding, e.g. Aesch. Suppl. 751, Ag. 1473 ; Gk. Anthol. (Jac.) iv. 179 
ayKei/jiai p.ya delnvov ap.Tpo{3iois Kopa.Kecro~t. Hence Prov. els KopaKas, Ar. 
Vesp. 51, 852, Nub. 123, 133, 789, Pax 500, 1221, Thesmoph. 1226, &c., 
Arist. fr. 454, 1552 b, Plut. ix. 415, Lucian, Alex. 46 (2, 552) ; frequent 
also in the comic fragments. See also the long note of Photius ; cf. also 
Antisthenes ap. D. L. vi. 1,4 Kpelrroj/ e'Xeye <add (prjaiv 'E/carcoj/ eV raty 
Xpeiaiy, els KopaKas f) els KoXaKas eKTrecretj/' 01 pev yap vcKpovs, of 8e )i>Tas 

: cf. Pallad. 32, Gk. Anthol. iii. 121 p KOI X povov 


KOPAH (continued}. 

ftceplfct, J XOITTOV T avTo Kopa /Sco/ioXd^oy re KoXa. With epithet 
Eur. Andr. 862. 

Anatomical particulars. Arist. De Part. iv. I, 626 b TO pvyxos e^ei 
lo~xvpbv KOL 07cX7pdV, TOV oTOfia^ou TO ?rp6ff TTJV Koi\iav Tiivov cvpv KOI nXarv, 
Xo\rjv irpbs TOIS evrepois. 

Breeding. Arist. De Gen. iii. 6, 756 b f) p.ev o^eia oXiycm? oparai, f) Se 
TOIS pvyxevi Kpbs aXXi;Xa Koii/am'a TroXXafci?, eiori yap Ttvey 01 Xeyovo-i Kara 
TO o-TO/ia p.iyvv<r6ai TOVS KopaKas, cf. Plin. x. (12) 15 ; Dion. De Avib. i. 
9 ov piyvvvTat Tvplv TWO. TCUS drjXeiais (pdrjv axnrep\iov TrepiKpd^ai. Pair 
for life, Athen. ix. 506. Lays four to five eggs, Arist. H. A. ix. 31, 618 b. 
Incubates twenty days and expels the fledglings, ib. vi. 6, 563 b. ; cf. Piin. 
1. C. Ael. iii. 43 Kopa 6 fjSrj yepav orav pfj $vvr}Tai rpefpeiv TOVS VCOTTOVS, 
eavrbv avTOis Trporcivei Tpofprjv, | 01 Se fffBiawn TOV TraTepa ; cf. Phile, De 
Anim. Pr. vi. 

Habits. Mentioned among TO. KCITO. TrdXeiy eico^oVa paXiaTa r)v, Arist. 
H. A. ix. 23, 617 b. Is a mimic, Ael. ii. 51. /SovXeTai 8e TO>I> 
fupeladai ras (rTayovas, ib. vi. 19. ov n(Ta(3d\\ct TOVS TOTTOVS ov 

Arist. H. A. ix. 23, 6i7b. How the Ravens pick out sheeps' eyes, Ar. 
Av. 582. 

Myth and Legend. How there are never more than two Ravens 
Trepi Tfjv Ka^ov/jLevrjv KOTTTOI/ in Egypt, Ael. vii. 1 8 ; at Krannon in 
Thessaly, Arist. De Mirab. 126, 842 b, Plin. x. (12) 15 ; in Pedasia in 
Caria, Arist. De Mirab. 137, 844 b. In this last instance they inhabit 
the temple, and one has a white throat. Perhaps the nopals here were 
priests or priestesses, cf. ir^Xeia. See also Arist. H. A. ix. 31. 

On the KopaKes or *opd/aa, as a grade in the Mithraic hierarchy, cf. 
Porphyr. De Abst. iv. 16, Hieronym. ad Laet. 7, Diodor. i. 62, Inscr. 
Griiter. p. 1087. 4, &c. ; cf. Montfaucon, ii. p. 377, Creuzer's Symbolik i. 
p. 253, Miinter ad Jul. Firmic. v. p. 20, &c. Creuzer (i. p. 431) correlates 
the Indian myth of Brahma appearing in one of his incarnations as 
a Raven, and compares in turn this latter story (ii. p. 655) with that 
in Herod, iv. 15. The Raven of Odin is, perhaps, also cognate. 

The Raven as a messenger of Apollo. Hesiod, fr. 125 (142) ap. 
Schol. Pind. P. 48 (28) TO> /ieV ap' a'yyeXoy ^X$e Ko'pa itprjs OTTO SaiTOS | 
IlvdS) es fjyadfrjv KCU p ecppao-fv epy didrjXa | $oi/3a> aKepo-Kop.r) : cf. Ael. 
i. 47 'ATrdXXtoi/off Bepdrrav, with which cf. famulum in Cat. Ixvi. 57, 
and Ellis's note ; see also Bianor iv in Gk. Anthol. ii. 142 <S>oi'/3ou XaTpts: 
Ael. i. 47, 48, vii. 18, Porph. De Abst. iii. 5, Stat. Silv. ii. 4 Phoebeius 
ales, &c. 

Hence with the laurel-emblem, on coins of Delphi. Hence also 
Stat. Theb. iii. 506 comes obscurus tripodum ; Petron. Sat. c. 122 
delphicus ales. 



KOPAE (continued}. 

The legend of Coronis (Paus. ii. 26, 6), mother of Aesculapius : the 
raven sent for water by Apollo, and punished for dallying by the way ; 
hence the raven, alone of birds, does not bring water to its young : 
Dion. De Avib. i. 9, Phil. De An. Pr. vi : cf. Callim. fr. nuper edit., 
Gompertz, Mitth. a. d. Rainersammlung, 1893, Kenyon, Class. Rev. 
1893, p. 430. See further, Ael. i. 47; also Ovid, F. ii. 249, where 
Corvus in the same story appears as a constellation ; according to 
Hyginus, Poet. Astron. c. xl, the raven waited to devour some ripening 
figs, and the punishment of everlasting thirst is correlated with the 
juxtaposition of the constellations Corvus and Crater, which latter the 
Hydra guards (Ovid, F. ii. 243 Continuata loco tria sidera Corvus et 
Anguis, Et medius Crater inter utrumque iacet). Hence Prov. *o/:;a 
vdpevfi, Hesych., Suid. In the version of the same story in Ovid, Met. 
ii, the raven was originally white (v. 536) Nam fuit haec quondam niveis 
argentea pennis Ales, ut aequaret totas sine labe columbas ; a world- 
wide legend : cf. Hygin. Fab. 202, Cower, Conf. Amant. iii, &c. 

On the name Coronis in connexion with Moon-symbolism, cf. Pott 
in Lazarus and Steintheil's Zeitschr., xiv. p. 18, 1883. 

It is skilled in augury, Ael. i. 48 ; cf. Aes. Fab. 212, Plin. x. (12), 15, 
Cic. Divin. i. 39, Ovid, Met. ii. 534, Plaut. Aulul. iv. 3, i, Id. Asin. ii. 
i, 12, Hor. Car. iii. 17, Stat. Theb. iii. 506, Petron. Sat. 122, Valer. Max. 
i. c. 4, Festus, 197, c. 

How ravens conducted Alexander to the Temple of Jupiter Ammon, 
and subsequently gave warning of his death, Plut. V. Alex. c. 27. 

How the ravens flocked to Delphi, and despoiled the gifts of the 
Athenians, before the Sicilian disaster, Pausan. x. 15, 5. 

How ravens guided the Boeotians to the site of a new city, Photius, 
s. v. es Kopaicas. 

How all the ravens departed from Athens and the Peloponnese on 
the defeat of Medius at Pharsalus, Arist. ix. 31, 618 b : cf. Plin. x. 15 ; 
see Schneider in loc., and ad Xen. Hellen. ii. 3, 4, further Diodor. xiv. 
82, and Strab. xi. p. 591. Some similar incident seems to be alluded 
to in Ar. Eq. 1052 dXX' lepaKa <pi\et } p.[j,vT]fj.evos tv (ppeaiV) 6s (rot | Tjfycrye 
crvvdrjoas AaKfdaifjioviav KopaKivovs. 

How in Egypt the ravens beg of those sailing by in boats, and if 
denied, cut the cordage, Ael. ii. 48. Places liyvov in its nest as a charm, 
Ael. i. 35 : cf. Phile, 727. Detests rrjv evfapov TTOUV, Phile, De An. 670, 

or va>fJLOV (nrepfjui) Ael. vi. 46. Is hostile to iKrlios, alaraXav, 
ovos, Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 b, Ael. v. 48, Phile, 388, 705, and to 
Phile, 690. A raven and an ass together on a coin of Mindaon, Imh. 
Bl., and Kell., p. 32, pi. 24 (the constellation Corvus set shortly after 
Cancer, with which latter the Ass is associated). The hare detests the 
voice of the raven, Ael. xiii. 1 1 (and the constellation Lepus sets soon 


KOPAE (continued}. 

after the rising of Corvus, as does also Taurus). The raven is friendly 
to the fox, Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 b. The raven's eggs dye the hair and 
the teeth black, Ael. i. 48, Phile, De An. vi, Plin. xxix. (6) 34. The 
raven in medicine, Plin. xxix. (4) 13, &c. After killing a chameleon, 
the raven uses a leaf of laurel as an antidote to the reptile's venom, 
Plin. viii. (27) 41. 

For an account of the various Raven-myths discussed in connexion 
with the astronomic symbolism of the constellation Corvus, see Hygin. 
Poet. Astron. xl, Fab. ccii, German, c. xl, Eratosthen. c. xli, Theon. 
p. 151, Vitruv. ix. 7, Ovid. 1. c., Dupuis, Orig. de tous les cultes, vi. 
p. 457,&c. 

A "Weather-prophet. A prophet of storm : Arat. 963-969 89 TTOTC Kal 
yeveal KOpaKav Kal <pv\a /coXoian/ 1 vdaros ep%ofjLvoio Aio? ndpa (rrjfji eyevovro, \ 
(paivopevoi dye\T]8a Kal iprjKfao'iv o/zola | (p0ydp,voi . . . 17 TTOTC KOI Kpo)avr 
(3apcirj SicrcraKi (pwvfj \ fjuiKpbv eVtppoie{)(ri Ttvaacropevoi Trrcpa TTVKVO, I cf. 
Theophr. De Sign. vi. I, l6 *opa TroXXas- /iera/3dXXfii/ <B0obff (puvds, 
TOVTOJV eav ra^i/ 8ty (pOey^rjTai. Kal 7nppoir)(TT] Kal rivd^rj ra Trrepa vdu>p <rr)- 
paivfi' KOI edv verav OVTWV no\\ds /xerajSaXXj; <pa>vas Kal edv (pdeipifrrai 
eV e'Xaiay' KOI edv re evStas fdv re vdaros ovros /zi/i^rai r,^ (pavfj olov 
ffTaXaypovs v8a>p o-rjfjialvti (vide Aratus, 1. c.), cf. ib. c. 3 ; Arist. ap. Ael. 
vii. 7 ra^ecoff KOI eVirpox 009 <p^eyyo/xei/os KCU Kpovav rds TTTepvyas Kal Kpornv 
avraSy on ^ftjucov earai Kareyvo) rrpaiTos. Kopa 8e au Kal Kopavr) Kal KO\OIOS 
8e[\r)s o^fias fl (pdeyyoivTO, %fip.covo$ e&e&dai nva 7ri8r)p,iav 8i8darKov(ri I 
Plut. Sol. Anim. ii. 129 A, Nic. Ther. 406 and Schol, &c. A sign of 
fair weather: Arat. 1003 Kal KopaKes povvovfjifv' fpypaloi (Booavrfs \ div- 
avrap eireira p.ey ddpoa KK\r)ya>Ts \ rrXciorepot, dye\r)8bv eTrrjV KO'LTOIO 
(pavfjs e/n7rXeioi : cf. Theophr. op. cit. vi. 4, 13, Q. Smyrn. xii. 
513, Geopon. i. 2, 6; i. 3, 8, Plin. xviii. 87, Virg. G. i. 382, 410. In 
the Georgics, the allusion is evidently to rooks, as is perhaps also the 
case, though more doubtfully, in Aratus ; cf. W. W. Fowler, ' A Year 
with the Birds ' (3rd ed.), p. 234. 

Varieties. White ravens, Arist. H. A. iii. 12, 519 : cf. De Color. 
6, 799 b ; Cod. Rhod. Lect. Antiq. xvii. i i ; though \evKos Kopag = 
cygnus niger, an unheard-of thing, Anth. Pal. xi. 417 (Jac. iv. 130) 
TI 7retpaeiff \*VKOV Idelv KopaKa ; see also Photius, s. v. cs 
Athen. 359 E; Lucian, Epigr. 9 (3, 689) Qarrov crjv \CVKOVS 
Trrrjvds re ^eXcoj/as | (vpelv rj doKtpbv pyropa KamradoKrjv ; cf. Schol. in Ar. 

Nub. 133 ; Juv. Sat. vii. 202. Cf. fable of *opa KCU KVKVOS, Acs. 206. 
According to Boios and Simmias, ap. Anton. Lib. c. xx, Lycias, son 
of Cleinis, was metamorphosed into a white Raven. The ravens in 
Egypt are smaller than in Greece, Arist. H. A. viii. 28, 606. 

a fabulous variety, Lucian, Ver. Hist. i. 16. Kopa 


KOPAE (continued}. 

in Athen. 353 a, and *opa wKrepivos in Lucian Asin. 12 (ii. 581), for 
yuKTiKopaS, q.v. 

On talking Ravens, Porph. De Abst. iii. 4, Plin. x. (43) 60, &c. 

Fables. Fable of the pitcher and the stones, Bianor iv, in Gk. 
Anthol. ii. 142 ; Ael. ii. 48, vii. 7. Fox and Crow, Babr. 77, Aes. (ed. 
Halm), 204 : cf. Hor. Sat. ii. 5, 56. The Sick Raven, Babr. 78, Aes. 
208 TLS T(ov 6eS>v, TCKVOV, <raxrf i, | TWOS yiip VTTO (TOV /3&>/z6y ov% <jv\r)6r) ; 
Daw and Raven, Aes. 201. Raven and Serpent, Aes. 207: cf. Gk. 
Anthol. ii. 97. Raven (VTTO rrayiSos Kparrjdeis) and Hermes, Aes. 205. 

Prov. KaKov KopaKos KCIKOV woV, Ael. iii. 43 ; Paroem. Gr. ii. p. 466, 
ed. Leutsch : cf. W. H. Thompson's Phaedrus, p. 132. 

KO'PAE. p. A Cormorant, Phalacrocorax carlo, L., and P. graculus, 
L. Mod. Gk. KaXirfaKov. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b 6 Ka\ovfj.evos Kopa earl TO p,ev peyeOos olov 
TreXapyo?, 7r\r)v TO. o~Ke\rj e^et eXarrca, cTTeyavoTrovs de nal veuoriKoy, TO 8e 
XpMfMi /AeXas. Ka6iei de OVTOS eVi T>V Sevdpav Koi veoTTfvei evTavQa p.6vos 


The Cormorant appears in various Italian dialects as cormoran^ 
coruo marin, corvastro, &c., the Little Cormorant (vide s. v. KoXoiog) 
as corvo marin piccolo, and in Venetia, corveto marin, i. e. Sea-Jackdaw 

The corvus aquaticus of Plin. xi. (37) 47, mentioned as bald (quibus 
apud Graecos nomen est inde), and therefore presumably identical with 
the phalacrocorax, ib. x. (48) 68, must have been a different bird. 

KO'PA<t>OI. An unknown bird, Hesych. According to Schn., for 
icopvcpos, whence fxeXayicopu^os. 

KO'PGIAOI- opvts ov rives fiaviXio-Kov, Hesych. Cf. rp6)(iXos. 
KO'PKOPA' opvis, Hepymot, Hesych. 

KOPY'AAAOI. K<5pu8o, s. KopuSos, Plato, Euthyd., Ar. Av. 302, 472, 
&c., Anaxandrides ap. Athen. iv. 131, Arist. H. A. &c., Theocr. 
vii. 141, Plut. De Is., &c., Galen, &c. ; icopuSaXX^, Epich. 25 
Ahr. ; KopuSaXXts, Simon. 68 ; KopuSaXis, Phile, De An. Pr. 683 ; 
KopuSaXXos, s. KopuSdXos, Theocr. x. 50, Babr. 88, Eubul. fr. ap. 
Phryn., Arist. H. A. ix. 15; icopuSwy, Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609, 
cf. Schol. ad Ar. Av. 303 ; ic6pu6os, Hesych. (a doubtful word, 
defined as tls T>V rpo^tXa)!/ : cf. KopuOwy), &c. : cf. Lob. Phryn. 
338 ; Rutherford, New Phryn. p. 426. On the gender, cf. 

Schol. ad Ar. Av. 472 6rj\vKS)s eip^Ke Triv KopfSoV, 6 5e 

(Euthyd. 291 D) TOVS 


KOPYAAAOI (continued). 

A Lark (from Kopus). Mod. Gk. KopvSaXoy, <rKOp8aXor, 

(Belon), and in Santorini o-Kovptav\6s (Bikelas) qy. o--Kovpt[S]auXo?. 

Description. Arist. H. A. ix. 13, 615 b fj ^Xcopi's- cariv f)\iKov Kopvftos : 
ix. 49 B, 633 b cniyfios, KOVHTTIKOS (i. e. bathes in the sand, like a hen) : 
viii. 16, 600 a <po>Xei: vi. i, 559 run-ci eV 777 777, like the quail and the 
partridge : ix, 8, 614 a eVi SeVSpou ov KaOi&i d\X' eVt r^s- y^s : ix. 29, 6i8a 
the cuckoo lays in its nest, which is placed on the ground, cf. Ael. 
iii. 30. Is caught with bird-lime, Dion. De Avib. iii. 2, or by help of 
the owl, ib. iii. 17. The crest referred to proverbially, Simon, fr. 68. 
(Plut. ii. 91 E, 809 A, V. Timol. xxxvii, 253 E) irdo-aiaiv Kopv8a\\io-iv XP*1 
\6(pov eyy'ivecrdai. Arist. mentions neither the singing nor the soaring 
of the lark ; but Theocr. vii. 141 has aeiSoi/ KopuSoi KOI oKavOidtt, and 
x. 50 eyeipopevq) Kopv8a\\a>, surgente corydalo. The lark's song was 
apparently not appreciated : cf. Alciphr. Epist. 48 ov eyo> r/?? d 
<pa)vr]S eveKa opdSiS Kopv86v [s. opdoKopvo'ov] Ka\flo-dui irpos f)fjiS)V 
Epigr. ct KVKVCO dvvarai KopvSus irapaTrXrja-iov adeiv : and proverbs cited by 
Schneider in Arist. vol. iv. p. 128. 

Varieties. Arist. H. A. ix. 25, 617 b 8vo yevrj, f) pev erepa errlyeios Kal 
\6<poi> ex ovfra ) ^ ^* fTepa dy\aia Kal ov (nropas aHnrep eKeivr], TO p.evTOi 
jjLOiov TJ7 repa e^outra, ro 5e p.fyedos ZXarrov' Kal \6<pov OVK if^ei, 
Se. The first species is the Crested Lark, Alaitda cristata, L., 
a permanent resident in Greece; the other is the Common Lark, 
Alauda arvensis, L., a winter migrant (v.d. Miihle, p. 36, Lindermayer, 
p. 49). Both species receive the name KopuSaXds in Mod. Gk. (Erhard). 

Myth and Legend. Arist. H. A. ix. I, 610 $1X01 <rxoivia>v KOI 

KOpV&OS KOI Xl/SuOff KOL K\OS. ix. I, 609 b 6 TTe'XXo? TToXf/iei KOpvdti), TO, 

yap o>a avrov /cXfTrret. Ib. 609 TroXe/uia TrotfiXi'Sey Kat KopvSwves Kal 
TTiVpa Kal x^>P f vs. Hostile also to a/cai/#vXXi's, Phile, 683, Ael. iv. 5. 
Uses the "grass aypvarris as an amulet or protection, Ael. i. 35, as 
does the Hoopoe, Phile, 724; whence the proverb eV Kopv8ov 
Koirr] o-KoXif) KeKpvnraL ayp&o-Tis, Geopon. xv. i, 19. Uses, in like 
manner, oak-leaves, Phile, 725. Is killed by mustard-seed, vdnvos 
(77rep/u,<m, Phile, 662, Ael. vi. 46 ; cf. Galen, Theriac. i. 9, 943, &c., 
Diosc. ii. 59, 796. How the lark led an Attic colony to Corone in 
Messenia, and how Apollo, under the name Ko'puSo?, had a temple 
and cured diseases there, Paus. iv. 34, 8. How the Lemnians honoured 
the larks, ra rtoi/ arTeXa/3a>i> fvpio~KovTa$ &>a Kal Korrrovras, Plut. ii. 380 F. 
The story of the Lark and his Father, Aesop ap. Ar. Av. 471 
irdvTwv TTpWTrjv opviOa yevecrdai, TTporepav rrjs yr/s, Acaxreira voo~q) TOV 
avrtjs d7rodi>f)<TKfiv' yrjv d' OVK (ivai, TOV 8e TrpoKfladai 7rfp.7TT<uov' Trjv S* dno- 
povcrav UTT' dprjxavias TOV Trnrep* avTijs ev Tfj Ke<pa\fj KaTopv^ai. The same 
story told in great detail of the Hoopoe, eVov^ 'iv SIKOS (Ael. N. A. xvi. 5) 


KOPYAAAOI (continued}. 

with the statement that the Greeks probably transferred the legend to the 
lark ; vide s.v. eiroij/. The legend, which probably includes a solar myth, 
is very obscure. Connected with it is probably the epithet e7riTu/i/3i'Stoi 
KopvdaXXidesj Theocr. vii. 27, but the line in Babrius Ixxii. 20 KopvdaXkbs 
ovv rdcpois naifav is spurious and unreliable (W. G. R.). The Kopvdos 
and eTrox//- (both crested birds) are frequently confused : the very word 
Alauda is possibly an Eastern word for the Hoopoe, Arab, al hudhud. 
Cf. Plin. xi. 37 galerita appellata quondam, postea gallico (?) vocabulo 

Associated with the name Philoclees, Ar. Av. 1295. 

The superficial resemblance between KopvdaXos and the name of 
"ApTffiis KopvQaXia (Athen. iv. 139) may help to explain"Apre/iiy 'AKaXavdis 
and the other similar epithets in Ar. Av. 870-877. 

A fabled metamorphosis, Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. 7, where Hippo- 
dameia is transformed into a lark, 6Yt eKopvcrcreTo Trpos ras ITTTTOV?. 

Fables. KopvSaXos els Trdyrjv aXovs, Aes. 209 (c. 55, F. 228). KOpvdaXos 
/cat yccopyo'y, Ib. 2IO (F. 379, C. 421, B. 88). 

KOPYOft'N, also Kopui/6euV dXf/crputoi/, Hesych. Very probably identical 
with Kopu&wi/, s. v. KopuSaXos. 

KOPYAAin'N- opvtGos eldos, Hesych. Vide s. v. icoXXupia>i>. 

The Crow, Corvus cor one, L., including also the Hooded 
Crow, C. comix, L. Mod. Gk. Kop&va (Erh.), Kovpovva (v. d. M.). 
Sometimes the Rook, which only appears in Greece during the 
winter, and appears to have received no special name : vide s.v. 
onrepjULoXoyos. On the confusion in Latin between comix, corvus, 
&c., v. Wedgwood, Tr. Philol. Soc., 1854, p. 107; also W. W. 
Fowler, ' A Year with the Birds/ c. vii. Dim. Kopw^iSeus, Cratin. 

ILv\. IO. 

First in Hes. Op. 747 M T0t e(peop.evr) Kpu>rj \ctKepvfa Kopavrj : cf. Ar. 
Av. 609 ; Apoll. Rhod. iii. 928 ; Arat. 950. 

Described as frequenting cities, Arist. H. A. ix. 23, 617 b, not a migrant, 
ib. (cf. Fab. Aes. 415). No bigger in Egypt than in Greece, ib. viii. 28, 
606 ; alimentary canal as in the Raven, ib. ii. 17, 504 ; frequent the sea- 
shore, to feed on jettisoned carcases, being omnivorous, ib. viii. 3, 593 b ; 
Archil. 44, ap. Athen. 594 O-VKYJ Trerpair) 7ro\\as jBoaKovo-a Kopwvas (? rooks). 

Breeding habits. Arist. De Gen. iv. 6, 774b TLKrovatv a'reXr/ /cat rv(p\d. 
H. A. VI. 8, 564 eVspa^bt'O'i de ai 6rj\eiai povai, Kai 8iaT(\ov(riv en avru)v 
ovcrai dia Travros' rpffpovcri 8' auras ol appeves Kop,iovTes rr]v rpocprjv avrais 
/cat airi^ovrfs : ib. 6, 563 b eVrt rtra xpovov eTTt/zeXelrat* /cat yap ijdrj Trero- 
On their monogamous habits, mutual afifec- 


KOPHNH (continued}. 

tion and constancy, whence their invocation at weddings, vide Ael. 
iii. 9 (infra ctt.}. 

Myth and Legend. Its proverbial longevity. Hes. in Plut. De Orac. 
Def. ii. p. 415 C Ivvfa rot iwei yeveas XuKepua K.op<avr), \ dv8pa>v ?7/3a>i>ra>j/ : 
cf. Ar. Av. 609, Arat. 1023 cvvedveipa Kopcwr) : Opp. Cyn. iii. 117 aicrd- 
evra re (pv\a TToKvfaoi (? 7roXuKpa>oi) re Kop&vai. Cf. also Ar. Av. 967 
TToXtat Kopwvai : Babr. Fab. 46, 9 Kopavrjv devrcpav oVaTrX^o-a?, lived two 
crows' lives ; Automed. ix (Gk. Anthol. ii. 193) /3i'oi/ <uotre Kopavrjs : 
Lucill. xcvii (ib. iii. 49) ei /ieV f t s ravaov eXdfpov xpovov f]e Kopavijs : Com. 
Anon. 4, 680 (Meineke) inrep raj Kopvva? /3e/3ia>K<k, &c. See also Plin. 
vii. 48, Horat. Car. iii. 17, 16 annosa cornix ; Martial, x. 67 cornicibus 
omnibus superstes, c. ; Lucret. v. 1083, Juv. x. 247, Ovid, Amor. ii. 6, 36. 
Auson. Id. xviii. 

Is hostile to yd\r), y\av, op^tXo?, 7rpeo-/3vy, rvrcavos, Arist. H. A. ix. 
I, 609,610: to aKav6v\\is, Ael. iv. 5 : to deros and KipKos, Ael. xv. 22; 
friendly to epcoSws, Arist. 1, c., Ael. v. 48. The War of the Owls and 
Crows, Ael. iii. 9, V. 48 exrfi de fj y\avg eariv avrfj TroXe/Aior, KOI vvKrcap 
cnijBovXevd rols tools Trjs Kopavys, f) be fj.c& fjfjLepav Klvr)v ravro Spa retro, 
etdiua %X flv T *) v o^nv TfjV y\avKa TrjviKavra dadevrj. Cf. Jataka, p. 270 ; 

Ind. Antiq., 1882, p. 87; De Gubern. Zool. Myth., &c. Vide 
s. v. yXau^ for a discussion of the moon-symbolism of the latter bird, 
and compare the Chinese expression of the Golden Crow and the 
Jewelled Hare to signify the Sun and Moon. The same legend may 
account for Athene's supposed enmity to the Crow, cf. Ovid, Amor. ii. 
6, 35 cornix invisa Minervae. 

Uses dpi<TTp)v as a charm, Ael. i. 35 ; also pa/m/of, Phile, De Am. Pr. 
725 ; and Trepia-repeuva TOV VTTTIOV, Geopon. XV. 1,19. 

A weather-prophet : of storm, Theophr. Sign. vi. 3, 39 lav ra^u 8ls 
Kp<ar) KOI rpirov ^et/if'pia o^juaiw . . . Kal o\^e qdovora : Arat. IOO2 Koi 
ff<rvxa TroiKiXXouovz [s. KcoriXXoucra, Lob.] | &py ev fcnrepir) Kpo>yp.ov TroKvfpojva 
Kopuvrj : ib. IO22 /cat evvedvcipa Kopavr) \ vvxrtpov de[()ov<ra : cf. Arist. fr. 

241, I522b, ap. Ael. vii. 7, Plut. ii. 674 B, Virg. G. i. 388, Hor. C. iii. 
17, 13, Lucan v. 556; a sign of fair weather, Theophr. vi. 4, 53 KOI 
ea>@v fvdvs lav Kpdrj rpi'?, evdiav orq/zati/ei, KOI ecrnfpas ^ft/ucows 

Souo-a : cf. Ael. 1. c., Virg. G. i. 410, Geopon. i. 2, 6, &c. 
A bad summer is portended when the fig-leaves are shaped like 
a crow's foot, Plut. ii. 410 E. 

The Crow in augury, seldom mentioned in Greek, save in Ar. Aves ; 
see also Ael. iii. 9, where a solitary crow is mentioned as an evil omen ; 
according to Porph. De Abst. iii. 4, the Arabs understood the language 
of crows. A crow on the left-hand is unlucky, Virg. Eel. ix. 15, Cic. 
De Div. i. 39, Plaut. Asin. ii. i, 12, &c. ; cf. Hopf, Orakelthiere, p. 115. 

According to Bent, Cyclades, 1885, p. 394, the inhabitants of Anti- 

KOPflNH 99 

KOPQNH (continued}. 

paros are called Kovpovvai by their neighbours in Paros, the reason 
assigned being that if the former see a crow on the south side of 
a tree, they are in terror. 

How a crow never enters the Acropolis at Athens, Arist. fr. 324, 
I532b, Ael. v. 8, Apollon. viii, Plin. x. (12) 14. (This statement is 
believed by some modern travellers, cf. Dr. Chandler, Trav. in Greece, 
c. xi. p. 54 ; and may have a foundation in fact, due simply to the height 
of the hill.) How a crow in Egypt used to cany messages for King 
Marres, and was honoured with a sepulchre, Ael. vi. 7. How a crow 
dies if it falls in with the leavings of a wolf's dinner (!), Ael. vi. 46, Phile, 
671. How a brazen crow was found in the foundation of Coronea, 
Paus. iv. 34, 5. How the crows showed the grave of Hesiod, Paus. ix. 
38, 3. How the young crow leaves the egg feet first, Dion. De Avib. i. 10. 
The heart eaten, to secure prophetic powers, Porph. De Abst. ii. 48 (cf. 

It was invoked at weddings, Ael. iii. 9 OKOUO) Se TOVS naXai Kal Iv rots 
ydfjLOis p.Ta TO vp.eva.iov rrjV Koputvrjv KO\~IV, o-vvdrjp,a opovoias TOVTO rots 
avviovo'LV eirl TraidoTToiiq didovTff. Cf. Horap. i. 9 ydp.ov de dr]\ovvres ) dvo 
Kopwvas <Bypa(pot;(n [01 Atywmot] : regarding which statement, see Lauth, 
Sitzungsber. Bayer. Akad. 1876, p. 79. Cf. also Horap. i. 8 r6i>"Apea KOI 
Trjv^AcppodiTrjvypd^ovTes, dvo Kopwvas faypacpovaiv, <$ avdpa KOI yvvalKa, errel 
roOro TO q>ov dvo <wa yevvq, a<p' a>v cippev Kal 6rj\v yvvao~dai Set. eVeiSai/ 6e 
ycvvrjo"?], onfp o~7raviti)S yiVerai, dvo r) dvo 6rj\VKa^ ra dpcreviKa ras 
6rj\fias yafjLTjo-avra ov /Jiiayerai eVepa Kopwvrj, ov8e jj-rjv f) QrjXeia erepa KOpwvrj 
, aXXa p-ova ra airo^vyevTa 6iareXet. dib Kal fj.ia Kopavy o~vvav- 
Tai ol ai>6pa)7TOi, &)? x r iP ^ OVTl o~vvr)VTr)KOTcs fpa>' rf]S de 
TOiavrrjs avrcov 6/j.ovoias X^P LV P^XP 1 vvv ' 1 "EXX^ycy ev rdls ydpois' eKKOpi, 
Kopij Kopwvrj' \eyovo-iv dyvoovvres. Cf. the Delphic oracle ap. Pausan. 
ix. 37, 4 en//-' rj\6es yeverjv dt^rj^fvoS) oXX' en KOI vvv \ i<jToftor[i yepovri verjv 
Trort/SaXXe Kopwvrjv. 

The much-discussed words eKKopi, Kopi, Kopuvrj, or (Prov.) xo'pe, eV/fo'pei 
Kopdovrjv are quite obscure (cf. Herm. Opusc. ii. 227, Leemans in Horap. 
p. 156, various commentators on Pind. P. iii. 19, &c.). They are prob- 
ably part of a ( Crow-song,' and very likely involve a corruption of 
foreign words : TTJKOpI (which word includes the article) is said to be 
Coptic for a Crow or Daw. Various uses of cKKopew, fcoxojplgbpai, &c., 
are perhaps involved in the same corruption ; cf. also the word-play on 
Koprj, Kouposy &c., in the Crow-song next referred to. 

On the Crow-song, Kopcuiuo-fxa, and its singers, Kopoworai, see Athen. 
viii. 359 lda de 3?oiviK.a rrjv KoXo(pa>i/ioi/ iap.{3oTroiov p.vr]p,ovevovTa nvu>v 
dvdpvv a>s dyeipovTMV rfj Kopavy (cf. Hesych. S. V. ropawtOTOu), Kal Xeyovmv 
raCra' 'Eo-^\ot Kopco^ ^eipa Trpoo-dore Kpiflav, Trj naidl roD 'ATroXXcovoy, 
wv, K.r.X. Ilgen, Poet. Gr. Mendicorum Spec., in Opusc. 
H 2 


KOPflNH (continued}. 

Var. Phil., i. p. 169 ; Fauriel, Chants de la Gr. Mod., i. p. cix. See also 
s.v. x 6 ^ 1 ^"- 

Frequent in Fable, e.g. Kopowrj KOI nopat- (the Crow that could not 
prophesy), Fab. ACS. 2O2 ; Kopcovr/ *A0r)vq duovo-a, ib. 213. xeXia>i> KOI 
KopavTj, ib. 416. 

Proverb Kop^vrj o-KopTriov [fjpnacre']. Anth. Pal. xii. 92, Hesych., Suid., 
cf. Ael. vii. 7, Zenob. iv. 60, p. 101. 

KOPft'NH C H AAYAI'AI. The Nightingale ; vide s. v. dYjSui'. 
KOPfl'NH e H OAAA'IIIOI. An undetermined sea-bird. 

Od. V. 66 Tavvy\(i)O'o~oi re Kopwvai \ eivaXiai, rfjaiv re $aXacr<ria epya 
fifp.rj'hfv. Ib. xii. 418, xiv. 308 ol 5e Kopavyo-iv txeXoi Trepi vrja peXatvav \ 

K.VfJ.aO~lV fJL<popOVTO. 

Arrian. Peripl. c. 21 Xapoi *ai aWviai KOL KopS>vai al da\d(rcriai TO 7r\r)Qo$ 
ov pradfttyrot* ovrot of opvides Oepanevova-iv roO *A^iXXea)y roi/ veoov. fc 
6<rr)p.fpai Karate roi/roi es TTJV 6d\a(T<Tav' eirfira OTTO Tijs 6a\d(T(Trjs 

fJLCVOt TO. TTTfpO. (TTTOV^fj av (T7rTOVTai fS TOV ^COJ/, KOI paivOVCTt TOV V0)V. 

Arat. Progn. 95 *7 7TOV Ka ' XaKepv^a Trap' rfiovi 7rpov%ovcrr] 
ep^o/iefou ^ep(r< VTrerv^e Kopooi/^, | ^f TTOU /cai noTap.oio e/Sa^aro /xe^pi Trap' 
aKpovs | &ILOVS fK Kf<paXf)y, ^ <at /iaXa Traora KoXu/z/3a, | 77 TroXXj) arpe(perat 
Trap' vdcop na^ea. Kpw^ovaa I cf. Geopon. i. 3, 7 Kf *' KOpd>vr) eV' atyiaXoi) r^i/ 
Ke(pa\f)v 8iaj3px ovo ' a } *l 7TO" a vr lXP* vr )i K( *i- WKTOS o-fpo&porepov Kpa>ovara, 
opftpovs 7rpoiJ.r)vvi : Theophr. Sign. vi. I, l6 Kopcovrj eVt TreVpa? Kopvarao- 
fjv Kipa KaTaxXv^fi. vdap (rrjfjLaivet' Kal *coXu/i/3a)(ra TroXXa/ciy 

These passages, with which compare Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b, and 
Ael. xv. 22, denote a different bird altogether from fcopeov?/, evidently 
a swimming and diving bird, and not merely one frequenting the sea- 
shore as the Carrion Crow and Hooded Crow do. It is neither a Xapo? 
nor an aWuia (Arrian, 1. c.) though identified with them by the Scholiast 
in Od. v. 66, with whom cf. Hesych. Kop&vaC aXiai aWvuu, KoXv/t/3i'Sfy. 
It may be another name for the Cormorant (vide s. v. Kopa, |3) : but 
it is not safely identifiable. 

It is apparently such passages which are imitated in Virg. G. i. 388 
Turn cornix plena pluviam vocat improba voce, Et sola in sicca secum 
spatiatur arena; cf. Claud. De Bell. Gild. 492 Heu nimium segnes, 
cauta qui mente notatis, Si revolant mergi, graditur si littore cornix. 
Cf. however the weather-prophecies s. v. KoXoios. It is at least pretty 
clear that in such passages the Latin poets were thinking more of what 
they had read than of what they had seen. 
KO'IKIKOI, KOTtKas, KOTTOS, KOTTuXos. The Common Fowl. Hesych. 

KOCTKIKOL' ol KaToiKiftioi opvdes. KOTIKCIS' dXeVnwp. KOTTOS' opvis. 

KorruXoi* KaroLKidiai opvds. 


KOZKIKOI (continued}. 

These obscure words do not occur elsewhere. KOTTOS is said to be 
connected with KOTTIS, for a crest or top-knot, cf. Hesych. s. v. -irpoKorra : 
/cat 01 d\KTpvoves KOTTOI 8ia TOV CTTI rfj Ke(pa\f) \6(pov (cf. supra, S. V. 

K<XX(i)l>). For KOOVClKOy, KOTTUAOS 1 , cf. K.OO~(T(.\OS) KOO~O~V(pOS, KOTTVffOS I KOTiKdS, 

on the other hand, suggests a corruption of KUTOIKUS. Cf. Lob. Proll. 
327 ; Schmidt ad Hesych. 3758, 3790. 

KO'IIY^OI, a. Also KO\|/IKOS, Ar. Av. 306, 806, 1081 ; Nicostr. ap. 

Athen. ii. 650, &c. ; KO\|/UKOS, Suid. 
The Blackbird, Turdus merula, L. Mod. Gk. KoVo-v<pos, KoYcrtxpo?, 

KOTO-V(pl, KOT^KpOf. 

Description. Its size compared with the Woodpecker, Arist. H. A. 
ix. 9, 614 b ; with \aios, ib. 19, 617 ; with rpi^a?, ib. 20, 617 ; with KVO.VOS, 
ib. 21,617 ; with \J/-a'poff, ib. 26, 617 b. (poivucovv e^ei ro pvyxs, ib. 29, 
617. Dion. De Avib. i. 27 8uo 8' eVri yevij KOQ-Q-V^V' KOI ol pev ndvrr] 
/neXaver, ol 8e Kr)p(j> TO. X ^- r } 7rpo" f tKores', KOL TCOV tTepav fj,a\\ov rrpbs ras 
<aSas fTTiTtjdeioi : this is plainly the sexual difference. 

Migration, Arist. H.A. viii. 16, 600, (pcoXet. Change of plumage, ib. 
ix. 49 B, 632 b T>V S' opvewv TToXXa /^era/3aXXoua'i Kara ray &pa$ KOI TO 
Kal rfjv (frwvfiv, olov 6 KOTTV(pos avT\ fj,e\avos avdos' Kal rr]V (puvr]V 5 
aXAotai/' V p.ev yap TOO $epei aSft, TOV de ^fi^covoff Trarayei KOL 
Qopvpvdes. Cf. Arist. fr. 273, I527b; Ael. xii. 28. Eustath. Hexaem. 
p. 30 e wStKoO KpaKTiKos : cf. also Clem. Alex. Paedag. x, Plin. x. 28 
Merula ex nigra rufescit, canit aestate, hyeme balbutit, circa solstitium 
mutat. Song referred to also, Ael. vi. 19 ; Theocr. Ep. iv. 10 clapivol 
de \iyv(p86yyoi(riv aoio~als \ Koao~v<poi d^eC(riv TroifctXorpavXa jueXf/. 

Nesting. Arist. H. A. v. 13, 554 81$- r/Krei 6 Koa-avfpos' TO. fiev ovv Trpair.i 
TOU KO(r<Tv(f)ov VTTO ^fi^tan/off aTToXXvrai, Trpcoi'airara yap T'IKTZI TO>V opve^v 
dndvTWV, TOV 8' vaTfpov TOKOV fls re'Xoy eKrpe0 : cf. Dion. De Avib. i. 27. 
Arist. H. A. ix. 13, 616, builds a nest lined with hair and wool like xXwpi's-. 

White Blackbirds on Cyllene. Arist. H. A. ix. 19, 617, De Mirab. 
15, 831 b, Pausan. viii. 17, 3, Sostrat. ap. Ael. v. 27, Plin. x. 30, Steph. 
Byz. s. v. KuXAr^, c. ; according to Lindermayer (p. 30) white or 
albino blackbirds are still remarkably common on Cyllene, but in 
Aristotle the fact is mixed with fable. 

Mode of capture. Dion. De Avib. iii. 13. Frequently mentioned, 
together with Ki'^X?/, in the Anthology; Rhian. vi (Gk. Anth. Jac. i. 231) 
IG> Aei(WKO? VTTO xXcopfl TrXarai/iVrw | Koo~o-v<pov erypfvcrar, elXe Kara 
TTTfpvyoav' \ ^a> p.ev dvao~TevdxG)v eneKoxvev iepos opvis '. Archias xxiii (ib. ii. 
85) fiiVo-ats <rvv Kt^Xaiiriy vnep (ppaypolo 8ia)^^eiV | Koo-o-vcf)os rjepirjs KoXnov 
eov ve(p\r]s : Antip. Sid. Ixii (ib. ii. 23) dia-adv eK /Spo^ifiwv a p.ev pia 
iriova Ki^Xaj; | a /nia 8' Imrfia Koao-vcfrov ctXe Traya : Paul. Sil. Ixxii (ib. iv. 

63) OpOplOS fVTT^CKTOlO \LVOV ve<pOei8l K.6\7T(t> | e/LlTTCCTe (T\!V Kl^Xjy KOO~O~V<pos 


KOZZY4>OZ (continued}. 

Tjdvpoas. Mentioned as a destructive bird, Anon. 416 (ib. iv. 206) 
fjviSe KCU Kix^r)v Kat K6<ro~v<pov, Jj^iSe roVcrous | ^apas, dpovpairjs ap-rrayas 

Myth and Legend. Arist. H. A. ix. i, 608 b, hostile to *pe, friendly 
with rpvycov : cf. Ael. vi. 46. Is killed by pomegranate, cf. Phile, De 
An. Pr. 657. 

KO'ZZY4>OZ, |3. A breed of fowls at Tanagra. 

Pausan. ix. 22, 4 TOVTOW TWV Koo~(rv(f)(dv fieyeOns p.ev Kara TOVS Avfiovs 
eo~Tiv opvidaS) XP oa $* f[Ji(f>prjS Kopaxi, KaXXaia de KOL 6 \6<pos Kara a.vep.a>vr]v 
/uaXiora. Xevxa 8e (rrjp.e'ia ov /neyaXa eVi re aKpto rw pdpfai Kal enl anpas 
exouai rrjs ovpas : cf. ib. viii. 17, 3. 

KOTTO'Z. opvis [i. e. aXfKrpvwi/] Hesych. Hence KOTToftoXew, TO trapa- 
TWO. opvtv, ib. ; cf. Kopa>vo[Bo\e1v, Anth. Pal. vii. 546; also 
, '4v6a al opvifas Koip.S)VTai, Hesych. Among the Mod. 
Gk. names for a Fowl are KoVra and KorraTrovXt. 

KOYKOY'4>A, s. KouKouc|)as, J. KOUKOU^OS. The Egyptian name for the 
Hoopoe. Vide s. v. tiro\|f. Cf. Lib. MS. Anon. De Avibus (cit. 
Ducange in Gloss. Med. et Inf. Gr., s. v. KOU'KOU<|>OS, Leemans 

ad Horap. p. 280) en-o^ opveov tv dfpi TTfTOfjievov' OVTOS KaXclrai 


Horapollo, i. 55 AiyuTmoi ev^apia-riav ypdfpovrfs KovKov(pav coypa<f)ov(ri, 
8iori TOVTO [JLOVOV T<>v d\6yo>v (po>i' 7T(iav VTTO ro)V yoveo>v eKTpiicpfj, yijpdo'a- 
uiv avTois TrjV avrfjv arraTroS/ScDcri X^P lv ( c ^ Ael. X. 1 6) : odev KOL eVi TO>V 
6eiocv aKf]TTTpo)v KovKov<pa TrporifJirjffis ecrri. Cf. the Cuckoo on Hera's 
sceptre at Mycenae, s. v. KOKKU. On the Hoopoe on Egyptian sceptres 
or staves, see Creuzer's Symbolik, ii. 64, 280, pi. iv. 17; Denon, PI. 
cxix. 8, &c., &c. For an account of the hieroglyphic symbol of the 
Hoopoe, and an explanation of the statements of Horapollo, vide 
Lauth, in Sitzungsb. d. Bayer. Akad. 1876, p. 106. To the Egyptian 
references given above, s.v. Iiro\|/, add the following : <rVo<pi'ero [Qavvos] 
napa TOLS AlyvTTTLOiS) otcoycoi/ re Xoyov? Kat CTTOTTOOV TrpcxrayyfXias Ka\ 'ITTTTCOV 
Xpep.eTio-p.ovs paQw, Exc. Cr. Barbari, Chron. Min., ed. Fick, 1893, 
P- 239. 
KOYPEY'Z' opvts TTOIOS, drro rot) <p6eyyecr6ai ffifpepes fjx*? yvafpiKov /xa^atpiov, 


KOYTl'AEZ' o-VKaXXi'Se?, Hesych. Cf. KovTidia' diKTva TO. -rrpos ras (TVKaX- 
\i8as, Hesych. 

KPA'BOZ' 6 Xapoy, Hesych. 
KPArrfl'N- Kio-o-a, Hesych. 


KPA'MBnTON' IKTIVOS TO >ov, Hesych, 

KPAYfO'Z. A Woodpecker. SpvoKoXdnrov ctSos, Hesych. : who has 
also Kpavyov TTOIOS opvis. Von Edlinger cites Lith. kraki\ cf. 

KPE'=, also Kepicds (Hesych.). A very doubtful bird, usually identified, 
by Sundevall and others, with the Corn-crake or Land-rail, 
Rallus crex, L., Crex pratensis, auctt. = opruyop^Tpa = Kuxpap>s. 
The name is lost in Mod. Gk. 
Herod, ii. 76, compared in size with the Ibis. 

Ar. Av. 1138 TOVTOVS S' CTVKIOV al KpfKfs tols pvyx^iv. Schol. in Ar. 
(Suid.) opveov dvaoitavia-TOv rols ya/jLOvcriv, 6v rrdvv TO pvyxos Kal Trpiova&es 
f\ ov: c f- Hesych. opveov , 6 rot? yaftovo-iv olawffcrot' racro-fTai de KOL 
errt rpo^ov [cf. iuy]. As a bird of evil ornen to the newly married, 
cf. Euphor. 4 (quoted by Tzetzes) bv S' fjflo-e ydpov KO.KOV e^^o/uevos Kpe|, 
and Lycophr. 513, where Helen is Svadprrayos Kpeg. A messenger of 
Athene, Porph. De Abst. iii. 5. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 b Kpe TroAejuios eXecS KOL KOTTU$< KOL ^Xcopi'coi/t . . . 
Kal yap avrovs fiXdirrei K.a\ rot reKva avT&v. In Ael. iv. 5 (loc dub?) 
Kpeg is hostile to aWvia'. also Phile, De An. Pr. 68 1, with epithet 

j3pa$v7rTpos. Arist. H. A. ix. 17, 6l6b 17 Se xpe| TO p.V rjdos /ua^tjuo?, 
rqv 5e duivoiav evprjxavos Trpbs TOV ftiov, aXXco? 8e KaKOTror/uoy opvis. Arist. 

De Part. iv. 12, 695, mentioned among the long-legged birds with 
a short hind-toe. 

Kpe' has been identified, on account of its pugnacity; with the Ruff, 
Machetes pugnax, L.; but the Ruffs fight with one another (cf. jae^i/wj/), 
and, moreover, all the accounts of mutual hostilities between birds are 
unreliable, and in the main mythological. From the size, and the 
rudimentary hind-toe, the Black-winged Stilt, Himantopus rttfipes, 
Bechst. was suggested first by Belon : its use by Herodotus as 
a standard of comparison with the Ibis is somewhat in favour of this 
bird, which is common in Egypt. The identification with the Corn-crake 
rests mainly on the assumption that the name is onomatopoeic. The 
facts that the Scholiasts knew little or nothing about the bird, and 
that the name is lost in Mod. Gk., suggest that the word was perhaps 
an exotic, and that its meaning was early lost. 

KPirH'- 77 yXaOl, Hesych. 

KPl'EZ' f) xeAi8a>i/, Hesych. Doubtless corrupt : Meineke suggests 
? or K/Ycr */. 

KY'ANOI. Probably the Wall-Creeper, Tichodroma muraria, L. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 21, 617 /mXicrra ev Nto-ypw [eV 2Kupa>, Ael.] eVrt, 
TTOieTrai ' eVi TCOI> irfTpwv Tas 5iarpi/3ay* TO Se fAtyedos KOTTV(J)OV eXarra-i', 


KYANOI (continued}. 

cnrlflp Se /jLfifav /ziKpo)* p,(yd\o7rovs e, Kal rrpos ras Trerpas Trpoaa 
KVCIVOVS oXos" ro 5e pvy%os X i ^TTTOV Kal fj.aKpov } <TK\r) de 

Ael. iv. 59 opi/t? drravdpconos rbv rponov, [uawv pev ra? dariKas 8ia- 
rpi/3as /cat ray KHT' oliciav av\i(reis, . . . ovre rjireipois <pi\r)8e'i ) ovre vfjvois 
ayaOais' 2/cupa) e, Krzi et TIS TOICLVTTJ cVepa ayay XuTrpa Kal ayovos Kat di^^pco- 
TTCOI/ %r)pvov(ra, a>s ra TroXXfi. 

The description in Aristotle accords very perfectly with the Wall- 
Creeper (with which bird Gloger, Sundevall, and Heldreich identify it) 
as regards habitat, size, feet, and bill, as does Aelian's account of its 
solitary nature : but the bird is not KVWOVS b\os, nor is Aelian's account 
of its habitat satisfactory. Aubert and Wimmer on the other hand, 
following Belon, Gesner, and other older commentators, identify KVCIVOS 
with the Blue Thrush (Mod. Gk. vrfrpoKoVo-ucpor, cf. infra, s. v. Xcuos)) 
which agrees with the description in colour, but in little else, and is 
a very common bird, whereas KVUVOS is mentioned as scarce and local. 

KYKNI'AI. An Eagle, white like a swan, at Sipylus near Lake 
Tantalus, Pausan. viii. 17, 3. 

That Pausanias is here in error is rendered the more probable by 
the existence in Med. Gk. of the words rvweas, rfrKveas, Mod. Gk. 
rcriKvtas, meaning a White Heron or Egret. 

The White Eagle of Pythagoras (Iambi. Vit. Pythag. 132, Ael. 
V. H. iv. 17) is supposed to be an allegory for the town of Croton, 
on whose coins an eagle is represented ; cf. O. Keller, op. cit., pp. 238, 

KY'KNOI. (Hesych. has also Ku'8 s .) Sk. fak-uni, a bird; Bopp, 
ii. p. 379, cf. Fick in Herzenberger's Beitr. z. I. Gr. Spr., vii. 
p. 94, 1883 : cf. the Gk. use of opvis for the constellation Cygnus 
(Arat. 275, 599, 628, &c.). 

A Swan. Mod. Gk. KVKVOS, viaXfia (Heldr.), and in the Cyclades 
KOV\OS (Erh.). The Mute Swan, Cygnus olor, Gm., breeds in 
Greece; the Hooper or Whistling Swan, C. mustcus, Bechst., 
is probably only a winter migrant; cf. Heldr., op. cit., p. 56. 

Epithets. dfpanroTrjs, Hes. Sc. H. 316 ; operas (= ^x e ' T '? y )j Eur. El. 
151 ; 8o\ixavx*]v, Eur. (?) I. A. 794; SowXi^dSeipoff, II. ii. 460, xv. 692; 
, Christod. Ecphr. 384, Xtyvdpoos, id. 414, in Gk. Anth. ; 
-, Opp. Cyneg. ii. 547; /ieXwSos 1 , Eur. I. T. 1104; TTOTO- 
, Id. Rh. 618; TroXio'^pco?, Id. Bacch. 1364: cf. Ar. Vesp. 1064; 
, Pallad. 40, in Gk. Anth. iii. 123; x tovl ^XP ms ) Eur. Hel. 216. 
A frequent emblem of whiteness : cf. Eur. Rh. 618 o-n'X/3oucn ' wore 
KUKVOV irrepov. [Note the frequent allusions in Euripides ; 


KYKNOI (continued}. 

rare in Aeschylus ; not in Sophocles, save for Tm'Xoz/ KVKVCIOV in the 
dubious fr. 708, ap. Clem. Alex. Strom. 716.] 

Description. Arist. H. A. i. I, 488, viii. 12, 597 b opvis aye\aios : 
ib. viii. 3, 593 b, enumerated among ra /Sapurepa TO>V o-reyavoTro'Scoj/ : 
ib. ix. 12, 615 ftioTfvovo-i irepl \ipvas KOI eX?7, cvjSi'oroi Se KCU fvrjOtis Kal 
VTKVOI Kal evyrjpoi, Kal TOV aerof, eav apf-rjTai, dp.vvop.fvoi viKwaiv^ avTol 
8' OVK apxovai paxys. nSiKol Se, Kal irepl ras reXeura? /zaXtora a8ov<nv' 
avaTTtrovrai yap Kal fls TO neXayos, Kai Tives fjdr] irXeovres Trapa TTJV AijBvrjv 
irepiTV%ov ev rfj BaXdrTrj TroXXoi? q8ovo~i (pcovfj yocoSei, Kal TOVTODV <apa>v 
aTTo6vrjO~KOVTas eviovs I cf. Ael. V. H. i. 14 Xeyet 'Apia-roreX^? TOV KVKVOV 
Ka\\inat$a elvat Kal TroXyrratSa, /c.r.X. : cf. also Athen. ix. 393 d ; Eustath. 
ad Horn. II. p. 193 ; Dion. De Avib. ii. 19. Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 509 e'x 
a7ro(f)vddas oXiyas KaTcadfv Kara TTJV TOV eVre'pou Te\evTrjv. Occur abun- 
dantly 'Ao-icp ev Xeipwvi, Kavo~Tplov dp(j)l pee^pa, II. ii. 461 : cf. Virg. G. 
i. 383, Aen. vii. 699; on the river Hebrus, Ar. Av. 768; on Lake 
Aornos, in the spot called Pyriphlegethon, near Cumae, Arist. De 
Mirab. 102, 839. Its flight described, Plin. x. (23) 32. The swan as 
food, Athen. ix. 393, Plut. De Esu Cam. 2, &c. 

Myth and Legend. On the combat with the Eagle, vide s. v. deros, 
and compare also the story of Leda ; cf. also Ael. v. 34, xvii. 24 ; Dion. 
De Avib. ii. 19. Is hostile also to 8paKa>v, Ael. v. 48, Phile 691. 
Is aXX^Xocpayo? pdXicrTa T&V opveav, Arist. H. A. ix. I, 6lO (cf. aXX^Xcxpo- 
vos, Pice., A. and W., dXX^Xocpi'Xo?, Sund.), cf. Plin. x. (23) 32 mutua 
carne vescuntur inter se. Is killed by KWVSIOV, Ael. iii. 7 ; places the herb 
Xvyaia in its nest as a charm, Boios ap. Athen. ix. 393 E. How the Indians 
do not favour the swan, from its want of filial affection, Ael. xiv. 13 ; yet 
the swan bewails its dead parent in Eur. El. 151, cf. Bacch. 1364 opvis 
ona>5 Kr)(j)rjva [a/Kp6/3aXXei] TroXio^pcos KVKVOS. Associated with the op(f)a\os 
Sit Delphi, Plut. De Orac. i. 409 ; vide s. v. deros. A good omen to 
sailors, Virg. Aen. i. 393, Aemil. Macer in Ornithogr. Anthol. Vet. Lat. 
Epigr. et Poem. i. 116 (cf. Serv. in Aen. 1. c.) Cygnus in auspiciis semper 
laetissimus ales, Hunc optant nautae, quia se non mergit in undas : 
see also Stat. Theb. iii. 524 ; cf. the Swan as a figure-head, Nicostr. 
iii. 282, &c. : cf. also the mythological (and astronomical) association 
of the Swan with Castor and Pollux (Hopf, Orakelthiere, p. 177) : see 
also Drummond in Class. Journal, xvi. p. 94. The Swan-maidens, 
Kopat Tpels KVKvopopcfroi, Aesch. Pr. V. 797. According to Nicand. and 
Areus ap. Anton. Lib. c. xii, a certain Cycnus, and his mother Thuria, 
were metamorphosed into swans at Lake Conopa, Kal no\\ol tv TJJ &pa 
TOV dpOTov fvraiiOa (paivovTai KVKVOI. 

On the Swan as the bird of Apollo, cf. Hymn. Horn, xxi, Caljim. 
Hymn. Apoll. 5, id. Hymn. Del. 249, Ar. Av. 772, 870, Ael. xi. I, Nonn. 
Dionys. xxxviii. 2O2 KVKVOV aywv rrrepofVTa, Kal ov ra^w "LTTTTOV 'A7r6XXcoj>,&C., 


KYKNOI (continued}. 

&c.; represented on coins of Clazomenae. With the Greek association 
of the Swan with Apollo, cf. the Hindoo connexion of the same bird with 
Brahma. Associated with Venus, in Latin only, Hor. C. iv. I, 9, Sil. 
Ital. Punic, vii. 441, Stat. Silv. iii. 4, 22 ; cf. the Cilix of Aphrodite and 
the Swan in the British Museum : vide Kalkmann, Jahrb. d. k. d. Inst., 
1886, i. 41, Collignon, Gk. Mythol. p. 132, fig. 56 ; see also Guignat, pi. 
C. 393, Creuzer, pi. liii. 2. 

The Swan's Song. Hesiod, Sc. H. 314 *Ap.<pi 5' 1rr\v pe'fi> 'ClKcavbs 
Tf\T]dovri cotKcos | . . . ol 8e K<IT' avTov \ KVKVOI depcrtTrorai /neyaX' fjirvov' 01 
pa -ye TroXXoi | vrjxoir eV aKpov v8a>p : cf. Virg. Aen. viii. 655. Hymn. 
Hom. xxi $>ol/3e, <re fj.ev Kal KVKVOS VTTO irrepvyav \iy det'Sei, | 6'^% tVt- 
0pa><rKcoi> TTorcifjibv Trapa divrjcvTo, | Tlrjvfiov : cf. Meleager no in Gk. Anth. 
i. 31 d\Kv6vs Trepl Kvpa, xeXi8oi/ey dufpl peXadpa, \ KVKVOS eV o-^dai<nv 
7Tor/io{5, ical vif a\<ros drjd&v [q&ov<ri] I Eur. I. T. IIO3 Xipvav ff efXur- 
<rov(rav vdwp \ KVK\OV [s, KVKVCLOV], evda KVKVOS ^ieXa>| dbs Movaas Oepcnrevfi '. 
Ar. Av. 769 TOidde KVKVOI \ avfj-jjuyrj @or)v 6/Mou | nTfpols KpeKovrfS 'LaK^ov 
'ArroXXco, o^&a e(pf6[j.evoi ?rap' r/ E/3pop Trorajuoi/i Callim. Hymn. Del. 249 
KVKVOI 8e deov fj.\7rovrS dot8oi | Mrjoviov IIuKTcoXov fKvK\axravTO \LnovTfs \ 
vrept A^Xoj', eVjjeKraj/ de Xo^ci^ | Moi/(rd<i/ opvides, doidoraTOi 
Pratin. i. 7 (Bergk 457) ola re KVKVOV ayovra TroiKiXoTrrepov 
fj.eXos : Dion. De Avib. ii. 19 avrrj^ovo-iv avrols qdovaiv ol re o-Korre\oi 
KOI ai (pdpayyes, KOL povaiKMTaTOvs iravrav TOVTOVS i(T/iei/ 6pvi6a>v, Kal lepovs 
Ka\ovfj.v 'ATroXXo) vos. q8ovo~i 8' ou^t Oprjv&o'fs, &o~7rep ol d\Kv6ves, aXX' f]8v 
n KCU p-eXi^poj/, Kal olov av\ols rj KiOdpais xpa>fj.evoi I Anon. 468 in Gk. 
Anth. iv. 2l8 fl KVKVG) dvvarai Kopvdos 7rapan\r]o~iov qdeiv I Antip. Sidon. 
47j ib. ii. 19 Xwirepos KVKVWV 6 /juKpbs 6poos ^e KO\OI>V \ Kpoaypos ev elapivols 
KidvafJLfvos v(f)fXais I Theocr. Id. V. 136 ov 6^.iTOV . . . enorras KVKVOIO~IV 
epio-Sfiv : cf. Ar. Ran. 207, Lucret. iii. 16, iv. 182, Virg. Eel. viii. 36, 
55, Mart. i. 54, Plut. Ei. ii. 387 povcriKy re fj8eTai, Kal KVKVUV (pava'ts. 

Especially of the dying Swan, Aesch. Ag. (1419), 1444 KVKVOV 8iKr)v,\ 
rbv vcrrarov /LieX^acra 6avdo~i[JLov yoov \ Kelrai (pi\r)TO>p roOS' I cf. Plato, 
Phaedo 85 B, Rep. 620 A ; cf. Porphyr. De Abst. iii. p. 286 ov naifav 
6po8ov\ovs avrov \eyev rovs KVKVOVS [6 SoaKpar???]. Ael. ii. 32, v. 34 
7reiria-TVK yap OTI p,r]8evbs dXyeivov fj.r]8e \nrapov /nereo-n $ai/aTO>, with 
which passage cf. Chrysipp. ap. Athen. xiv. 616 B (piXcxmoTrrq?, /neXXcov 
OTTO TOV drjpiov o~(pdTTfO~6ai flrrelv e(pr] 8e\iv a>o~7Tfp TO KVKveiov qo~as 
dnodavflvl Plut. Mor. l6l C et-qaai de Kal TOV jSiov T\VT>V Kal p.r) yevecrdai 
Kara TOVTO TWV KVKVMV dyevveo~Tpos I Phile, De An. Pr. X. 233 avdparre 
(pi\6\l/vxe, TOV KVKVOV /3Xe7ro)j/, | Trpbs TTJV Te\fVTT]V, (I (ppovels, pr) o~Tvyvdo~r)s I 

cf. Cic. De Orat. iii. i, I ; see also Ael. x. 36, xi. i ; Fab. Aes. 215, 
216, 416 b; Apoll. Rhod. iv. 1301; Polyb. xxx. 4, 7, xxxi. 20, i; 
Opp. Cyneg. ii. 547 OVK a P a T l p-ovvoio~iv ev 6pvi6eo-o~iv eao~i I KvKvot 
yoov voraroy deidovTes : Dio Chrysost. Orat. Cor. p. 102 


KYKNOI (continued}. 

(Reiske) ; cf. Hor. C. ii. 20, Ovid, Her. vii. i, Met. xiv. 430, Mart. xiii. 
77, Stat. Silv. ii. 4, 10, &c., &c. The singing swan a portent of death, 
Artemid. Oneirocr. ii. 20. Modern allusions are innumerable ; cf. 
Chaucer, P. of Fowles, 342, Tennyson, * The Dying Swan,' &c. ; see 
also for numerous references, Douce's Illustr. of Shakspeare, i. 262, 
Lenz, Zool. d. Gr. u. R., pp. 384-400, &c. 

The Swan's song was discredited by some, e.g. Alex. Mynd. ap. 
Athen. ix. 393 d ; Lucian, De Electro seu Cycnis ; Cic. Tusc. Quaest. i ; 
Philostr. V. Apollon. iii. c. 23 ; Plin. x. (23) 32 ; cf. Greg. Nazianz. Ep. i. 
TOT' qfrovrai KvKvoij oTav KoAcnoi (TitoTTTjO'ojo'tv. Cf. Scaliger, Ferrariae 
multos cygnos vidimus, sed cantores sane malos, neque melius ansere 
canere ; cf. also Aldrov. Ornith. iii. 19, 5 ; Wormius in Mus. Worm. iii. 
c. 19 ; Mauduit ap. Plin. ed. Panckoucke, vii. 385 ; Voss. De Idol. ii. 
p. 1212; Pierius, De Cycnis, p. 254 ; Brown's Vulg. Errours, iii. p. 27 ; 
the curious conjectures of Bryant, Anc. Mythol. ii. 353-384; Pallas, 
Zoogr. ross.-asiat, ii. p. 212, and recent writers. Modern naturalists 
accept the story of the singing swans, asserting that though the 
Common Swan cannot sing, yet the Whooper or Whistling Swan does 
so. It is certain that the Whooper sings, for many ornithologists 
state the fact, but I do not think it can sing very well ; at the very 
best, dant sonitum rauci per stagna loquacia cygni. This concrete 
explanation is quite inadequate ; it is beyond a doubt that the Swan's 
Song (like the Halcyon's) veiled, and still hides, some mystical allusion. 
Applied as an epithet to a poet, especially an old poet ; Eur. H. F. 
691 Traiavas 6' eVri (rot? p.e\ddpois \ KVKVOS cos yepoov doiBbs \ 7roAicii> en 

| KeAa6Yyo-co, Id. Bacch. 1361 ; Posidipp. x/. in Gk. Anth. ii. 48 
o) Zrjvoov 6 (ro(pbs KVKVOS : Christod. Ecph. 384, ib. iii. 175 ^/^s ' 
'EXi/cowo? toraro KUKI>OS, Hivdapos t/zepo^wi/os 1 : Anacreon is the 
'Swan of Teos,' Antip. i. 26, cf. Hor. C. iv. 2, 25. Cf. Horap. ii. 39 
yepovra ^OVCTLKOV /SofAdjuevoi (Trj/jLijvcii KVKVOV ^<i)ypa(pov(nv' OVTOS yctp 
T)$VTCITOV fJLtXos qdei 

The Swan of Leda. Cf. Eur. I. T. 794, 1104, Hel. 19, c., Here. F. 
690, Orest. 1388; also various passages in the Anthology, e.g. Pallad. 
40, in Gk. Anth. iii. 123, Anon. ib. iv. 118, 128, &c. ; cf. Lucian, De Deor. 
20, 14 (i. 264). For mythographic references, see Hygin. Fab.' 77, 
P. Astron. ii. 8, German, c. 24, Eratosth. c. 25, Theon. p. 136, &c. 
According to these latter authors, the mythology of the Swan is 
inseparable from the phenomena attending the constellation Cygnus. 
The stellar Swan lies in the Milky Way, 'the river of heaven'; it is 
adjacent to the constellation Lyra ; it rose a little in advance of the 
Eagle, but, lying more to the north, it only set some time after the 
Eagle had gone down : that is to say, it was attacked by the Eagle, 
but in turn defeated it, cf. Arist. H. A. ix. 12, 615 b, Ael. xvii. 24, &c. ; 


KYKNOI (continuect). 

it stood in mid-heaven at the rising of the Pleiad ; at its own rising, 
the Virgin (Leda) was in mid-heaven, and the twins Castor and Pollux 
were just setting in the west. The stories of Cycnus, son of Mars 
(Hesiod, Anton. Lib. 12, Philochor. ap. Athen., Ovid, Met., &c.), of 
Cycnus, King of Liguria (Hygin. Fab. 144), Cycnus, brother of Phaethon 
(Lucian, De Electro, Virg. Aen. x. 189), and others, which are also 
similarly connected with astronomical myths, lie outside the scope of 
this book. Cf. (int. al.), Dupuis, Orig. de tous les cultes, iii. p. 813, vii. 
P- 367. 

KY'MBH. A very doubtful bird. nrfpolSanoves Kvupai, Ernped. 188. 
Supposed by L. and S. to be a Tumbler-pigeon ; but cf. Ko'p.{3<x, 

SUpra. Hesych. has Kv^af opviQes I also Kv/x/3[ar]eurui'- opviQevrai 

KY'MINAIIrrx^fc^ (?) Y |, q. v. Kvfrvdts in some MSS., both of 
Horn, and Arist., cf. J. G. Schneider in Arist., vol. iv. p. 92. 

Hesych. has Kvftrjvats' y\av[ats], query Kvprjvftisl also KvddvaV 

TTJV y\avKa, query Kvfifjva. See also s. v. KIKKU^. An unknown 
or fabulous bird ; perhaps an Owl. 

II. xiv. 290 opvidi Xiyvpfj eva\iyKios, rjv r ev opewiv | ^aX/aSa KIK\T)<TKOVO-I 
$eoi, avdpes de KVfjLivdiv. 

Ar. Av. I l8l Xpei de nets TIS 6vv\as ^yKuXeo/neVo?, | Kepxvrjs, Tpiopxys, yv\lf, 
Kvpivdis, aleTos. Mentioned likewise among the rapacious birds, Ael. 
xii. 4. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 12, 615 b 6\tyaKis (J.ev (paiWrat, oiKel yap op?/, ecrri de 
/leXny, Kal fj.ey@os 5(rov iepa 6 (f)ao~cro(^6vos KaXovfievos, Kai rrjv Ideav pctKpbs 
Kal Xenros. K.vp.iv^iv de Ka\oi(Tiv "laves CIVTTJV '. the passage is very cor- 
rupt, and according to some texts (followed apparently by Pliny, x. 8, 
and by Eustath. in Horn.), the next clause concerning vppis or ivrvy^ 
applies to the same bird, ^ 6' v/3piV, (poor! 8c rives elvai TOV avrbv TOVTOV 
opvida T<a TTTvyyi, OVTOS fj/J-epas ^ev ov (paiverai 8ia TO pr) /SXeVfii/ ou, ras 5e 
vi/KTas Orjpevei coanep ol aeroi [oi oirot, cj. Sundevall], Kal fia^orrat 8e irpbs 
rbv deTov ovra) o-(po5pa WOT' ap.0a> XafjLJBdveardai noXXaKis a)VT(is VTTO rS)V 
vop,c>)V. TiKTei pv ovv 8vo coa, veoTTevei de Kal OVTOS ev Tierpais Kai <r7rrj\aiois. 

Conjectured by Sundevall to be the Black or Glossy Ibis, from the 
suggestion of metallic colouring in xaX/a'y, and from Mod. Gk. xXfcoKora, 
Erh. ; but this is certainly not a bird of the mountains, and the 
supposed derivation from ^aXxo's is imaginary. By Aub. and Wimmer, 
and others, ascribed to the Capercailzie, Tetrao urogallus, L. 
Usually taken to be a large Owl (cf. Suidas, xaX*iV, eI8os opveov, 17 
yXai|, cf. Schol. Ar. Av. 262), as by Belon, Gaza, and other older 
naturalists. Cuvier (Grandsaigne's Pliny, I. v. 11, pp. 374, 375) identi- 
fies it with the Hawk Owl, Strix uralensis, Pall., and Netolicka agrees. 


KYMINAIZ (continued"). 

The bird being, in Homer, that in whose shape "Ynvos appears, is an 
additional point in favour of identifying it with a nocturnal species : and 
this relation of vnvos to the bird ^aX/ti's- suggests a connexion with the 
phrase x^ KfOS vrrvos. ^aX/a? belongs to the language of the gods, that 
is to say, is probably a foreign word ; it is not likely to be a simple 
derivative of ^aXico?. Is there a possible alternative that ^aXxeos ZTTVOS 
is wrongly translated by/erreus somnus ? 

For an account of various Scholia relating to this bird, cf. J. G. 
Schneider, 1. c. In some, if not all, of the names of this bird, we are 
undoubtedly confronted with foreign words. 

KYHAPI'IIIA' etSos aXr/woW, Hesych. Query KvrrapiWtoi. 

KY'XPAMOI. MSS. have nixpafjios, Ke'xpa/xos, Kfxpa/ioy : Hesych. wy- 
xpavos, Kiyxpapas '. Schn. writes Kyxpap,os (^eyxpos) as Belon 
translates miliarius. 

An unknown bird : probably (as Sundevall takes it) identical with 
opTuyopJTpa, the Corncrake, Rallus crex, L. One or both 
names doubtless apply also to the Water-rail, Rallus aquaticus, 
L., which is very abundant in Greece, and according to Von der 
Miihle abandons its usual haunts in Autumn and frequently 
associates with the quails (op. cit., p. 92). 

Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597 b. A bird which accompanies the quails, 
/ecu dj/aKctAemu avrovs rwcTOJp* Kfu orav TOVTOV rr\v (pa>vr)V aKovcraxnV) ol 
Qrjpevovres "ivaviv on ov Karo^vovo-iv [ot oprvye?] : which expression 
Sundevall translates ' delay not their coming,' and A. and W. ' remain 
no longer.' Cf. Plin. x. (23) 33. 

KY'^EAOI, s. Kuv|/eXXos. A bird of the Swallow kind ; perhaps the 
Sand-Martin, Hirundo riparta, L. Hesych. KityeXor opvis 

Arist. H. A. ix. 30, 680, mentioned as synonymous with cnrous, q v., 
ais ^eXiSdo'tt'' ov yap padiov diayv5>vai TTpos rr)V ^eXiSova, rrX)i/ r<a 
rr)v Kvf)p.r}v e^eii/ Save'iav : cf. Plin. x. (39) 55. In the description of the 
nest (loc. cit.), though KV^\LS (a box, or beehive) would rather suggest 
the nest of the House-Martin (If. urbica, L.), yet the epithet naKpos 
would certainly not apply : moreover the House-Martin was certainly 
included in xeXt$a>i>. Accordingly the evidence leans to identifying 
Ki>\lff\os with the Sand-Martin, H. riparia^ L. ; this identification is 
followed by Sundevall, while A. and W., on the contrary, identify the 
bird with the House-Martin. There was doubtless a confusion of 
species. If the passage in Pliny suggests one more than another, it 
would seem to be the Swift ; yet in the Aristotelian reference the 


KYvpEAOI (continued}. 

hypothesis of the Sand-Martin, advocated by Sundevall, has strong 

Kfi'KAAOZ* KwKoXov' cldos aXeKrpvovos, Hesych. Cf. S. V. XotcaXos. 
KQNflnOGH'PAI- opvis 6 navanas fypcvuv, Hesych. 

KQTIAA'I. The Swallow. A Boeotian word. Anacr. 99 ; Strattis, 
&oiv. 3; cf. Simonid. 243. 

AAfOGH'PAI' Hesych., aerou flSos. = XayaxjxJ^os = jieXaj/deros (q. V.). 
An epithet of the Eagle. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 6i8b. The Eagle in combat with the hare is 
frequent on gems, and on coins of Agrigentum, Messana, Elis, &c. : cf. 
Imhoof-Blum. and Keller, passim ; Keller, Th. d. cl. Alterth., p. 449. 
The wide occurrence of this subject (cf. Layard, Nineveh, ii. pi. 62) 
indicates a lost mythological significance, in which one is tempted 
to recognize a Solar or Stellar symbol ; vide s. vv. deros, Kopa. 

AAfQAl'AZ. A synonym of cSros, Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ix. 390. 
AATOI'NHI- opvis TTOIOS, Hesych. 

AAm'nOYI. A Ptarmigan. 

Plin. x. (48) 68 praecipuo sapore lagopus : leporino villo nomen 
ei hoc dedere, cetero candidae, columbarum magnitudine, &c. The 
lagois, s. logois of Hor. Sat. ii. 2, 22, is possibly akin. In Mart. vii. 87, 
an old reading was Si meus aurita gaudet lagopode Flaccus, altered by 
Scaliger to glaucopide. 

AAffl'l. A bird-name, mentioned with the Swallow, in Artemid. 
Oneirocr. iv. 56. The name suggests a reference to daavKovs 
xeXiSoVeioy, Diph. s. Calliad. ap. Athen. ix. 401 a. According to 
Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. xx a certain Oreius was metamor- 
phosed into the bird Xayobs, opvis eV ovdevl <paiv6/j,evo$ aya$a>. 

AAEAO'I (MSS. also XatSos, Xt/3vo's). A bird, in all probability identical 
with Xcuos, q. v. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 6lO Xae&k KOI Ke\ebs (pi\oi. 6 8e \afobs rrerpas KOI 
oprj [oiK6t], *cai ^tXo^capet ov av OIKT/. 

We may connect the reputed friendship of KeXeo? and \ae86s with 
the association of /ceXeds and Xcuos together, in the obscure story of the 
metamorphosis of those impious persons who entered the forbidden 
cave in Crete where Jupiter was born ; Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. xix. 

AAI"O'I. Probably the Blue Thrush, Petrocichla cyanus, L. The 
Stone-thrush, P. saxatilis, L., is less common in Greece, and 


AAIOZ (continued}. 

is chiefly found in the northern and more mountainous parts. 
Both receive the Mod. Gk. name 7rerpoKoVo-u<po9 (Heldr.), and 
were probably confused under the ancient name also. 
Arist. H. A. ix. 19, 617 opoios rc5 \ii\avi Korrucpa) ecrrlv 6 Xcuo?, ro 
peyedos piKpw eXarrcov* OVTOS eVt r&v Trerp&v *al eVl rail/ Kepdpav ras 8ia- 
TpLftas TToidrai. A fabled metamorphosis, Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. xix. 

It seems all but certain that \acdos and \aios refer to the same bird. 
The correct reading of the name, or names, is unknown. In Arist. 
H. A. ix. 19, edd. have also (Balos and (pmos (cf. Camus, i. 747, Schneider, 
ii. 120). The name Xa'ios is taken from the passage in Anton. Lib., 
the supposed derivation from \aas helping to gain it acceptance. Schn. 
and Pice, read \aios also for XaeSog, q. v. 
AA'AAfEI- opveov elBos, Hesych. Possibly connected with Mod. Gk. 

XeXfKi, a Stork ; vide s. v. ireXapyos. 

AA'POI, a. A Sea-Gull. In Mod. (and doubtless also in Ancient) Gk. 
yXdpos includes both the Gulls and the Terns. 

Od. v. 51, a perfect description. Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 509 e^<-i rbv <TTO- 
paxov *vpvv Kal rrXarvv oXov. Ib. V. 9, 542 b TIKTCI TOV Oepovs, ev TOLS nepl 
6d\arTav Tre'rpmy, TO 7T\r)6os 8vo ^ rpia' ov (fia)\evi | cf. Plin. X. 32. On its 

breeding habits, see also Dion. De Avib. ii. 4. 

Varieties. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b \dpos TO XP^M" o-TroSoa&Jy, also 
Xapo? 6 \evKos. The former is, according to Aub. and Wimmer, one 
of the darker Terns, e. g. Sterna nigra, Briss. ; but the epithet seems 
more descriptive of the ashy grey of the ' Black-backed ' Gulls : cf. 
na\aKoKpdvevs. Dion. De Avib. ii. 4 enumerates three sorts: of fuv 
\cvKol KCU as al TTfpicrTfpal Ppaxe'ts' ol 8e TOVTGW pev clat pflifovcc KOI l(r\vpo- 
repot, TrvKvordrois Se Trrepoi? TrepKrKeTrovrat' Kai rivfs eri KOL TOVTWV evpcyc- 
6e<TTepoC \fVKa S' eVri Kai TOUTOI? Trrepo, TT\TJV ovov eVi rats aKpordrais 
irTpvgi Kal rols rpa^Xot? /zeXaiVovrai. *cat rovrois arravTes oi XotTrol Xapoi 
voprjs T KOI edpas 7rapa^copoi)(ri Kai u>s fiacriXcvo'iv virfiKovcrC KCIL yrjpdaKovai 
8' avrols Kvdvea yiverai Trrfpa. Here the first group are probably the 
Terns, the last the Black-backed Gulls. 

A bye- word for greediness, Ar. Eq. 959, Nub. 591, Av. 567. Devour 
dolphins stranded on the beach, Ael. xv. 23. Open shell-fish by drop- 
ping them from a height, Ael. Hi. 20. 

Myth and Legend. Hostile to fipevQos, apTrrj, and <?po>8io's, Arist. H. A. 
viii. 3, 593 b, Ael. iv. 5, Phile 682; friendly to KO\OIOS, Ael. v. 48. 
Killed by pomegranate-seed, Ael. vi. 46, Phile 657. Associated with 
Hercules, Ar. Av. 567. The Gulls are souls of disembodied fishermen, 
hence their gentle and peaceable disposition, Dion. I.e. A gull's 
feather was tied to a fishing-line as a kind of float, Ael. xv. 10. 

Fable. Xdpos Kal <Vr/or, Aes. 239 (ed. Halm). 


AA'POI, |3. A kind of tame singing bird, Anth. Pal. vii. 199. 
AEfOI, vide s.v. iXeios. 

AEYKEPflAIO'l (also XevKopd>8ioy). The Spoonbill, Platalea leucorodius, 
L. Mod. Gk. KovXtdpi (=Fr. cueiller). 
Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b ro pfyeQ f >s epa&iov eXdrratv, KOI e^ei TO 

The description of the bill easily identifies the bird in this passage 
(Belon, Sundevall, &c.), but the name would probably be likewise 
applied to the other White Herons or Egrets. 

AIBYO'I. (MSS. have Xefr'os, K&IOS, ic^Sios, cf. Schn. in Arist. iv. p. 7). 
An unknown bird: possibly to be compared with AtjSuxos opvis, 
Ar. Av. 65. 
Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 K\COS KOI \iftvbs TroXcfuot : cf. s. v. XcteBog. 

AO'KAAOZ. An unknown bird. 

Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 509, mentioned with ao-KaXacpos as a bird having 
colic coeca. Omitted in Cod. Venetus and others. Gesner supposes 
the word to be Italian (?=aluco, an Owl), and to have come in as 
a marginal rendering of do-Ka\a<pos. Scaliger reads KwicaXos. 

AY'KOI. A sort of Jackdaw (Arist. H. A. ix. 24, 6iob); probably 
a nickname of the common Jackdaw, cf. pwjjioXoxos. (Schn. and 
Pice, read XUKIOS, which form occurs in Hesych. : \VKIOS, KO\OIOV 
See also s. v. 

MAKEII'KPANOI. A name for the Hoopoe. 

Hesych. paKfo-iKpavos. error//-' 8ia TO 

\6(poV) Ka\ KOpvOaioXov avrov Xeyovai. 7ro\v(avvfj.ov de Xeyerai TO 
(rivTtjv re yap avrbv KOI dXfKTpvova [aypiov, inser. Heinsius] KUI ye 

MAAAKOKPANEY'I. An unknown bird. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 22, 617 b ael eVi ro ai/ro KaBi^dvei, KOI dXia-Kerai evravQa. 
TO 8e eiSo? Kf<pa\r) p,ev p.eyd\rj ^ovdpoTviros^ TO de fjteyedos eXarrcov Kt^Xi^s 
/jLiKp<p. o~TOp.a 6' 6vpa)o"TOv, [UKpov, o~Tpoyyv\ov' TO 5e xp>[Jia o~Tro8oei8r]S 
0X09. evTTovs de KOI KaKOTrrepos. dXiovcerai 8e p.d\i(TTa yXavKi [? aucupium 
per noctuamj. 

Identified by Sundevall with the Lesser Grey Shrike, Lanius minor, 
L., in Mod. Gk. Kf(pn\ds and deTo^d^os (Heldr.). Lindermayer (op. c. 
p. 114) states that this bird is extremely common in Greece, and sings 
all day long ' auf der aussersten Spitze eines Baumes oder Strauches 
sitzend.' This identification is more plausible than the many others that 
have been suggested, such as the Jay, the Bullfinch, and even the Snipe 


MAAAKOKPANEYI (continued}. 

(Belon, Schneider, Brisson, &c.). It must, however, be remembered 
that the bird is mentioned once only, and in a portion of the Historia 
Animalium that is full of difficulties and incongruities : the epithets 
associated with it are numerous, but mean little or nothing ; x ov ^P OTV7ros 
does not occur elsewhere ; dXio-Kerai yXavKi is a phrase of doubtful 
meaning and questionable construction. The Aristotelian description 
seems at first sight copious and adequate, but in the words of Camus, 
'autant qu'il semblerait devoir etre facile de reconnoitre le Crane-mol, 
autant est-il certain que jusqu'ici il ne 1'a pas eteV The bird irdpSaXos, 
q. v., is next mentioned, and is in like manner impossible to identify. 

MAPA'IIAI- opt>i6es, Hesych. 

MATTY'HI' f) piv <pa>vr) MaicedoviKr), opm, Hesych. Cf. paTTitrj, Artemid. 
ap. Athen. xiv. 663 D, &c. 

MEOYOPl'AEI' eiSos piKpav opviOuv, Hesych. 

MEAArKO'PY4>OZ. Probably the Marsh Tit, Parus palustris, L.; in 
which identification Sundevall and Aub. and Wimm. agree. But 
there was a confusion between this bird and the Blackcap Warbler, 
Motacilla atricapilla, L., Sylvia atricapilla, auctt. The verb 
p.e\ayKopv(pifa, to warble like the p.e\ayKopv(pos, Hero Spir. p. 220, 
suggests the latter of these two. See also s.v. <ruKa\is. 
Mentioned in Ar. Av. 887. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 15, 6l6b am nXelara TI'KT fj,era TOV ev Aiftvg (TTpovdov' 
eajparew yap KCI\ enTOKaideKa, riKTei pevTOi KOI TrXet'a) 77 e'Uoo-iv. riVrft 
5' del TTfptrra, cos (patriv. veorrevd de Kai ovros ev rots dev&pecri, KOI 
TOi'ff crKiaXrjKas. Idiov de TOVTG> KOI dr)$6vi napa TOVS a\\ovs opvidas TO 
*Xiv TTJS y\a>TTYjs TO o|u [vide s. v. eirovj/]. ix. 49 B, 632 b /^-raj 
els aXXfoovs at avKa\L&fs KOI ol p.e\ayKopv(poi' yiverai 5' fj pev (TVKaXls irep\ 
r>]v OTTcopav, 6 de p.e\ayKopv(pos evdews jj.fTa TO (pQtvorrwpov (cf. Geopon. 
XV. I, 22 evOvs p.Ta TO TpvyrjTOv). diafpepovat 8e KCU OVTOI ovQev d\\r]\<0v 
n\r)V TTJ XPfy Ka * 1 T W </><w?7. OTI 5' 6 avros C<TTIV opj/iy, fjdr] ooTTTni TTfpi TTJV 
fieTci(3o\r)v eKa.T(pov TO yevos rouro, OI/TTCO de reXecos iieTafteftiKrjKOTa ovfi' ev 
Garepq) e'idei 6Wa. Cf. Plin. x. 44, Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ii. 69, p. 65 b 
dvo d' elvat yevrj airov avKaXida Kai fjLe\ayKopv(jjov. Ael. vi. 46, Phile 6oi 
TOV p.\ayKopv<pov ayvos enTpiflei. A fabulous Arabian bird, Plin. xxxvii. 33. 

MEAA'MHYroi. A word applied to the Eagle in the Fable of the Fox 
and the Eagle, Archil, fr. no (86). Schol. Venet. II. xxiv. 315 

euo$e KUI 6 'Ap^i'Xo^os /ueXdjuTruyov TOVTOV KaXelv : Schol. Lye. 91 elal 
yap n(\dp.Tniyoi, nvyapyoi, eidrj dfTwv KUT 'Ap^iXoxoi/ : cf. also Hesych., 

and Gaisford's note. Cf, also Schneidewin ; Farnell, Gk. Lyr. 
Poets, p. 300, &c. 



MEAAMHYrOI (continued'}. 

A solar symbolism probably underlies this name and its correlative 
iruyapyos. Cf. the references to 'HpaxXij? /zeXa/iTruyo?, ap. Diodor. Sic. 
iv. 31, &c. 

MEAANA'ETOI = Xayw<|)oj'os. An epithet of the Eagle. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 6l8b fj.\as TTJV XP av ) Kc " P-eycQos eXa^toro?, KpartCTros 
TOVTUV [rail/ irvydpyav KOI nXdyyatv]. OVTOS oiKei oprj Kal v\as' KaXeircu fie 
fzeXai/aeros' KCU Xaywcpovos. KTpe<pei Se p.6vos TO. TCKVO. OVTOS KOI e^dyei. eo~Tl 
de MKvftoXos Kal evdrj^cov Kal acfrdovos Kal a(pojBos KOI p,d^tfj,o5 KOI ev(pr]p,os' ov 
yap fjLLWpi^ei ouSe XeXr/fcej/ : cf. Ib. vi. 6, 563 b 01 8c peXaves, K. r. X. 
Plin. x. 3 Melanaetus a Graecis dicta, eademque Valeria [MSS. in 
Valeria], minima magnitudine, viribus praecipua, colore nigricans, &c. 

Aubert and Wimmer suppose a small species of Eagle, e. g. Aquila 
minuta, Brehm, to be meant ; Sundevall suggests the Peregrine Falcon. 
As is mentioned above, s. v. XayoxjxJp'os, I see no grounds for these or 
any other concrete interpretations : the passage is mystical and prob- 
ably foreign. Aubert and Wimmer have already called attention to 
the want of meaning and irrational order of the six epithets a>Ku/3oXos-, 
cv0r)p,a>v,- &C. 

On fjieXas as an epithet of the Eagle, see s. vv. deixSs, |J.op<f>i/og : cf. 
O. Keller, op. c., p. 237. Both /AeXaixxeTog and Xayw^oi/os are applied to 
the constellation Aquila in the Comm. Alfrag. p. 106 ; and I am 
inclined to think that the ' Black Eagle ' had originally a mystical 
and astronomical meaning. Cf. s. v. jxeXdpruyos. 

MEAA'NAEIPOI- opvddpiov KOIOV, Hesych. Perhaps connected with 
Setp TJS (q. v.), rather than with dcipr). 

MEAEArPl'l. Also (AeXeaypos, 17 KaroiKiSios opvis, Hesych. ; fxeXaypis, 

Salmas. ad Plin. p. 612. 
A foreign word, connected with Sem. Melek ; as in Melkart, 

Meleager, Melicertes, &c. (cf. Keller, Volksetym. p. 236, Lat. 

Etym. p. 180). 
The Guinea-Fowl, Numida sp. 

First mentioned by Soph. Meleag. fr. ap. Plin. xxxvii. (2) n, the 
birds weeping tears of amber for the death of the hero. Mentioned in 
connexion with amber also by Mnaseas ap. Plin. 1. c. 

A full description in Clytus Miles, ap. Athen. xiv. 655c-f aa-ropyov 
irpbs TO. eKyova TO opveov* TO p.ev p.eyedos opvidos yevvaiov^ Tr]v 8e Kf(pa\f]V 
fUKpav rrpos TO troi/^a Kal TavTrjv \l/i\fjv, eV avrrjs 8e \6(f)ov crapKivov, o-K\r]p6v } 
aTpoyyvXov, e^e^oi/ra TTJS KefpaXrjs a>o-7Tfp TrcrrraXov, TO XP^P"^ ^XoeiS^. 
TO 8e aai/Jia affav TVOLK'L\OV^ peXavos OVTOS TOV ^pa)/naroff oXou, Trrt'Xoi? \fVKols 
Kal nvKvols dii\T)iJL[j.ei>ov' TrapanXfjaiai 6' elalv al dfjXeiai TOIS appecriv, K. r. X. 


MEAEAFPII (continued}. 

Arist. H. A. vi. 2, 559 Kareon-y/zeVa ra am T&V /LteXeaypt^cov : cf. Aristoph. 
H. A. Epit. i. 28 wa dcrrepeoTa. 

See also the description given by Columella, viii. 8, 2 Africana est 
quam plerique Numidicam dicunt, meleagridi similis, nisi quod rutilam 
galeam (paleam, emend. Newton) et cristam capite gerit, quae utraque 
sunt in meleagride coerulea. This passage from Columella is very 
interesting as showing that the Greek pc\taypig and the Roman Gallina 
africana or numidica were different from one another, the latter having 
a red wattle, the former a blue. This would look as though the /ueXea- 
ypis had sprung from what is now called Numida ptilorhyncha, an 
Abyssinian species, and had been brought to Athens by way of Egypt ; 
while the Afra avis originated in the Numida meleagris of W. Africa. 
See Newton, Diet, of Birds, p. 399, footnote. 

The fj.\eaypides mentioned, however, by Scylax, Periplus, were seen 
beyond the Pillars of Hercules, in N. W. Africa, as were those men- 
tioned by Mnaseas ; and these were doubtless, therefore, of the red- 
wattled species. Strabo and Diodorus report the birds as inhabiting 
an island in the Red Sea ; Sophocles (1. c.), speaks of them poetically 
as Indian. 

Mentioned as sacred birds, Clyt. Miles. I.e. Trepi 8e TO Ifpov TTJS 
Hapdevov ev Aepo> ci<riv ot KaXovpevoi opvides p.e\faypides. Also in 

Aetolia, Menodot. ap. Athen. xiv. 655 a. 

Ael. iv. 42 : the metamorphosis of the sisters of Meleager ; 00-01 
8e apa aldovvrai TO flelov KCU p,a\\ov el rr]v "Aprejutv, OVK civ rroT Toivde 
TWV opvldwv TTi Tpo<pr)V TTpoo'd'^aiVTOj KOI rJTts T) aiTLO. 'icrao~i T 01 rrjv vfjcrov 
olKOvvTCs TTjv Aepov KOI Veo~Ti padelv aXXaxodev. Ib. v. 27 TOS 8 eV Aepo) 
fi\caypidas OTTO /M?ySej/6s ddiKela-Qai TWV yaptywvvxw opvetov \eyet "la-Tpos. 

Sacrificed at the temple of Isis in Tithorea (Phocis), Pausan. x. 31 
(x. 32, 9, ed. Teubn.). 

Were kept also in the Acropolis : /ieXeaypi'Scs* 6'pm? ai eW/uoiTo eV 
Til a/cpO7rd\et, Hesych. opi/ca arrep cveftovTO ev Tfj a.K.pon6\i' Xeyovo"* de 
01 /xeV d8e\(pas TOV Me\eaypov /ueTa/3aXeii/ els TUS /ieXeaypi'Sa? opi'idas, ol 
8e TO.S avvTjdtis 'lo/caXXi'8o? TTJS cv Aepvy Trapdevov, r}v TifiSto'i daip.ovid)s t 
Suid., Phot. 

On the story of the metamorphosis, cf. Nicand. ap. Anton. Lib. 
c. I, Hygin. Fab. 174, Ovid, Met. viii. 534, Mart. iii. 58, 15, Lactant. 
viii. 4. 

How the Meleagrides fought around the tomb of Meleager (cf. s. v. 
ptyvw) PHn. x. (26) 38, &c. 

For other references, see Antig. Caryst. xi ; Juv. xi. 142 ; Hor. Epod. 
ii. 53 Afrae aves; Mart. iii. 58, 15 Numidicae guttatae ; xiii. 45 Libycae 
volucres ; xiii. 75 ; Stat. Silv. i. 6, 78, ii. 4, 28 ; Suet. Calig. 22 (vide s. v. 
Terpawi'); Petron. 93 ; Varro, De R. R. iii. 9, 18, c. 

I 2 


ME'MNftN, s. fxepojas, s. Mepvovos op^is. The Ruff, Machetes 
pugnax, L. 

Mosch. iii. 42 ov TOO-OV duoio-iv ev ayKecrt TralSa TOV 'Aoi? | 'nrra^vos Trepi 
tra/Lia KivvpuTO Mepvovos opvis. Paus. X. 31, 6 p-ep-vovides Tais opvio~iv ecrnv 
ovofia, Kara 8e CTOS 01 'EXXqo-Trdi/rtoi (paaiv avras ev elpr]pLevais f)p,epais levai 
re eVt TOU Me/zi/oi'O? TOV ra^or, KCU OTTOCTOV TOU p,vfjp.a.TOS devdpcov eo~T\v 
f) iroas ^iXoj/, rotTO /cat (raipovcnv at opvides KCU vypois TOLS Trrepoi? roi) 
AioTyTrov TO) vSart puivowi. Ael. V. I ouKoCi/ Toi? opvidas Tovs cirwvvfjiov? 
TOV fjpwos d(piKvel(r6at Kara trav eros, KOI diaipeiadai re Kai Siao-^ifeo-^ai 
els %dpav KOI dia<popav, Kai /uci^f (rdat fJ-dx^ Kaprcpdv, K. r. X. : cf. Anecd. 

Paris. Bekk. ii. p. 25. See also Dion. De Avib. i. 8 ; Quint. Smyrn. 
Posthomer. ii. 645, et seq. ; Plin. x. (26) 37 ; Ovid, Met. xiii. 607, 
Amor. i. 13, 3 ; Solin. c. 40. 

The identification, first suggested by Cuvier (Grandidier's Pliny, loc. 
cit), is certain, the combats or ' hilling ' of Ruffs being unmistakeably 
described : for modern descriptions, see Montagu, quoted in Yarrell, 
4th ed. vol. iii. p. 428. At the same time, it is evident that the myth is 
a very ancient one, and its connexion with this particular species of 
bird and its peculiar annual combats may be a late version of an old 
and mysterious story : cf. Creuzer, Symb. ii. 181, &c. In other words, 
though Pausanias and Aelian undoubtedly alluded to the Ruff, I do 
not for a moment believe that Moschus did so. Vide s. v. 

ME'PMNOI, s. jj^ppijs, Hesych., also Cram. Anecd. Oxon. i. 64, 24. 
A kind of hawk, sacred to Cybele, Ael. xii. 4 ; according to 
Hesych., identical with Tpi6pxt)s. 

ME'POvl/. The Bee-eater, Merops apiaster, L. Mod. Gk. /zcXt 
H\ur<rovpy6s (Erh.), and on Parnassus popydprjs (Heldr.). 

In Arist. H. A. vi. I, 559 aepox^, S. e"po\lf (Bk.), ov S' oi BOIOOTO! Ka\oi<riv 
aepoira : cf. Hesych. depones, opi/ea TIJ/O, also Schol. in Ar. Av. 1354 ; 
depoirovs, Suid. in verb. dvrine\npyiiv '. rjepo^ S. fjepoTros, Boios, ap. 
Anton. Liber, c. 18. A name similar to jBopydpijs used by Scotus, aves 
quae dicuntur Graece Boareia, ovant in foraminibus terrae, and by 
Albertus M., quam obarcham Graeci vocant : cf. Schneider in Arist. 1. c. 
According to Bent (Cyclades, 1885, p. 325), pepovnas now means in 
Syra simply a bird, opvis. 

Arist. H. A. IX. 13, 615 b (pavl de rives KCU TOVS p.ep07ras dvTeKTpefaadai 
VTTO TOM/ eKyovwv ov povov yr)pdo~KovTas aXXa KOI evdus, OTCIV oioi T (%O~LV' 
TOV de Trarf'pa Kai Trjv p.r]Tepa pe.veiv evBov. 17 8' idea TOV opvidos T>V 
7TTepS)v earl ra pev vnoKUTco &>^poj/, TO. fie eWra) wvirep Trjs d\Ki>6vos Kvdveov, 
TO. fi' eV aKpti>v TO)V TTTepvyiw epvOpd (cf. Plin. x. (33) 51). TIKTCI 8e Trepl 1^ rj 
eTTTa VTTO Ti]v oTTcopav [it breeds in Greece about the middle of April, 
Lindermayer], ev Tols Kpypvols Tols paXaKols' eto-fiyerai S' et<ra> KOI reVrapa? 



MEPO* (continued). 

TT^etr. Ib. vi. I, 559 v & i Botwroi KaXovviv depoTra, ets ras- orras ev rfj 
yfj KaT(i8v6fj.fvos Vforrevei povos. 

On the filial piety of pepo^, 8iKatoraros- KOI 6U(re/3e0Taros' opvidav cmav- 
T<OV, see Ael. xi. 30, Plin. x. (33) 51 ; cf. Boch. Hieroz. ii. p. 302. 

Is destructive to bees, Arist. H. A. x. 40, 626, Ael. v. n, vii. 6, Plut. 
Mor. 976 c, Geopon. xv. 2, Phile 650, Virg. Georg. iv. 14. 

Is said to fly backwards, Ael. i. 49. 

A fabled metamorphosis, Boios, 1. c. J An6\\a)v Be opviQa enoirjo-e TOV 

TTOtSa TjepOTTOV, OS Tl VVV TLKTfl JJLV V7TO yrjS, O61 & p.\fTO, 7ITO~dctl. 

MHAIKOI' "OPNEII- M^Soi dXfKrpvoWs, Hesych. Vide S. V. dXeKrpucoi/. 
Cf. also Plin. x. 21, Colum. viii. 2, Varr. R. R. iii. 9, and Festus. 
In Latin a common reading is Melicae gallinae] cf. Colum. 1. c. 
The term ' Median bird ' is applied also to the Peacock. 

Suid. Mrj^iKos opvis' 6 raws. Id. raw? evTr^X?/^* 6 MTJ^IKOS Kal xpytronrepos 
Kai d\aoviKos opvis. Cf. Schol. ad Ar. Ach. 63 fJKovrfS CLTTO Ilepo-iSos rawv 
XVTS \r)\v0ao-iv : also Ar. Av. 707 o Se TIcpa-iKov opviv, ubi Schol. Ttves 
de TOV aXeKTpvova, ol 8e TOV raw : cf. also Clem. Alex. Paedag. ii. i 6'/>my 
eVt TOVTOLS (rvvavovvrai TOVS dirb (pao-i8os, drra-yas AiyvTrriay, Mrjdov Taava : 
ibid. iii. 4 opveis 'ij/SiKOvy, Kai Taavas MrjdiKovs eKTpefovo-i. 

MONO'IIPOI. A breed of fowls in Egypt. 

opvfis ev 'AXe^avSpeia Trj Trpbs AtyvnTov fieri, f a>v ol /na^t/zoi d\eKTpv6v( s 
ytvvwvTcti, Geopon. xiv. 7, 30. 

MO'P4>NOI. An Eagle or Vulture. In Plin., the Lammergeier. 

Supposed to be connected with the idea of dark or black; cf. 

opQvT), Russ. mrachnoe, Eng. murky, (popcpvos = O-KOTCIVOS, Suid., 

but = gav66s, Hesych.). 

II. xxiv. 315 avTLKct ' aleTov ^/ce, reXetdraroj/ TrfTerjv&v, | fji6p(f)vov 8rjpr)Tr)p t , 
ov KOI ncpKvbv Kokcowiv (cf. II. xx. 252 ; Porphyr. Schol. ; also Heyne's 
note, in loc.). Hes. Scut. 134 p,op<pvolo (f>\eyvao KaXwrrojUfi/oi nTfpvyfao-1. 
Lycophr. 838 TOV xP V(TO ' jraT P ov (J-op(pvov. According to Arist. H. A. 
ix. 32, 618 b, identical with TrXayyos and vr)TTo<p6vos (here also written 
(j,6p<|)os, jxop4><5s)- Plin. x. 3 Phemonoe Apollinis dicta filia dentes ei 
esse prodidit, mutae alias, carentique lingua : eandem aquilarum 
nigerrimam, prominentiore cauda. Ingenium est ei testudines raptas 
frangere e sublimi iaciendo, &c. Cf. Suid., who definitely applies the 
name to a Vulture ; p.6p<pvo$ y eldos aVroC* povoi de OVTOI TO>V deTwv ov 
KVvr)yeTovo~iv } dXXa veKpols o-wpao-i Tp(f)ovrat. Vide S. v. 

MY'TTHE' opvis voids, Hesych. 

NE'BPA-E. veftpaKfs' ol appeves vcoTTol TO>V dXenTpvovav, Hesych. 

NEBPO^O'NOI. Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 618 b = iruyapY ?) q v. 


NE'PTOI. A Vulture. 

Ar. Av. 303, mentioned together with yity and ifpag. Hesych. ve 'pros' 
lepag' ol de eloos opveov (i.e. a species of vulture). This word, hitherto 

unexplained, I conjecture to be the Egyptian ^ j^ nert, Copt. 

ItOTpI, a Vulture : cf. Chaeremon, fr. 9, and Lauth, in Horap. i. 3, 
Sitzungsber. Bayer. Akad., 1876, p. 73. 

NrTTTA, Boeot. maora (Ar. Ach. 875). A Duck. Cf. Lat. anat-is, 

Lith. anh's, A. S. ened, Ger. Ente. Dim. v^-ndpiov (a term of 

endearment), Ar. PI. ion, Menand. Inc. 422 (4, 316); 

Nicostr. Antyll. 3 (3, 280). See also poaicds, yXauiaoi>, 

Description. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b included among ra 
ra>v o~TcyavoTr68a)v' irepl norafjiovs KOI \$ eariv ; ibid. ii. 17, 509 
e^i cvpitv KOI TrXarvv o\ov, aTrotpvdo'as ex cl - 

Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ix. 52. 395 c 6 appqv ptLfav KCU TromXoorepos 1 . 

An allusion to the particoloured plumage of the Common Drake, 
or else of some wild Duck, in Ar. Av. 1148. 

Ael. V. 33 e' o>SiVa>i> eVrt vrjKriKT), KOI fiadelv ov Setrat, K. r. X. 

Use as Pood. Herod, ii. 77 AiyuTmoi ras vfjo~o-as wp-ovs o-iTfovrcu, 
irpoTapixevo-avres. Frequent in the Comic Poets. Its wholesomeness, 
Plut. V. Cat. Maj. xxiii (i. 359 D). On the Roman j/qo-o-orpo^em, see 
Varro, De R. R. iii. n, Colum. viii. 15. Mode of capture, Dion. De 
Avib. iii. 23. 

Brought as tribute to Indian kings, Ael. xiii. 25. 

Myth and Legend. Sacred to Poseidon, Ar. Av. 566. According to 
Nicand. ap. Anton. Lib. c. ix, one of the Emathides, daughters of Pierus, 
was metamorphosed into the bird vfjo-o-a. 

Its defence against the eagle, cf. Phile, De An. Pr. xiv. 

Use the herb sideritis as a remedy, Plin. viii. 27. 

A "Weather-prophet. Ael. vii. 7 Trrepvyi^ovaai nvev/jLa drj\ovo-iv Io~xvp6v : 
cf. Arist. fr. 241, 1522 b; Theophr. De Sign. fr. vi. 18, 28; Arat. 
918, 970. 

NHTTOKTO'NOI, s. i/t]TTo<|>6i>os. A kind of Eagle, the Anataria of 
Plin. x. 3. Supposed, by Sundevall, to be the Spotted Eagle, 
Aquila naevia ; vide s. v. dXideros. Compare, however, the notes 
on Xayw^oyos, irXayyos, &C. 

KipKos VYJTTOKTOVOS, Phile, De An. Pr. xiv. 6. vrjrrocpovos, Arist. H. A. 
ix. 32, 618 b = poppas and TrXdyyos, q. v. Cf. Ael. v. 33. 

NOYMH'NIOI. An unknown bird, opveov opoiov arraya* 6 KOI rpo'^iXoy, 

Proverb. vi>J?X0oz/ array as re KOI j>ov/i?jyioy, Suid., &C. (for other 


NOYMHNIOI (continued]. 

references vide s. v. drTayas). In all probability, vovufjvtos was some 
bird associated with moon-worship ; we have an obscure indication 
of a kindred symbolism in the case of array as, in the statement that 
that bird is hostile to the Cock (Ael. vi. 45). That drrayds had some 
mystical signification seems plain, though the precise allusion is 
obscure : the frequent reference to the bird as TTOIK/XO?, and the state- 
ment of its friendship with the Stag, may in time furnish a clue to the 
mystery. For my part, I imagine I discern a stellar attribute in the 
one bird, and a lunar in the other. Tradition, of doubtful antiquity, 
associates the name Numenius with the Curlew, and it may well have 
this or some similar bird with a decurved or crescentic bill. 

NYKTAl'ETOr opvis fepos'Hpaj, 6 *at epa>8ios, Hesych. Cf. J/UKTiKOpaf. 

NYKTIKO'PAE, s. i>uicToic6pa, Hesych. Probably the Horned or Long- 
eared Owl, Strix o/us, L. ; but perhaps also applied to the 

Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597 b evioi TOV wrbv vvKriKopaita Ka\oixnv (loc. dub.). 
Ib. viii. 3, 592 b eri rtv WKrepiv&v evioi yap\ra)vvxes elcriv, olov vvKTiKopat;, 
y\avg, jBpvas. Ib. ix. 34, 689 b y\ de Ka\ WKTiKopaKfs, KOI ra \onra 
ocra rrjS fjp-epas dSvvarel /SXeTTfiy, TI)S VVKTOS p.ev drjpevovra rr]V rpotforjv avrois 
7ropi'er<u' fypevei fie pis Ka\ aavpus, K.T. X. Cf. Athen. viii. 353 a, where 
in a similar passage, Kopaices = wKrinopaKes. 

Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 509 a7ro(pvd8as e'x. [The caeca are rudimentary 
or absent altogether in the Herons ; they are large and conspicuous in 
the Owls.] wKTiKopag is, therefore, in Arist. a nocturnal, rapacious bird, 
identical with, or confounded with, euro?. It can scarcely be other than 
the Long-Eared Owl. 

It corresponds to Heb. D13, an Owl, in Ps. 102. 6 (LXX). 

A bird of evil omen. Horap. ii. 25 wKriKopag Qavarov tr^/zaiVi* acpva 
yap (nepxerat rols veovo-ols rav Kopwcov Kara ras vvKras, u>s 6 Bavaros afpvco 
enpxTai. With this passage, cf. the legendary hostility of the Owl and 
the Crows, s. vv. yXau|, Kopwi^] : there is, however, a very similar story 

Anth. Pal. XI. l86 WKTiKopat; qei 0avarrj(p6pov, dXX' ortiv qvrj | 
6vr](TK.fL Kavros 6 vvKriKopag. Cf. the carmen ferale of the Owl, Virg. 
Aen. iv. 462 : vide also s. v. j3uas. Cf. also Spenser's ' hoarse night- 
raven, trompe of doleful drere,' c. 

A fabled metamorphosis, Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. xv ; cf. j(apa8pi<5s. 

There is an old confusion between this bird and the Night- Heron, 
Ardea nycticorax^ L. Gesner (ed. cit., p. 357), discussing the discrepant 
opinions regarding wKriKopag, figures the Night-Heron, and adds, ' Wir 
haben hierbey die Figur des Vogels gesetzt, welcher zu Strasburg ein 
Nachtram anderswo ein Nachtrabe geheissen wird, welcher doch 


NYKTIKOPAS (continued}. 

meines Bedenckens weder ein Caprimulgus noch Nycticorax ist.' 
And the confusion thus introduced seems to have been aided by Gaza 
having translated wKTiKopag by cicuma (Gr. KIKUJUS, q.v.), afterwards 
misspelt cicunia, ciconia (vide Belon, ii. c. 36, Camus, ii. p. 250). 

Nevertheless, although the above-cited passages all appear to apply 
to an Owl, yet Ardea purpurea, nycticorax, and other Herons are said 
to be now called wKTiKopag (Erh., Heldr.) ; further, it has been shown 
above that the attributes of epo>8ios are in part nocturnal. Lastly, it 
must be noted that there are evidences of Egyptian influence in the 
stories both of e'pwSior and vvKTiKopag ; vide s. v. dyoiraia. 

Ol'NA'NOH. An unknown bird. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 49 B, 633 (loc. dub.} a(^avl^rai Se KCU TJV KaXoDa-t rives 
olvdvdrjv av'io~\ovTO$ TOV o~(ipiov } dvopcvov 8e (paivcrai' (frevyei yap ore p.ev 
TO. "^vxn, ore de rrjv aXeai/. Cf. Plin. x. (29) 45 ; perhaps identical with 
parra, ib. xviii. 69, or mtiparra, ib. x. (33) 50. Vide infra, s. v. oiras. 

Belon (Nat. des Oiseaux, vii. 12) first applied the name to the 
Wheatear, which (Saxicola oenanthe, L.) still retains it. 

OI'NA'Z. A kind of Pigeon : probably the wild Hock-Pigeon, 
Columba tim'a, L. Also oli/ias, Poll. vi. 22 olvtas 8e ical olvds, 

77 aypi'a 7rept(TTfpa. 

Arist. H. A. V. 13, 544 ^ opvis TrepicrrepoeiS)]?, fitKpco jj.ei(cv rrjs TrepioTepaff. 
Ib. viii. 3, 593 Aon-tai/ de fyaftos. Ib. vi. i, 558 b 8irom, i.e. lays two 
eggs ; cf. De Gen. iv. 77, iii. 9, Plin. x. 79 (58). Arist. H. A. viii. 3. 593 roG 
Kol (fxiivcrai prXiora Kal aXtWercu* rj 8' SXaxris avrijs yiverat 
a KajTTovcrrjs TO vScop' atyiKvovvrai 8 els TOVS TOTTOVS TOVTOVS e 

Arist. ap. Athen. ix. 394 a /uei'o>i/ eVrt TJJS TrfpiorTfpa?, 
olvanov. (paiverat (frdivonapfo (JLOVCO. Athen. ib. 394 e Xeyfrai fi* on 
f) olvas fav (payovva TO TTJS lias cr7rep/za eVt TIVOS aQodevfrrj devdpov, Idiav 
llav (pveo-dai : cf. Plin. xvi. (44) 93, s. v. palumbes. Ael. iv. 58 TTJV otVaSa 
opveov floevai XPV ovcrav, ov p,f]V &s Tives o/i7reXoy. \eyei 8e 'Apto-roreX^y 
/net^oj/ jj,fv avTO elvai (fraTTtjs, Trepiarepaff ye ^v TJTTOV. Mentioned also, 
Lyc. 358. 

oiyaSoO^pas, in Sparta, a dove-catcher, Ael. 1. c. 

The passage in Aelian, and the discrepancy between the accounts of 
the bird's size, indicate that olvds was a little-known word. The later 
Greeks and early commentators derived it from olvos, with reference to 
the colour of the bird (Athen. I.e., Eustath. ad Odyss. p. 475, ed. Basil.) 
or to its appearance in the vintage-season (TOV (pdivorrdapov) ; hence 
Gaza translates it Vinago ; and most moderns have identified it with 
the Stock-dove, C. oenas, L., whose breast is purple-red. But the 
word is more probably identical with the Hebrew T\^ , Jonah, as has 
been suggested by Casaubon in Athen. p. 617, and Bochart, Hieroz. ii. 


OINAI (continued^. 

2. Cf. *l<iras, Hesych., also Tzetz. Chiliad, vii. 126. [The same word 
is supposed by some to give its name to the island of S. Columba.~\ 
It was then probably either a sacred name, introduced with a foreign 
cult, or else a Phoenician sailor's name, especially for the wild Rock- 
pigeons of the coast ; and on this latter interpretation the passage in 
Arist. viii. 3, 593 would refer naturally to an autumn flight inland from 
the sea-board breeding-places. 

The OtVorpoTj-oi, who were turned into doves, Lye. 570, cf. Simon, 
fr. 24 (39), ap. Schol. Horn. Od. iv. 164, Serv. Virg. Aen. iii. 8, Ovid, 
Met. xiii. 674, c., may derive their name from the same root, and the 
story of their turning water into wine may then be due to a case of 
* Volksetymologie.' 

By this word, and its Semitic root, I would seek to explain the 
curious 'canting heraldry' which represents the constellation of the 
Pleiads as a bunch of grapes, and gives to it the name Corpus (Porpw 
yap auras- Af'youa-i*/, Schol. II. xviii. 486 ; Ideler, Sternnamen, p. 317). 
On coins of Mallos in Cilicia, we have Doves represented, whose 
bodies are formed by bunches of grapes, and in other cases the dove 
is lost and replaced simply by the grapes: on the relation of these 
figures and their other associated symbols to the constellation of the 
Pleiad, see M. J. Svoronos, Bull, de Corresp. Hellen., 1894, p. 107, c. 
I imagine that an old confusion, intentional or unintentional, between 
oii/as- and oil/or may have been the cause of this strange and unwonted 
prefigurement of the constellation. The association of the dove with 
the bunch of grapes survives in early Christian symbolism ; cf. Gorius, 
Diss. XIII. De Gemmis Astrif. Christian, (vol. iii. p. 249) 1750. 

The symbolic meaning here assigned to olvas tends to suggest a 
similar derivation and interpretation in the case of oti><j'0Tj. 

Ol'NIA'E. According to Hesych. a kind of Raven, but probably = 
otyds, which latter^ word Hesych. interprets yevos Kopanos' ol 8e 

dyplav Trfpicrrepdv. Cf. yoiyees. 

OfZTPOZ. An unknown small bird. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b, mentioned as a small insect-eating bird 
with rvpavvos, eVtAat'ff, &c. 

On the assumption that ola-rpos (the Gad-fly) must denote some very 
small bird, Sundevall follows the mediaeval naturalists in identifying it 
with the Willow-wren, Sylvia trochilus, L., our smallest bird next to 
the Gold-crests. 

"OKNOZ, ,$. OKJ/OS. A bird of the Heron kind, with fabulous attributes ; 
in Arist. H. A. ix. i, 609 b, 18, 617, Ael. v. 36 = d0Tpias, q.v. 

Pausan. x. 29, 2 OKVOV d' ovv KOL fjuivrecov ol opwvrfs TOVS olavovs KaXovvi 


OKNO2 (continued}. 

nva opvida, KCU evTiv OVTOS 6 OKVOS /zeyioroy fj.ev Kal KaXXioTos' epadiwv, ei 
6e aXXos TIS opvidc&V) o~7rdvi6s eon KCU OVTOS. 

According to Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. vii, Autonous was metamor- 
phosed into the bird OKI/OS-, on (oKvrjo-e aTreXaaai ras 'LTTTTOVS, his son being 
turned into an cpwdios. On Ocnus as a mythological character, cf. 
Diodor. i. 97, p. 109, Pausan. 1. c., &c. 

Probably a foreign word, and perhaps Egyptian (cf. Ael., Diod. 1. c.). 
Bearing in mind the close connexion of the Heron with Athene, I am 
almost tempted to see in OKVOS a distorted reflection of Onkh, "Oyya, 
"OyKas (Hesych.), &c., a mystical name of the same goddess. Vide s. v. 

'OAAITOl', s. oXaroi' cnrfpfjioXoyoi, Hesych. 
'OAKA'r drjo-uv, Hesych. (loc. dub. et mutilus). 
'ONOKPO'TAAOI. A Pelican. 

Plin. x. (47) 66, Mart. xi. 21, Hieron. in Lev. xi. 18, c. ; cf. Boch. 
Hieroz. ii. 276. 

'OPEINO'I. A species of aiyi'OaXos, q.v. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b erepos 6' opavos, 8ia TO SiaTpifieiv ev rot? 
opecrtv, ovpaiov p.a<pov CXMV. 

Also a name or epithet, like opeiTrjs, of a Hawk or Eagle : cf. Plut. 
Amat. iv. 9. 

'OPEIFlEAAPrO'l, vide s. v. ircpKyoTrrepos. 

'OPEl'THI. A kind of Hawk, mentioned with KCYXP^IS, Ael. ii. 43. 

'OP0OKO'PYAOI. A name or epithet for a Lark (verb, dub.) ; Alciphro 
iii. 48. 

"OPNI0EI MEI'ZONEZ BOft~N. Eudox. ap. AeL xvii. 14 v7rep/3aAo>i/ ras 
'HpaKXciouy oTJ^Xay ev \tp.vais ewpaKevai opviOds Tivas *cat p.eiovs f3o>v. 

'OPO'iniZOI. The Blue-throat, Cyanecula suecica, L. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b <TTTIT) opoios KOL TO peyeOos 7rapa7r\r](rios' e^ei 
[rt vrepi] TQV av\cva Kvavovv } KOL Starpi'/3ei ev rols ope(nv. The bird is rare 
in Greece (Lindermayer, p. 104), nevertheless its identity is unmistake- 
able. The MSS. have several variants in the name. 

'OPTA'AIXOI. Also opraXi's, Nic. Alex. 295, &c. A Boeotian word 
(Stratt. &oiv. 2, 781) for a Chick. 

Theocr. xiii. 12 ot/0' OTTOK' opraXi^ot pivvpol TTOT\ KO'ITOV opaev. Cf. Ar. 
Ach. 871 and Schol. ; Aesch. Ag. 54. Applied to Swallow-chicks, 
Opp. Hal. v. 579. 


'OPTYrOMH'TPA. The Corn-crake or Land-rail, Rallus crex, L., 
Crex pratensis, auctt. : cf. icpe, Ku'xpajjios. In Mod. Gk. still 
called opTvyoMTpa (Heldr. &c.), and in the Cyclades peSiyoudXia 
(Erh.), It. Re di quaglie. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597 b; a bird which accompanies the quails 
(vide S. V. Kuxpcifios). TrapaTrXqo-ios- TIJV p,op(pr]v Tols \ipvaiois (i. e. to the 
wading birds) : cf. Plin. x. 33 ; Frider. ii De Arte Venandi, i. 9 et 
modus rallorum terrestrium, quae dicuntur duces coturnicum. Alex. 
Mynd. ap. Athen. ix. 393 a * " T0 p-ty f @o$ 77X1*77 rpuycov, o~K\rj Se /zctKpa, 
dvo~6a\r)s Kal deiXrj. 

Cratin. (2. 158) ap. Athen. I.e. 'Idanrja-ia opruyo/^rpa. Ar. Av. 870 
associated with Latona, Arjrol 'Opruyo/zr/rpg, cf. Schol. in Argum. 
Pythiorum Pindari. 

In Hesych. oprvyo/^rpa = oprvg vTrfppeyedrjs. The word is used also 
by the LXX, and by the Fathers, for oprug (Ex. xvi. 13 ; Numb. xi. 31, 
32 ; Ps. cv. 40) : according to Bochart (Hieroz. ii. 94) qua tamen voce 
libentius usi sunt, quam simplici oprvyes-, ne crederetur Deus gregarias 
coturnices Israelitis immisisse, sed earum nobilissimas! 

"OPTYE- Hesych. yo'p, i. e. foprv. Sk. vart-ika (cf., int. al., Muir's 
Sk. Texts, i. 112. 8), cf. Lat. vertere, Lit. the dancer (?), or more 
probably and simply, the one who returns. The Quail, Colurnix 
vulgar is y auctt. Mod. Gk. oprvKi, oprvKiov. Dim. opruyioy, 
Eupolis and Antiph. ap. Athen. ix. 392 e. On the quantity of 

the u, cf. Phot., p. 35> IO oprvyas' <rv(TT\\ovTes ol 'ArriKoi \eyovcri 
TO v 8r)\oi ev AaiTa\ev(riv 'Apiarofpdvrjs. Gen. oprv^of, in Philem. 

ap. Chaerob. i. 82. 

Description. Arist. H. A. vi. 12, 597 b ov TTTJJTIKOS : ib. ix. 9, 614 eirl 
ftfvdpov ov Ka6iei, dXX' eVt rrjs yijs : ib. iv. 9, 536 /za^d/ie^os ^BeyyfraC 
[jui\\ov adei 6 apprjv, al de OrjXfiai OVK adovaiv. 

Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ix. 392 c 6 6^\vs op XcirTOTpd^os eo~ri, TOV 
appevos OVK 'iya>v TO, VTTO r&5 yeveico peXava. Pratin. ib. dSvfpcovov TOV oprvya, 
7T\r)v el pf) TI napa Tols ^Xiaaiois rj TO!? Aa/toxri (f)a>vr]VTs, as ol nepdiKes. 

Anatomy. Arist. H. A. ii. 15, 506 b Trpo? Tols e'vrepois TTJV ^o'X^i/ e^. 
ib. 17, 509 e^ei Kcti TrpoXoftov Kal npb TTJS yaorpo? TOV aro/Lta^oi/ evpvv Kal 
TT\aTvv e\ovra' 8iep(ei S' 6 TrpoXojSos TOU Trpo TIJS y(rrpos (rro/xa^ov av^vov 
oas Kara peyeOos. Alex. Mynd. 1. C. dvaTp,r)6els 8e 7rpoXoj3oz/ ov% oparat 
fieyav e^eov, Kap8iav S' e^ft /zeyaXr;j/, /ecu TOVTTJV rpt'Xo/Sov, K.T.\. 

Nest and Breeding- habits. A full description, together with 7re'pSi, 
Arist. H. A. ix. 8, 613 b, 614: cf. ib. vi. i, 559. Cf. Xen. Memor. 
ii. i, 4. 

Migrations. Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597. Migrate in September, TOV 
Borjo'pop.iavos. iriorfpoi TOV (frOivonwpov p.d\\ov rj TOV eapos. ol &' oprvyes 


OPTYE (continued}. 

orav ffiTrecraxnv, eav p.ev evdia /} jBopeiov 17, o~vv$vdovrai re KOI ei>T)p.povo'iv 
eav 8e voros, ^aXcTrw? e^ovtri Sia TO pfj elvai wrrfrtKol' vypbs yap Kal 
ftapvs 6 avfp.os' dib Kal ol 6r)pfvovTes OVK 7Ti)(ipovo~iv evdias' Tots voriois ' 
ou Treroi/rai Sta TO fidpos' TTO\V yap TO croi/ia, dib Kal fio&VTes TTCTOVTOL' 
TTOVOVO~I yap. orav [lev ovv eKeldev TrapafidXXaxriV) OVK f^ovcriv fjyeuovas. 
orav 6' evrevdev airaipaa-iV) fj re yXwrris o-vvanaipeL Kal f] opruyo^ryTpa, K.T.X. 
Cf. Dion. De Avib. i. 30; Plin. x. 33 (23) ; Varro, De Re Rust. iii. 5,7. 
The connexion between the quails' flight and the wind is well known : 
cf. Numb. xi. 31 ; Joseph. Ant. iii. I, 5. 

Modes of capture. With a mirror, Clearch. Sol. ap. Athen. ix. 393 
of oprvyes TTfpi rbv rrjs o^eias Kaipbv, eav KaroTrrpov c evavrias TIS avr&v 
Kal Trpb TOVTOV J3p6%ov dfj } Tpe\ovres TTpbs rbv eufpaivo^fvov ev TK> KctTOTTTpcp 
e/i7riVTouo-ii/ fls rbv (^po^ov. With a sort of scare-crow, Dion. De Avib. 
iii. 9. With nets simply, on the coast of Egypt, Diodor. i. 60. A quail- 
catcher, opTuyo07?pas-, Plat. Euthyd. 290 D. Cf. Arist. H. A. ix. 8, 614 
ovTO) &e o~<podpa Kal ol TrepSiKey Kai 01 oprvyes e'TTTO^vrcu Trepi TTJV o^eiav, cocrr' 
els TOVS QrjpevovTas e/XTriTTTOucrt Kai TroXXaKir Ka6idvov(riv eirl ras Ke<pa\ds. 

Abundance and cheapness : cf. Antiph. ap. Athen. ix. 397 rr\eiovs 8* 
flarl vvv [of raaves] T>V bprvya>v. Juv. Sat. 12. 97. 

In Egypt, according to Herod, ii. 77 TOVS opTvyas otua ariTeovrai, rrpo- 
Tcipixcvo-avTes : cf. Diodor. 1. c. : vide s. v. y^lwiov. On potted Quails 
in the Morea, cf. G. St. Hilaire ap. Bory de St. Vincent, More'e, 
Oiseaux, p. 35. 

Domesticated and pet Quails: Ar. Pax 789 opru-yas oiKoyevfis: cf. Ar. 
Fr. 36; Arist. Probl. x. 12, i ; Plut. V. Alcib. i. 195 E, Mor. ii. 799 D ; 
Varro, iii. 5, 2 ; M. Anton, i. 6. A lover's gift, Ar. Av. 707, Plat. Lys. 
211 E: cf. Plaut. Capt. v. 4, 5; vide Jacobs ad Anthol. x. p. 13. 
Hence </>iXop, Plat. Lys. 212 D ; </>iXopTuyorpo<pea>, Artemid. iii. 5, c. 

Quail-fights. Lucian, Anach. 37 (2, 918); Plat. Lys. 211 E; Plut. 
i. 930 E, cock and quail-fights between Antony and Caesar (cf. Ant. and 
Cl. ii. 4 ' and his quails ever Beat mine, inhoop'd at odds ') ; ibid. ii. 207 B 
how in Egypt a procurator of Augustus killed and ate a victorious 
quail, and how retribution fell on him ; Ovid, Amor. ii. 6, 27, &c. This 
sport, still common among the Chinese, Malays, &c., was practised 
in Italy in Aldrovandi's time (Ornith. ii. p. 74 : cf. Voss., De Idol. c. 86, 
p. 596). For a Chinese picture of a quail-fight, showing the 'hoop' 
or TrjXia (cf. supra, p. 22, s. v. dXeKxpuwf), see Douce's Illustr. of 
Shakspeare, p. 367 ; cf. also Bell's Travels in China, i. p. 404 (8vo 
ed.). See also Becker's Charicles. The birds are said to have been 
stimulated to fight with bells, cf. Schol. in Ar. Lys. 485 (dKcoouvio-Tov) ; 
see also Aristarch. ap. Harpocrat. s. v. SieKwoomo-e. 

Quail-striking, opTuyoKOTria, Jul. Pollux, ix. 107. The player was 
s-, Plat. Com. IlepiaXy. 4, ap. Athen. xi. 506 D or (TTV(poK6jros. 

OPTY=. 125 

OPTYE (continued). 

Ar. Av. 1299 and Schol. Cf. Plut. ii. 34 D. See also Meursius, De 
Ludis Graecorum, in Gronov. Thes. Ant. Gr. vii. p. 979. 

Immunity from poison. Arist. De Plant. 5, 820 b {joa-Kvapos KOI 
eXXe/3opos- dvOpairois ptv Si]\r)TT)pioi, Tpn(pf) 6e Tols oprvt. Cf. Plin. x. 33 
(23), Geopon. xiv. 24, Galen. De Ther. ad Pison. i. 4, De Alim. Fac. 
ii. 6, De Temper, iii. 4, Basil. Hexaem. v. p. 59 (ed. Paris), Eustath. 
Hexaem. p. 9, Ambros. Hexaem. iii. 9, &c., Lucret. iv. 641. For similar 
oriental reff., see Bochart, ii. 97, 98. 

Legend of Delos. Phanodem. ap. Athen. ix. 392 d as Kareldev 'Epvo-i'^- 
&u>v ArjXoj/ TTJV vrjcrov rfjv VTTO T>V dp^aiaiv KaXovfjievTjv 'OpTvytav Trap* 6 ras 
dyeXas T>V <(*>v TOVTCHV (pepopevas CK TOV ne\dyovs idveiv (Is Trjv vrjaov 8ta 
TO vopp.ov fivat ... Cf. Serv. ad Aen. iii. 73. On the metamorphosis 
of Artemis, Leto, and Asteria into Quails, see Apollod. i. 4, i, Schol. 
Apoll. Rhod. i. 308, Hygin. Fab. 53, Tatian, Adv. Grace, c. xvi, &c. In 
yet another version it is Zeus himself who appears as a Quail : Argum. 
Pyth. Pindari, ed. Bockh, ii. p. 297. 

Legend of Hercules. Eudox. ap. Athen. ix. 392 d ot $oii>i<cs 
T<0 'Hpa/cXeZ oprvyas Sia TO TOV 'HpaicXe'a TOV 'Acrrepiay KOI Ato? 
(Is AiSvrjv dvaipfOrjvai /ieV VTTO Tv(pS)vos, 'loXaou S' avTfS 7rpoo~eveyKavTOs 
opTvya Kal 7rpoo~ayayovTOS oo~(f)pavdevTn aj/a/3icoj/ai : cf. Arist. Probl. XXX. I. 
Eustath. in Od. xi. 60, p. 1702. PrOV. o'pru eo-wo-fv 'HpaxXri TOV Kaprfpoi/, 

Zenob. v. 56 ; Diog. vii. 10 ; Apostol. xiii. I ; Eutecnius in Cram. Anecd. 
Paris., i. p. 31 ; Paroemiogr. Gr. i. p. 143. In this passage various 
commentators read opvya for oprvya, the Gazelle being sacred to 
Typhon ; cf. Jablonski, Panth. 197, Dupuis, Orig. de tous les Cultes, 
ii. 350, Creuzer, Symb. ii. 100, Boch., I.e.; but the emendation is not 
justified, cf. Stark, op. infra cit. The Quail's brain was a specific for 
epilepsy, the morbus comitialis or herculeus, Galen, Parat. Facil. iii. 
155, Plin. x. (23) 33. Vartikd, the Quail, is said to be a solar emblem 
among the Hindoos : it is as the emblem of the returning Sun, that it 
figures in the legend of Delos, the birthplace of Phoebus, and in that of 
Hercules, the slayer of Typhon. 

The principal allusions to the Island of Ortygia are collated and 
discussed by Hermann, De Apoll. et Diana, Opusc. vii. p. 310 (1839). 
See also, for a still more elaborate investigation, Stark, Die Wachtel, 
Sterneninsel und der Oelbaum im Bereiche phoinikischer und griechi- 
scher Mythen, Ber. K. Sachs. Ges. d. Wiss., 1856, pp. 32-120. It 
seems clear to me that in the superstitions regarding the Quail, and in 
the sacred reputation of Ortygia, the main point is with reference to 
the Solar Tropic ; cf. Od. xv. 403 vyo-os TIS Svpirj KfK\fjo-KeTat, nov 
d.KOvfts, | 'OpTvyirjs Kadinrepdev, 061 Tporrai qeXioio. The Quail derived its 
sanctity, and perhaps its name, from the circumstance that it returned 
with the returning Sun, and Ortygia was some spot where the Tpoiral 


OPTYE (contimted). 

r)e\ioio were observed and their festivals celebrated, as of old in 
Delos. Cf. (int. al.) Find. Nem. i. 

The word OPTYroeHPA, on coins of Tarsus (Mionnet, Suppl. vii. 
p. 258, &c.) is supposed to refer to a similar symbolic festival (Stark, 
op. c., p. 44). 

Hostile to Tre\Kav, Ael. vi. 45, Phile, 684. A prey to hawks, Ael. 
vii. 9. Arist. H. A. ix. II, 615 6 iepa rrjv rot) oprvyos Kapdiav ov 

How the Quails, migrating, carry each three stones, to hear by 
drgpping them whether they be over the sea, Dion. De Avib. i. 30 : cf. 
Plin. x. 33 (sand for ballast) ; cf. s.v. yepai/os. 

An obscure allusion in Lye. 401 rvp-^os 6e yeirav oprvyos Trerpov/xei/qs | 
TpffjLtov (pv\dei po^Bov Alyaias d\6s. 

Proverbial Beferences. Philostr. V. Sophist., p. 253 (ed. Kayser) 
p) -yap fir) Iv Tfixfi 7ri7TTr]^o)pfv oprvyaiv ava^dpevoi <pv<nv. Antiph. ap. 
Athen. ix. p. 392 C a>? Sr) o-v ri iroidv Swdfifvos oprvyiov 

OPXIAOZ, s. opxiXos. Probably the Wren; cf. rpox^os. Hesych. 
opviQapiov ra>v cvavrjT&V Xeyerai be VTTO TIVWV (raATrtyJVjrqs : cf. Phot. 
351. 12. 

Ar. Av. 569 /3aatXfu? eVr' op^i'Xos opvis : cf. trochilus, Plin. viii. 37, 
x. 95. Mentioned also Ar. Vesp. 1513. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 y\ai>g /cat op^iXos TroX/^ta, ra yap wa 
rrjs y\avKOS. 

A sign of rain, Arat. 1025 op^iXo? fj KOI epiOevs bvvuv es <oi\as o 
Cf. Theophr. De Sign. vi. 3. 39, 4. 53. According to Nicand. ap. Anton. 
Lib. c. xiv, Alcander, son of Munychus, was metamorphosed into the 
bird 6'pxiXos-. 

An evil omen at weddings : Avienus in Arat. 1. c. infestus floricomis 
hymenaeis orchilus. Cf. Euphor. ap. Tzetz. ad Lycophr. p. 83 (cit. 
Schn. in Arist. 1. C.), TrouaXov ovSe p.f\a6pov op^i'Xos CTTTJ; KVLKOS. oi/S* 
fjeia-f KOKOV ydpov ex^opevos Kpeg. 

opxiXos and rpoxiXos (qu. r-op^iXoy) are probably identical words, 
and of foreign origin. KopOiXos (q- v.) may be yet another corrupt 
form. Lauth (in Horap. i. 57, Sitzungsber. d. Bayer. Akad. 1876, p. 107), 
comparing Copt. OTpA. avis, and OTfpO rex, affords a hint which 
may explain, by referring to an Egyptian source, the origin both of 
and of its synonym or epithet 


OY*PAE. The Athenian name for re'rpii (q.v.), Arist. H. A. vi. i, 559. 

OPTYH riEAAPrOI. 1 27 

OY'PI'A. A kind of water-bird. 

Athen. ix. 395 e fj 8e \eyop.vr} ovpia ov iro\v XeiVerat J^TTT??, TOJ> xpa>/icm 
6e pV7rapoKpafj,6s eVri, TO 8e pvyxos p-aKpov re KOI orei/6z> e^ct. 

'O*rOYPOI' opvis TTOIOS V At&OTua, Hesych. 

nA'nnoi. An unknown bird (verb, dub^ ', opveov eiSor, Hesych. 

Mentioned Ael. iii. 30, in a somewhat doubtful passage, as a bird in 
whose nest the Cuckoo lays her egg. Sometimes supposed to be 
punned on in Ar. Av. 765 $vcrara> ndmrovs Trap' yp-w, where however 
TraTTTroi are more probably young downy feathers (vide Kock, &c.). 
Coray cites, vaguely, Mod. Gk. TrdTrma, a duck. 

riAPAO'l- deTo'y, t-vro MaKefioW, Hesych. 

HA'PAAAOI, s. irapSaXis, Hesych. An undetermined bird. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 23, 617 b opveov eariv cryeXatoj; a)s eirl TO TroXv, Kai OVK 
Hem Kara eva I8elv' TO 8e %pa>fji.a (TTro&oeifijys oXof, p.eyedos 5e TrapaTrX^o-ioy 
eKfivois [? fjLO\aKOKpavevs, ^Xcop/coj/, rpuya)!'], CVTTOVS 8e Kai ov KaKOTrrepo?, 
(puvr) de TroXX?) Kai ov /SapeTa' TO de p.eyf6os [rov KoXXupiWoy] TUVTOV. 

A very doubtful passage, cf. Billerbeck, De loc. nonnull. Arist. H. A. 
difficilior., Hildesh. 1806. Sundevall, following Turner, Gesner, &c., 
identifies ndpdaXos with the Golden Plover, Charadrius pluvialis, L., 
which is frequent in flocks in Greece, and has a constant cry, and is 
about as large as rpvy&v : in the name he sees a suggestion of the 
dappled plumage, in spite of o-rroSoetS^? o\os. Billerbeck, following 
Aldrovandi, &c., identifies it with the Starling, for similar and equally 
good reasons. Vide supra, s. v. jAaXcucoKpaKeu's. 

HEAAPro'l. (Said to be derived from TreXoy, dpyo't: lit. black-and- 
white ; vide Suid. s. v. rreXapyidcls, ed. Bernhardy; Zonarus, p. 1528 ; 
Pott. Etym. Forsch. i. p. 131 ; cf. vfjes TreXapyo'xpojres-, Lycophr. 
24; opeiTTfXapyos, q. v.). Dim. TrcXapyiSeus, Ar. Av. 1356, Plut. ii. 
992 B. Cf. also y^Y 1 ! 5 * 

The Stork, Ciconia alba, L. Mod. Gk. XeXeiu, XeXe/ca?, sometimes 
said to be a Turkish word ; but Byzantios ingeniously compares 

XeXe'fa = TreXapydf with Ae'Xeyes = IIeXao-yo t ' : cf. also XdXttYCS. 

Mentioned in Ar. Av. 1 139, with a pun on ro HehapyiKov ; cf. ibid. 869. 

Description. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 Trept ray \ifivas KOL TOVS noTanovs 
fiiorevei. Its clattering noise, Philostr. Ep. ad Epictet. TOVS rreXap- 
yovs eTreiSav rrapiovTas fjp-as Kporakrti/ : cf. Ovid, Met. vi. 97 crepitante 
ciconia rostro. 

Migrations Arist. H. A. viii. 16, 600, <o>Xft. Cf. Plin. x. 23 (31) Cico- 
niae quonam e loco veniant aut quo se referant, incompertum adhuc 
est. Nemo videt agmen discedentium, cum discessurum appareat, nee 


nEAAPfOI (continued}. 

venire sed venisse cernimus : utrumque nocturnis fit temporibus. Cf. 
Dionys. De Avib. i. 31. (Its departure is scarcely noticed ; Lindermayer, 
op. cit., p. 154). Ael. iii. 23 rrjs &pas fie rrjs Kpvpwdovs di\6oi;crr]s ) orav 
VTroo~Tpe\ls()o~iv $ TO. i'5ia, Tr)v eavrS>i> fKarrros KaXiav dvayv(opiovo~iv ) a>s 
TT}V olKiav av0pa)Troi. The precise regularity of their coming (cf. s. v. 
Yepayos) : Lucullus to Pompey, ap. Plut. i. 5i8D eira, e<p/;, o-ol SOKG> 
e\aTTOva TO>V yepdvav vovv ex eiv Ka ' v 7reXapya>j>, wore rats wpais P.TJ\\etv ras Statra? ; Cf. 6 ne\apyos aXrjrijs, Call. Fr. 475. 

According to Strabo, 221, 397, connected with IleXao-yoi, a nomad race; 
cf. Dion. Hal. i. 28. 

Filial Piety. Ar. Av. 1355 eirfjv 6 irarrjp 6 TreXapyoy 
irdvTas noirjo-r] TOVS TreXapyiS^s rpe^tov | 8el rovs VCOTTOVS TOV Trarepa nd\iv 
Tpefaiv. Cf. Plut. Alcib. i. 135 D, Arist. H. A. ix. 13, 615 b, Ael. iii. 23 

Tpe(j)iv fJiev TOVS Trarepas TreXopyol yfytjpaKOTas KOI e6\ov<ri Ka\ 
efJie^eTrjcrav' KeXfvei 8e avTovs v6p.os avOpasniKos ovde els rovro, dXXa ama 
TOVTCOV <pv(ris' ol avTOi 8e Kal ra iavTO)V enyova (ptXoO(rt, K. r. X. Origen, 
C. Celsum, iv ev(rfj3fOTepouff elvai TOVS 7re\apyovs TWV dvdpwTrwv. Cf. Fab. 
Aesop, yeoop-yoy icat TrcXapyo?, Fab. ico, loo b (ed. Halm), Babr. xiii 
OVK fljj.1 yepavos, ov trrropov K(iTa(p6fipa> | nc\apy6s elfju (xn XP1 P- 
TTTrjvwv TTcXap-yos evo-e^earaTO? (/WCDJ' | TOV TtdrjvS) narcpa Kal 

Cf. Soph. El. 1058. See also verb amTreXapyfo/, Suidas, Zenob. i. 94, 
&c., and UfXapyiKot vopjot, Hesych., Suid., &c. The Stork as a primeval 
law-maker is alluded to in Ar. Av. 1353, perhaps also ibid. 1213. Hence 
the Stork was honoured by the Egyptians, as an emblem of piety : Ael. 
X. l6, Horap. ii. 55 <piXo7raropa (3ov\6fjifvot (njfiTJvai avdpconov, TreXapyoi/ 
a>ypa(povo~tv. fv TOLS o~Kr)7TTpnis afcortpa) p,ev irf\apybv ruTrovfrt, Karcorepa) 
de Trora/itoi/ tmrov. (Cf. Schol. in Ar. Av. I.e.) Cf. Phile, (vi.) 158 : Plin. 
x. (23) 33 ; Juv. Sat. i. 116 ; Porph. De Abst. iii. n ; Publius ap. Petron. 
Sat. 55 ciconia etiam grata, peregrina, hospita, Pietaticultrix, gracilipes, 

How the Storks teach their children to fly, Plut. ii. 992 B KOI TOIS n-eXap- 
yiSevcrij/ 6 pas eVi TO>V Teyav cos ol re'Xeioi napovTes dvaTreipatfjievois vCprjyotvTai 


Destroys serpents, and hence honoured by the Thessalians. Arist. 
Mirab. 23, 832 Trepi QfTra\iav p.vr]p.ovvovo~iv o<peis ^Ktoyovrjdrjvai TOO~OVTOVS 
SXTT } el fj.f] VTTO Tcov ne\apyS)V dvgpovVTO, eK^top^trat av avrovs. fiio 8fj KOI 
TIJJ,U>O~L TOVS TreXapyouy, *cal KTeiveiv ov VOJJLOS' Kal edv TIS KTturg^ tvo%os roty 
avTols yiveTai olanrfp Kal 6 di>8po(puvos '. see also Plut. De Isid. c. 74> 
Symp. viii. 7, Plin. x. (23) 33, Solin. De Thessal. Cf. Juv. Sat. xiv. 74 
serpente ciconia pullos, Nutrit et inventa per devia rura lacerta ; Virg. 
G. ii. 320. 

The Stork as food, Hor. Sat. ii. 2, 50, and Scholia; cf. Corn. Nepos, 
ap. Plin. x. (23) 30, Mart. Ep. xiii. 


HEAAPrOI (continued}. 

Myth and Legend. Hostile to aWvia, Ael. iv. 5, Phile, 680; to 
vvKTpis, Ael. vi. 45. Uses opiyavov as a remedy, Arist. H. A. ix. 6, 
612, Ael. v. 46, Plin. viii. 27. How the bats (wKTepides) render the 
Stork's eggs unfruitful, and how the Stork defeats them with a leaf of 
irXdravos, Ael. i. 37, Geopon. xiiL 13, xv. i, 18; according to Anatol. 
p. 298, a tortoise-bone is equally efficacious. A Stork's stomach is 
a specific for the murrain of sheep and goats, Geopon. xviii. 1 1 ; cf. 
Plin. xxix. 33. 

A young Stork, a prophylactic against ophthalmia, Plin. xxix. 38. 

A messenger of Athene (cf. epo8ios), Porph. De Abst. iii. 5. 

Story of Alcinoe, an unfaithful wife: Ael. viii. 20 TOI-TO crwiSuv 6 
ire\apybs 6 OLKCT^S oi>x virepfivev, aXXa eTip^prjae TO> decnroTTj' Trpo&nrjdSiv 
yovv fTrrjpoMTf TTJS dvdpwirov Trjv 6S//ii/ i cf. Apostol. xiv. 15, p. 609. Story 
of Heraclei's, to whom the Stork, healed of a broken leg, brought next 
year a magic pebble : ibid. viii. 22 rrjv &' ovv \L6ov evdov TTOU 
flra VVKTWP dtvnvio-Qdcra 6 pa avyrjv nva KO\ a'iyXrjv afyiclvav, KOI 
6 owcoy coy eaKoiucrdeiffrjs dados : cf. Dion. De Avib. i. 31. The stone was 
probably the stone \VXVLS or XV^I/I'TTJ?, cf. Plin. xxxvii. (17) 103, and 
Philostrat. V. Apoll. Tyan. ii. 14 TreXap-yoi KaXias OVK av irrjt-aivro, pr] nporfpov 
avrals evappoa-avres TOV XV^VI'T^V \idov : cf. also Lucian, De Dea Syr. 32 ; 
Orph. Lith. 268. 

Metempsychosis : Alex. Mynd. ap. Ael. iii. 23 orav es yrjpas a^iKco^rai, 
irapeXdovras avrovs es ras ' SlKeavindas vr](rovs dfj.cifBeiv TCI c'idi) es dvdpairov 
Hop(pfjv, Kai eva-efteias ye T^S es TOVS yeivapevovs adXov TOITO icr^ciy, aXXtos 
re, e'L TI eyu> voo), K.a\ V7ro0e'cr$ai T>V 6tu>v (3ov\op.evwv TOVTO yovv T>V dvdpw- 
TTCOV rwv eKeWi TO yevos evo~ej3es Kal ocriov^ ewel ov% olov re T]V ev rfj aX\r) yfj 
vfi f)\io> TOIOVTOV diafiiovv : cf. the story of the birds of Diomede (s. v. 
epcoStos), and see for accounts of similar superstitions in recent times, 
Schwenk, Slav. Mythol. p. 129 ; cf. also August Marx, Griech. Marchen, 
PP- 5-55) Stuttgart, 1889. 

riE'AEIA, s. ireXetdls. Also ireXTjids, Opp. Cyn. i. 351. 

A Pigeon or Dove. The Epic word : used for nepio-Tfpd also by 
the Dorians (Sophron. ap. Athen. ix. 394 D), and by the lonians 
(Hipp. 638. 8, 667. 3 : cf. Lat. pal-umba. Commonly said to be 

connected with TreXo'y, iro\i6s, &C. ; cf. Hesych. neXeiai' fieXaivai 
VtplOTfpal, and Eustath. Hom. p. 1262 Tre'Xem 8e ov% dn\S)s Trepi- 
(TTfpd, eldos de TI Treptarepas, cos 17 \eis enibr)\ol' ireXbv yap TO /xeXavi^oi/j 

^ ov ml 6 7rf\apy6s. Nevertheless, the derivation appears to me 
somewhat dubious; for all the wild pigeons, the Turtle-dove 
excepted, are very much of a colour, and I do not think the 
Greeks would have spoken of black pigeons until they had got 



F1EAEIA (continued}. 

white ones ; cf. also Herod, ii. 55 p.e '\aivai Tn-XeiaSey. IleXeia seems 
lost as a current word in Mod. Gk. : it does not occur in 
Aristophanes, save in the Homeric parody in Ar. Av. 575. 
In Horn, frequent ; the only Homeric word for pigeon, save for the 
occurrence of (pdao-a in the compound (pao-o-o(poj>o?, II. xv. 238. Usually 
with epithet rpr\pw q.v., a word of equally doubtful etymology, the received 
derivation from rpe<a appearing dubious in the light of such pigeon- 
names as Tpvymv, turtur, ^in , &c. 5 cf. TroXurpqpwt/ (descriptive epithet 
of the towns Thisbe and Messe), II. ii. 502, 582, and Lye. 87, 423, where 
rprjpaiv=7r\eia : see also Eustath. Horn. II. pp. 1262, 1712, Athen. xi. 
490 D. A prey to tprjg, II. xxi. 493, to nip?, II. xxii. 139; cf. Aesch. 
Pr. V. 858. Messengers of Zeus, when Rhea protected him from 
Cronos, Od. xii. 62 Tre'Aemi | rpypuves, rai T' dfj.fipoorir)v Ail Trarpl (pepov<riv. 
As ornaments of Nestor's cup, II. xi. 634 8oial de TreXeioSfs- dp.fos 
fKCHTTov [ovas] \ xpucmot vepfdovro, cf. Athen. 1. c. Captured in springes, 
Od. xxii. 468 ; cf. Dion. De Avib. iii. 12 (s. v. <pd<r<ra). In Homer the 
pigeon is never spoken of as a domesticated bird, and is definitely 
a wild one in II. xxi. 139, and Od. xxii. 468. II. xxi. 495 suggests the 
Rock-dove, C. livid I fj pa ff t><p* ipfjKo? KoiXr/i> ftcreTrroro frerpty?, | 
cf. Q. Smyrn. xii. 12 tp^ creue neXciav' eTreiyop.^^ &' apa Keivrj, | 
7TTpt]s KaTfdvo-aTo i cf. also Virg. Aen. v. 213. 

In Aristotle distinguished from TrcpioTepdi : H. A. v. 13, 544 b er 
eon rrepL(TTpa KCU TTfXfids' e'Xdrrcoi/ /ney ovv 17 TreXeia?, Tidaacrov 8e yiWrai 
fiaXXoi/ 17 TTfpio-repa. 77 8e TTfXetas KOI /j.e\av Kal piKpov Koi cpvQpoirovv Kal 
rpaxvnovvj 816 Kal ov6e\s rpefai. [The contrary stated, Athen. ix. 394 C.] 
Ib. viii. 12, 597 b anaipovo-i 8e KCU at (peirrat KOI al TreXfiaSey, KOI ov X fl ^"~ 
^ouo-t, ni 8e Trfpio-repat Kara^svova-iv. According to Sundevall, TreXem is 
here in Aristotle the Stock-dove, C. oenas, otms being the Rock-pigeon, 
C. livid, 4>&|r or <j)dtTTa, the Ring-dove, C. palumbus, and irepio-TCpd, 
the Domestic Pigeon. Aubert and Wimmer, on the other hand, take 
olvag as the Stock-dove, and leave ?re'Xeia in doubt. For my part, I do 
not think the Stock-dove was recognized as a distinct species, but was 
included, as in Mod. Gk. (Erhard, Heldreich), under the name (poo-era 
with the Ring-dove. Excluding the Turtle-doves, there then only 
remain the wild Rock-pigeon (Mod. Gk. dyptoTrfptorept) and the 
domestic variety ; and I imagine that both olvds (q. v.) and TreXeto 
refer, in Aristotle, to the wild Rock-pigeon, and Trepitrrfpo especially to 
the Tame Pigeon; cf. also Moeris (p. 405, ed. Koch, 1830) elwOds, rj 
KaroiKidios TTfpicrTfpa, f) yap aypia, ireXfids. The account in Arist. H. A. 
v. 13 is corrupt and not to be too much depended on, especially in 
view of the discrepant quotation in Athenaeus. The chief difficulty 
in the whole interpretation is the passage H. A. viii. 12, where it 
is asserted that both <parr<u and TreXeiafiey migrate and do not remain 

nEAEIA 131 

nEAEIA (continued}. 

over the winter, whereas all the Pigeons occur more or less in Greece 
in winter-time, and it is in summer that the Ring-dove and Stock- 
dove, which breed elsewhere, are seldom found. The passage can 
hardly have been written in Attica ; it would appear more consonant 
with the truth did we suppose it written, for instance, in Macedonia. 
Except in the doubtful case of Aristotle, Tre'Xeta is in no sense a specific 
term : we have seen it applied in Homer to the Rock-pigeon, and 
on the other hand the TreXetai in the Oak-woods of Dodona must have 
been either Ring-doves or Stock-doves (vide infra). In Opp. Cyn. i. 
351, where pigeon-fanciers are said to cause the pigeons by a display of 
purple stuff to bring forth young of a like colour, TreX/yYciy and also rprjpwv 
are used of tame pigeons. 

On the Latin usage of columba, palumbes, &c., cf. W. W. Fowler, 
A Year with the Birds (3rd ed.), p. 218. 

Various attributes. Its timidity ; Aesch. S. c. T. 292 Trai/rpop.0? \al. 
Traj/rpocpos 1 ] TreXeias 1 : Soph. Aj. 139 jwe-yay OKVOV e^co Kai 7re0o'/3///iai TTT^V^S 
tos op-fj-a TreXfias: Antip. Sid. xcii, Gk. Anth. ii. p. 33 8ei\ai rot 8ei\ol(riv 
cfadpfjo-ovori Tre'Xeiai i cf. Varro, De R. R. iii. 7 nihil est timidius columba ; 
Ovid, A. Amat. i. 117, ii. 363, &c., &c. Its swiftness : Soph. Oed. Col. 
Io8l aeXXcu'a raxyppaxTTos neXeuis, cf. also Philoct. 289, 1146 ; Eur. Bacch. 
1090 TreXei'a? toKvTrjr* ov% rjaraovei. 

The Dove pursued by the Hawk or Eagle, a type of swiftness and of 
timidity: II. xxi. 493, xxii. 139, Q. Smyrn. xii. 12 ; Aesch. Pr. V. 858 
7reXeio>i> ov p-nKpav XeXei/zpei/oi | Covert ; Eurip. Andr. 1140 01 d' OTTOIS 
UpaK idov&ai Trpbs (pvyrjv eVamcrai/ : Ovid, Met. i. 507 sic aquilam 
penna fugiunt trepidante columbae ; cf. ibid. v. 605, Trist. i. i, 75 ; Virg. 
Eel. ix. ii ; Lucret. iii. 751 ; Phaedr. Fab. i. 31, 3, &c. Thus Medea 
comes to Jason, as a Dove seeking shelter from the Hawk, Val. Flacc. 
Argon, viii. 32. 

The Dove in the clutches of the Eagle or Hawk, as an omen, Od. xx. 
243, xv. 525, Sil. Ital. Pun. iv. 104 ; cf. Virg. Aen. xi. 721. 

Hera and Athena, coming to the aid of the Argives, compared to 
Doves I II. V. 778 ai fie /Scm;*', rpjypeocri TreXeiao-ti/ Wpaff o/zoteu. For 
various interpretations of this simile, see the Scholia, also Ameis and 
other commentators ; but the allusion is probably neither to swiftness 
nor to dainty tread, but to the ancient and widespread prefigurement 
of the deity as a dove (cf. int. al., F. L. W. Schwartze, Urspr. d. 
Mythologie, p. 218); in the Homeric Delian Hymn, v. 114, Iris and 
Eileithyia /3av 5e TTOO-I rprjpuai 7reXeuz<7ii/ Wp.aff o/noiat, with which cf. Ar. 
Av. 575 *Ipiv de y "Ofj.r]pos efpaaK iK\rjv flvai rp^paw TreXei'fl, and Schol. 

The story of the Dove bound by Achilles to the mast as a mark 
for the archers, II. xxiii. 850 et seq. : it was shot by Meriones, v\^i 
d vTral v(pto)v cide Tpfjpcova TreXeiai', | rr\v p" oyc divevovaav inrb irrepwyos 

K 2 


HEAEIA (contimted}. 

/3a\e Ufa-err)* : the same story transferred to Aeneas and Eurytion, Virg. 
Aen. v. 485-544. 

On the pigeons that brought ambrosia to the infant Zeus, see Od. 
xii. 60 ; Moero Byz. ap. Athen. xi. 4906 ; Ptolem. Hephaest. ap. Phot. i. 
p. 474. 

The Dove that flew between the clashing rocks in the passage of 
the Hellespont : Apoll. Rh. ii. 328, ii. 557, &c., and Schol. ouoi/cw Si) 
irpocrde TreXeiuSi Treip^aaarde \ vqbs ciTronpo ftedevres e(pifp,v' . . . afcpa 8' 
K.o\lfav | ovpala Trrepa raiye TreXeiuSos* f) & diropovcrtv \ d(TKr)6r)s '. see also 
Apollod. i. 9, 22, Hygin. Fab. xix, Propert. ii. 26, 39 cum rudis Argus 
Dux erat ignoto missa columba mari, &c. ; cf. the account of the 
l Tre'rpai or Cyanean rocks, Od. xii. 62 rfj pev r oi/Se TTOTTJTO. 
i, ot5e Tre'Xeicu | rpqpeoi'e?, rat T* d^poairjv Au Trarpi <pepov<riv : 
cf. Plut. ii. I56F. The Dove in the story of the Argonauts again, 
in connexion with the fire-breathing bulls, Apoll. Rh. iii. 541 

ay, | v 

In the above legends there are numerous traces of the mythical 
astronomy of the Pleiads. This view is a very ancient one ; cf. Athen. 
xi. 490 E TrpwTr) 8e Motpo> 17 BvfavTia KaXws fdet-aro TOV vovv TO>V 'Oprfpov 
Troi^paTcov, eV rfj Mvt)fj,oo-vi/Tj eTTiypafpopevr] (pda-Kov<ra rrjv dp.ftpo(riav T 
Au ras n\iddas KO/J.!.^LV. Kpdrrjs de 6 KpiriKos cr(pfTfpi(rdfj,(vos avrijs rrjv 
86gav, &s i'Sioj/ K(pepfi TOV \dyov. Cf. Moero, ibi cit., in the story of 
the Infant Jove, u>s 8' avras rp^pcocri TreXetacrtf coTra(re Ti/zj^y, | at 8r) rot 
Bepcos KOI x^paTos ayye\oi tlcriv : also many references, ap. Athen. 1. c., 
from Pindar, Simonides, Simmias, Lamprocles, &c., where the TrXeiaSf? 
are called TreXeiaSes- : e. g. Lampr. (p. 554 Bergk) atre noravais 6p.a>j/up>oi 
nfXddariv altiepi Ktlvde. The Pleiads are also supposed to be alluded 
to in Alcman, fr. 23 (Bergk) TO! irfXeiddes yap dp.iv \ 'Opdia (papos fapoi- 
<rais | VVKTO. Si' ap,/3pO(Tiai/ are o-fipiov | avrpov dj/etpo/xevai /xa^oi/rat. 

The coincidences on which rests the foundation for an astronomical 
interpretation of the above myths are chiefly the following. As has 
been mentioned above, s.v. aXKuwy, the sun rose together with the 
Pleiads in the sign of the Bull, at the vernal equinox, the ancient 
opening of the year. If the Cretan Jupiter was a Sun-god, he might 
be said to be nursed by the 7r[Y]Xeiade? : the sign Taurus may have 
been the Cretan Bull ; and a transit through that sign may have 
been the celestial Boo-Tropo? of the Argonautic voyage. The Dove as an 
attribute of Venus is similarly explained, the domus Veneris being in 
the sign Taurus, the sign of the Pleiad. 

The Doves of Nestor's cup, II. xvi. 634, are also supposed to have 
reference to the Pleiades, Athen. xi. 490-492. 

On the Dove of Deucalion : cf. Plut. Mor. 968, 1 185. On the dove in 

flEAEIA 133 

nEAEIA (continued}. 

the Chaldaean deluge-myth, cf. Euseb. Chron. Armen. i. p. 50, &c., c. ; 
see also the representation on coins of Apamea, Eckhel, Doctr. Numm. 
iii. 132, Friedlander, Kgl. Miinzkab. pi. ix, c., &c. 

A similar explanation is given of the Dove of the deluge-myth. 

The Pleiades (as doves ?) fleeing before the hunter Orion, Hes. Op. 
et D. 619. 

For references to the copious (and often unreliable) literature of 
Pleiad-symbolism, see int. al., Pluche, Hist, du ciel, Dupuis, Orig. de 
tous les cultes, Haliburton, New Materials for the Hist, of Man, 1863, 
von Bunsen, Plejaden und Thierkreis, 1879, Nitzsch in Od. v. 272, 
&c., &c. 

How the soul of Ctesylla departed as a dove ; Nicand. ap. Anton. 
Lib. i ; cf. Ovid, Met. vii. 370. 

The Pigeons of Dodona. Herod, ii. 55 raSe Se Aeo8a>raiW (pa<r\ at 
7rpop.dvTiS, 8vo TreXeiaSas 1 p.\aivas K Qrjfteow ru>v AtyuTrnecoj/ avaTrro/xeVar, 
rrjv [lev avrecnv es Aifiurjv, rrjv 8e napa axpeas dnLKfaOai' ifcofjLfvrjv 8e piv 
eVt (frriyov, avdda<r6ai (pwvfj dvOpotTrrjir], eby XP ^ V e fy parrifav avroQi Atos 
yfWo&ti. Ibid. 57 TreXeiafie? de pot doKeowi KXrjdijvai npos Aco&oi/auoi/ 
67rl rovde at yvvalKes, 8tort /3ap/3apoi f)<rav' edoKfov 8e cr<pi 6fj,oia>s opvuri 
(}>0cyyfo-6at . . . peKmvav 8e \tyovres flvai rf]V TreXetaSa o-rjuaivovcri on 
AlyvTTTlrj T) yvvrj rjv. Cf. Pausan. vii. 21, x. 12. On Alexander and the 
doves at Ammon, cf. Curtius, iv. c. 7, Strabo, xvii. See also J. Arneth. 
Ueber das Taubenorakel von Dodona, Wien, 1841 ; Perthes, Die 
Peleiaden von Dodona, Progr. d. Progymn. zu Mors, 1869; H. D. 
Miiller, Philol. Anz. ii. p. 95, 1870; Lorenz, op. cit., p. 35; Creuzer, 
Symb. iii. pp. 183, 217. 

According to Thrasybulus and Acestodorus, ap. Schol. II. xvi. 233, 
a dove had founded the oracle in the time of Deucalion. On the 
pigeons of Dodona, see also Soph. Tr. 171 <us rr)V naXaiav (prjybv nv^aat 
7roT6 I AooSam 8i<r(r)v CK TreXetaScov c(pr) : also ap. Schol. Find. fr. Paean. 
58 (30) ; Diod. i. 13, iii. 71 ; Sil. Ital. iii. 678 ; Serv. in Aen. iii. 466, 
Eel. ix. 13. According to Strabo, ap. Eustath. in Od., p. 1760, and 
Geogr. vii. fr. i a the priestesses were called Tre^iopavrfis, cf. KopaKonav- 
rets. According to Philostr. Imagg. ii. 33 (387 k), a choir of priestesses 
danced round an oak, on which sat a golden dove. Dion. Halic. Ant. 
Rom. i. 14, 4f compares with the Dodonaean dove the TT'IKOS or 
dpvoKoXaTTTrjs of the oracle of Mars. The whole story is intricate and 
confused. It seems clear that the priestesses were called Tre'Xeiat (cf. 
Paley, Aesch. Suppl. ed. 2, p. xiv) or TreXeto/udWet? ; and also that 
the oracle was not essentially an augury or bird-oracle, but one in 
which tree- worship, river- worship (cf. Macrob. v. 18), and thunder- 
worship (cf. Mommsen, Gr. Jahresz. p. 432, c.) were alike involved. 
The doves of Dodona link on to the story of Deucalion, to the doves 


riEAEIA (continued). 

that fed the infant Zeus, to the dove in other Zeus-myths (cf. Athen. 
ix. 395 a, Ael. V. H. i. 15) and to the doves of Dione. If we seek 
to get further back, we enter the mist of Pleiad-symbolism. 

It has been suggested by Landseer, Sabaean Researches, p. 186, 
from the study of an Assyrian symbolic monument, that the stars 
which Conon converted into the Coma Berenices (Hygin. P. A. ii. 24, 
cf. Ideler, Sternnamen, p. 295) and which lie in Leo opposite to the 
Pleiades in Taurus, were originally constellated as a Dove ; and that 
this constellation, whose first stars rise with the latest of those of 
Argo, and whose last rise simultaneously with the hand of the Hus- 
bandman, links better than the Pleiad into the astronomical Deluge- 
myth. The case rests on very little evidence, and indeed is an 
illustration of the conflicting difficulties of such hypotheses : but it 
is deserving of investigation were it only for the reason that the Coma 
Berenices contains seven visible stars (Hygin.), and the Pleiad six, 
a faint hint at a possible explanation of the lost Pleiad. 

n-eXeioOpejjLjjLw^, an epithet of Salamis (according to the Schol. and 
Hesych., but see Paley and other commentators), Aesch. Pers. 309 ; cf. 
TroXurp^pcoi/ (s. v. rpr\pwv) ; also the Insula Columbaria, Plin. iii. (6) 12. 

Proverb. f)p.evr) TreXcid?, a 'pigeon/ a simpleton: Eustath. Horn, 
p. 1333 Trctpoi/zia eVi Tail/ aTrXouordra)!/ TO fati"! TreXeia? Sia TO evades TOV 
feov : Suid., Hesych., Phot., c. 

In preparing this article on TreXeta, and the other cognate articles 
on the various Pigeon-names, I have drawn much from the learned 
pamphlet of Dr. Lorentz, Die Taube im Alterthume, Wurzen, 1886, 
as well as from the earlier compilation of Hehn, in his Culturpflanzen 
und Hausthiere. 

riEAEIA'l XAnPO'riTIAOI. An Indian Green Fruit-Pigeon, probably 
Crocopus chlorogaster, Blyth, cf. Val. Ball, Ind. Antiq., xiv. 
p. 305, 1885. 

Ael. XVI. 2 (pair) Tiff av irpS)TOV tfeno-d/iei/off, KOI OVK s^av e7ri(TTr]p.r]v 
opviOoyvoo/JiOva O-LTTOKOV flvai KCU ou TreXetaSa. X 61 '^ 7 ? 5e e'^oixri KCU (TKeXrj 
roiff "EXXfjo'i 7rep6\t rrjv ^poav TrpooreoiKora. 

HEAEKA'N. The Pelican, Pelecanus crispus, Bruch., and P. ono- 
crotalus, L., which latter is rare in Greece (Von der Miihle). 
Mod. Gk. 7reXeKdj/i (Von der M.), frauds- (Turk, a water-carrier), 
Tvpnavias. Onocrotalus t Plin. x. 47 (66). Vide s. vv. |3atj3uicos, 

Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597 ' TreXeKayey S' eicroirifavo'i, KOI trerovrcu airb 
TOV ^Tpvp.6vos TTOTdfjLOv eVi TOV "l&Tpov, Ka/cet TfKVOTtoiovvTaC adpooi S' cnrep- 
dva/jievovTes ol irporfpoi TOVS varepov, Siu TO OTQV inrepnTavTai TO 



F1EAEKAN (continued}. 

opos do~f]\ovs yiveo~dai TOVS Trporepovs TOLS vo~Tpois. Ib. 597 b opvts aye- 
Xato?, like the crane, the swan, and the little goose. Ib. ix. 10, 614 b 

01 de 7T\fKavS ol ev Tols TTora/zots yivo/Jifvoi KaTaTTLVOvo-t ras fJicyaXas Koy^as 
Kal \eias' orav ' eV rco Trpo rrjs K0i\ias TOTTO) ~ Trex^cocrtj/, e^fjj.ova'LV, tva 
XaaKovo-tov TO. Kpea l^aipovvrcs eo-dicaaiv. A similar account in Arist. 
De Mirab. 14, 831 b ; Antig. Hist. Mirab. 41 (47) ; Ael. iii. 20, 23, v. 35 ; 
Apostol. Cent. 15; Phile, De An. (9), 215; Dion. De Avib. ii. 6 
Kai TIS KO\TTOS avrols ^r,pTTf]Tai Trpo TO>V crrepvatv, fls ov a.7rao~av TTJV 
ecos (fj,(3d\\ovo~iv ) ovt TU>V KTGVWV ovre T>V o~K\r)pS)if 
i, K. <r. X. : cf. Plin, x. 47 (66) faucibus ipsis inest alterius 
uteri genus. That the Pelican can render up its food from its 
' pouch ' was much commented on by the ancients : hence the 
Hebr. name kaath> lit. 'to vomit.' But the Pelican feeds on fish, 
not (?) on shell-fish : and moreover P. crispus is common in Greece 
and is not limited to the north. Hence various writers have doubted 
the common interpretation, e. g. Gesner, Brandt (Descr. Animal. Rusti- 
corum, 1836, p. 53), Van der Hoeven (Handb. d. Zool., ii. p. 396) and 
especially Aubert and Wimmer (op. cit., i. p. 104), who suppose a 
species of Heron to be meant. But the passage in Dionysius (s. v. 
ireXeKiKos) is only applicable to the Pelican, and the latter is distin- 
guished from cpudios in Ael. v. 35, Phile, c. ix, &c. ; the Heron and the 
Pelican seem however to be confounded by Plutarch, 1. c. 

Cicero (De Nat. D. ii. (49) 124) repeats the story under the name 
Platalea, and Plin. (x. (40) 56) under that of Plafea, names which rather 
suggest the Spoonbill, to which the account may have been transferred, 
the Pelican not occurring in Italy (Gallia hos septentrionali proxima 
Oceano reddit, Plin. x. 47). 

The Pelican and its ' piety,' Ael. iii. 23. Cf. Horap. i. 54 7re\f<ava 8e 
ypd(bovTS, avow re fjSr) KOL a(ppova o-r]fj.aivovo-iv' eVetS^ dwdpevos fv rots 
v\lsrj\OTcpois TOTTOLS KaTaTideo~6ai TCI eavrov a'a, &o~rrfp Kai ra XotTra TO>V 
TreTeijvcov, TOVTO ov Troie? aXXa yap Kal avopvas yrjv, exei KaTariderai TO. 
yfvvo)fj,va' orrep cTTiyvovTes avdpconoi, ra> TOTTW /3oo? d(p68evfjia ^rjpov rrfpiTi- 
6eao~iv } cp Kal Tvvp V7roftd\\ovo~i' deaad^icvos de 6 TreXeKaz/ TOV Kavrj/oj/, rot? 
Idiois Trrepols fiovXofjifvos a7roo"]3ecrai ro TrCp, K T&V evavriwv KOTO, rrjv Kivr]o~iv 
e^arrret alro. v<p' ov KaraKctiofjievos TO. eauroi) Trrepa evavhXrjTTTOTepos rols 
yiverai' di' TJV alriav OVK evofjiiadr] eadifiv TOVS if peas avrov, enfiOfj 
)$ vrrep TfKvatv noielTai TOV dy5)va' AlyvnTLWv oe ol Xoiyrot eo~diovo~i, 
OTI pr) Kara vovv TTJV p-dxrjV) &o-7Tfp ol ^^i/aXcoTreKfS 1 , aXXa Kara 

6 TreXeKav Troielrat. This statement follows an account of the 
parental affection of ggraX&ri^ ; Lauth (Sitzungsb. Bayer. Akad., 1876, 
p. 105) shows that it is in part based on a confusion between two 
Egyptian words, chemt, ' a pelican/ and chemi, ' ignorant.' The parental 
affection of the Pelican is frequently referred to by the Fathers : cf. 


HEAEKAN (continued}. 

Epiphan. (ad Physiol. c. xx) Hexaem. c. viii e<rri yap fj jreXeKav <pi\6- 
reKvov opveov Trapa Tcavra ra opvea' 17 8e 6fj\eia Kade^trai ev rfj veoTTia 
<pv\do~o~ov(ra ra re/ci/a, Kal irepiOahnfi avra d(T7rabp.eV>7, KCU KO\a(piovo'a ev 
<pi\rjfj.aTi OTTUS rals TrXeupaiS 1 Karepyaerat, Kal reXevraxrt" Kal /J.e6' fjp-epas 
Tpeis Trapayfvofjifvov roC appevos TreXeKavos^Kal fvpiaKOvros avra TeBvrjKOTa 
oXocpvpeTat rrjv Kapdiav XiW' TreTrXq-ypeVoy Se rou novov KoXcxplfci rrjv ISiav 
nXevpdv, Kal arras avrrj f/tTroiet, KOI Karappfl aijpia eTTicrra^coj/ eVt ras ir\rjyas 
TO>V T^6vr]K.oT(Av veo(T(r(ov, Kal ovTcos (/ooTToioCi/roi : cf. also Ps.-Hieron. ad 
Praes. de Cer. Pasch. v. p. 149 (ed. 1693), Isid. Orig. xii. c. 7, Glycas, 
Annal. i. p. 44, S. August, in Ps. cii, &c., &c. A confusion with 
certain Woodpecker-myths (cf. TTcXeicas) may be one of the various 
sources of these corrupt but popular stories. 

HEAEKA"!, s. ireXeKdt^ A Woodpecker. Mod. Gk. TreXe/uW, Sei/fy>o- 
(payos, TaiK\iddpa. Vide S. W. SpuoKoXdiTTTj?, KcXeos, orreXcKTOS. 

Mentioned Ar. Av. 882, 1155 et seq. Cf. s. v. 7reXe<ai/, Arist. H. A. 
ix. IO, 614 b oi fie Trc\Kavs ol ev rols Troranols, as indicating that the 
same word applied to the two different birds. Cf. Suid. (verb. q. del. 
Gaisford), ecrrt de eidos opj/eou, rpVTrovv ra devfipa, dfi ou Kal devdpOKo- 
Xa?rr/7? /caXeirai : also Hesych., s. v. TreXeKai'. 

In the version of the Itylus-myth, given by Boios ap. Anton. Lib. 
c. xi, Polytechnus, the husband of Ae'don, is metamorphosed into the 
bird TreXeKoV, the brother of Ae'don being transmuted at the same time 
into eVo^. With the stories of the Woodpecker breaking open con- 
fined places, referred to above, s. vv. 8puoKoXdTrris and eiroxj/, under 
the heading of the * Samir-legend,' cf. the myth of Aiovvcros neXeKvs 
(R. Brown, Dionysiac Myth, i. p. 332, ii. p. 8l). 

Hostile to op, Ael. vi. 45, Phile, De An. 684 : this statement is 
generally referred to the Pelican, but it more probably refers to the 
Woodpecker, that bird and the Quail being both alike associated with 
solar myths. 


In Dion. De Avib. ii. 6, and probably therefore also in Ar. Av. 882, 
a Pelican. 

FIEAHA'P* Trepia-Tfpas Kal nepai^s TO rjniav' AaKuves. Hesych. (verb. dub. : 
cf. Schmidt in Hesych.). 

HE'AAOZ. The Heron. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 b 6 TTC\\OS ^aXerrcos evvafcrai Kal o^ewfi* /cpa^Vt re 
yop Kal alfjLa, cbs (pac-iv, d(pirjcriv CK ro>z/ o<pda\p.S>v o^eucov, Kal TiKret 0auX<o? 
Kal 68vvr)p>s. TroXeuel de rot? /SXaTrrouati/, derw dp7ra -yap avroV Kal 
aXcoTTeia (pdeipei yap avrbv TTJS VVKTOS *cai Kopvda ra yap wa avrov 
K\e7TTCi. Ibid. ix. l8, 6l6b ev/z^ayos de Kal deirrvocpopos Kal erraypos, 


HEAAOI (continued}. 

f'pyaerai de TTJV rj/jLtpav. rrjv p.vroi xpoav c^ei <pav\r)v Kn\ TTJV K.oi\lav act 
vypav. Cf. Plin. x. (60) 79. 

In II. x. 275, there is an alternative reading TreXXoy 'A&pfifr}, vide s. v. 

riEPrOY'AON' opvidapiov 'ApyaXe'yeo [? 'Apyeioi Xcyovcrt] Hesych. Cf. 
. Vide S. VV. airopyiXos, orpouOos. 

T1EPAIKO0H'PAI. A specific appellation of a Hawk, sacred to Apollo ; 
Ael. xii. 4. 

FIE'PAIE. (On the quantity of the i, vide Athen. ix. 41, 388, and Soph. 

fr. 300, ibi cit.). 

A Partridge (Etym. dub.) Mod. Gk. 7rep8t<a. Dim. TrepSinaSfv?, 
Eust. 753, 56; TTfpSiKtov, Eubul. Inc. 14, Ephipp. Obeliaph. ap. 
Athen. ix. 359 b, &c. The species commonly referred to is 
Perdix graeca = P. saxatilis, auctt., the Common Partridge, 
P. cmerea, being distinguished from it chiefly by its note. 

Arist. H. A. iv. 9, 536 B 01 fier KaKKa{3{ovo~iv, ol Se rpiov(riv. P.graeca 
cries cacabis, P. cinerea on the other hand girrah or ripipri. The 
latter bird, our common Partridge, is now confined to the north of 
Greece. Cf. Athen. ix. 390 a, b : Theophr. ap. Athen. 1. c. ol 'Adrjvrja-i 
en-! rafie TrepStKe? roC KopuSaXXov [a village on the road to Boeotia] npbs 
TO ao~rv KaKKa^i^ovo~iv, ol S' TreKiva TnTv(3iovo~iv ; cf. Plin. x. (29) 4* 
Perdices non transvolant Boeotiae fines in Atticam ; Solin. vii. 23. 
Athen. ibid. TWV de 7Tfp8tK<oj/ ecrrti/ erepov yevos eV 'IraXia apavpov rfj 
TTTepaxrei Kal fjuKpoTepov rfj e^et, TO pvy%os ov%l KLvvafBapivov %X OV ' this 
seems to be again the common Partridge. The red legs of the Greek 
Partridge, Ael. xvi. 2 ; vide s.v. ireXeiag xXwp<"mXos. Cf. Ael. iii. 35 ; 
Antig. H. Mirab., vi. See also s. vv. fifxaXXos, KaKKa^Tj, in]pi, 

Description. An epitomized account, mostly after Arist. (fr. 270), in 
Athen. ix. 389 ; ^fpcratoy, o-^iSaroTrous-, KOVKTTIKOS (H. A. ix. 498, 633 b), 
$7 <5e err) nevrfKaideKa (ib. ix. 7, 613 ; sixteen years, ib. vi. 4, 563), 
fj de 0fj\eia KOI 7T\eiova. orav de yvu OTI QrjpfveTai, rrpoeXdcw TTJS vfOTrias 
KvXivdelTai vrnpa ra cnceXr) roO fypevovros (H. A. ix. 8, 613 b, Ael. iii. 16, 
Plut. ii. 992 B, Antig. H. Mirab. 39 (45), Plin. x. (33) 51; cf. verb. 
eKTrepftiKio-at, Ar. Av. 768, and Schol. ; also StaTrepSiKi'^Vti/, Meineke, Com. 
Fr. iv. 634)* I n Ar. Av. 1292 7rep8i p,ev cis K<'nrr]\os a)i/o^idero | ^coXos 1 , 
the allusion is rather to its supposed habit of feigning lameness, than 
merely, in a general way, to the bird as a proverbial deceiver ; cf. Prov. 

TTfpdlKOS (TKfXos, ap. Schol. KClKOrjOr]? KCU TTUVOVpyOS (H. A. ix. 8, 6l3, 6 1 4), 

1 , ano(pvddes } H. A. ii. 17, 508, 509. ov p.6vov adei aXXa 


lE (continued}. 

Kal rpiynbv afpirjai Kal ci\\as (j)a>vds, H. A. ix. 8, 614 ; cf. Plut. ii. 727 D. 
/xera/3aXXei ro xP^M a ) De Color. 6. 798 ; albino variety, De Gen. v. 785 b. 
oo-cppr)o-iv 8oKei exftv f7ridr)\ov, H. A. vi. 2, 560 b, cf. De. Gen. iii. I, 751. 
Kox^ias eo-dtel, H. A. ix. 37, 621, Athen. ix. 3900 (01 ev 2Kui0a>), and how 
the snails (ot KaX. dpeiovts) to elude them leave their shells behind, 
Ael. x. 5. 6 f)yfp.wv T>V dypiuv, ol x*JP l > Athen. 1. c., Arist. H. A. ix. 8, 614. 
Nest and Breeding Habits. Lays ten to sixteen eggs (Arist. H. A. 
ix. 8, 6i3b, cf. Ael. x. 15) which are white (H. A. vi. 2, 559) ; vTrrjvefua (Ib. 
560). Nest : H. A. ix. 8, 613 b ov iroiovvTai veoTTiav. aXX' orav 7roir}o~a>VTat 
(V TO> Xei'a) Kovio'Tpav, eTrrjXvyacrdfJievoi aKavddv Tiva KOI v\rjv TTJS Trepl TOVS 
lepaKas ev(Ka Kal TOVS aerovs aXecopas, IvravSa T'LKTOVO~I, Kal eTra)dovo~iv I cf. 

Ael. iii. 16, x. 15 ; Plin. x. (33) 51 ; Ovid, Met. viii. 258. Arist. H. A. vi. 8, 

564 dvo rroiovvTai r>v (p)v o~rjKovs } KUI e0' <u fj.fv rj 6r)\eia eVl 8e 0arepw 6 
apprjv eircod^fi, Kal eifXtyas /nrcfurct eKarfpos cKarcpa : cf. Athen. I.e., 
Antig. H. Mirab. 101 (no). Hence, perhaps, the allusion in Ar. Av. 
767 rrepdit; yeveo-^o), TOU narpos veorriov : cf. also Phryn. ap. Athen. 
ix. 3893 TOV KXeo/zjSpoTo'j/ re TOV | irepdiKos viov. Dion. De Avib. i. II 
doXepov TO yevos cVrtV, cos KOL TOVS VCOTTOVS yiv<no~Kiv OTTO)? av&pa ~x.Ph 
TTpoaiovTa, <pv\\ois r) jSooXois 1 KaXv\|^a/nefovs. Cf. Plut. De Solert. 

An. p. 971. 

Its salacity. De Gen. ii. 746 b, iii. 749 b, Ael. iv. i, vii. 19, c., c. 

fito Kal TO. eJa TTJS 6r)\eias crui/rpi/3ei Iva aTroXavr] TWV d<ppo$io~icovl Arist. ap. 
Athen. 1. c., Ael. iii. 5. (With this and similar fables, cf. Jerem. xvii. 1 1). 
e ol xnP ot a vTa>v npos d\\fj\ovs Kal 6 fjTTrjdfls o^ewerai virb TOV 
Athen. 1. C., Plin. 1. C. oxfvovo-i 8e Kal ol Tidao-ol TOVS dypiovs' 
de TOVTO Kara Tiva &pav TOV erovy, Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. 1. C. 
TOVS VCOTTOVS oxevovo'i, H. A. vi. 8, 5^4- av KCITO. ai/ep.ov crT&ffiv al Brfkfiai 
T&v dppevwVj ey<voL ylvovTaC 7ro\\aKis de Kal TTJS (ptovrjs (dKOvcraaai], edv 
6py5)o~ai ru^coai, Kal vTTfpir^TOp.evaiv ex. TOV KaT(i7rvevo~ai TOV cippeva' x ao ~ KL ^* 
Kal f) 6rj\eia Kal 6 apprjv, Kal TYJV y\5)TTav eo) e^ovcri TTfpi TrjV Trjs o^et'a? 
TToirjaiv, H. A. v. 5, 541 ; cf. De Gen. iii. i, 751, Ael. xvii. 15, Antig. 
H. Mirab. 81 (87), Athen. I.e., Plin. 1. c., c. 

Bastards, eK nepSiKos Kal dXeKTpvovos, De Gen. ii. 738 b. 
How the young chip the shell, &o~7rep dcpoKoirovvres, and are inde- 
pendent from the first : Ael. iv. 12. 

Capture and Domestication. Decoy partridges, Arist. H. A. ix. 8, 
614, vi. 2, 560 b, Ael. iv. 16, Xen. Mem. ii. i. 4. Various modes of 
capture, Dion. De Avib. iii. 7 ; cf. Simm. Rh. iv, Gk. Anthol. i. p. 137 
aypdra 7repdi | ovKeTi 6r]pevo-fis /SaXi'ov? (Tvvo} Epitaph on a tame 
partridge, Agath. Ixxxv, Gk. Anthol. iv. 35 rX^ojf crKontXav /uerai/dorpm 
Trfpdit; (also others by Democharis, c.). 

The sport of partridge-fighting (still practised in the Greek Islands), 
and how the females are kept at hand to stimulate the courage of the 


fl E PA I = (contimicd*} . 

combatants, Ael. iv. I. How the Cirrhaean (Phocian) Partridges, which 
can neither fight nor sing, deliberately starve themselves in order to be 
unfit for food also : but the singing and fighting birds deliver them- 
selves up rather than be slain: Ael. iv. 13; cf. Athen. ix. 390. An 
Egyptian dwarf who imitated partridges in their cages, Philostorg. x. 
II (cf. J. E. B. Mayor in Juv. viii. 33). 
The Partridge as food, Mart. Ep. iii. 58, 15, xiii. 65, 76, &c. 

Myth and Legend. (Besides the stories already told under the head 
of Breeding-habits, supra). 

On TrepdiKes in the wars of the Cranes and Pygmies ; Basilis and 
Menecles, ap. Athen. ix. 390 b. 

An evil omen : 2a/iuoi TrXeuaavres els "Svfiapiv KOI Karao-^oj'res' rfjv Siptrii/ 
avanravr^v KOL rroirjaavTOiv tyofpov, eKTrXayevres e<pvyov } Kal 
(Is ras vats dveTrXevaav, Heges. ap. Athen. xiv. 656 C. 

A fabled metamorphosis of Perdix, son of Daedalus, Hygin. Fab. 274, 
Ovid, Met. viii. 236-260. This subject is discussed in a curious essay 
by Gerland, Ueber die Perdixsage, Halle a. S., 1871. The writer 
identifies Perdix with the Lapwing. 

Sacred to Zeus and Latona, Ael. x. 35. 

8vo e'xowi Kfipbias, Theophr. ap. Athen. 1. c., Ael. x. 35 (in Paphlagonia ; 
cf. Plin. xi. 70). 

Hostile to xeAu>i>77, Ael. iv. 5, and to exfvos 6 7rorfioyaYo)i>, Phile, 678. 
Friendly to e\a(pos (hence a stag's head used as a decoy), Dion. De 
Avib. i. 1 1 ; to (/mrrct, Ael. v. 48. 

Use KaXa/j-os as a remedy, Ael. i. 35, Phile, 723, Geopon. xv. I ; also 
opiyavov, Ael. v. 46, or a leaf of laurel, Plin. viii. 27, or the herb variously 
known as perdicium, helxine, sideritis or parthenium, Plin. xxi. (16) 62 ; 
xxii. (17) 19. 

Proverbial expressions. nepdiKos (TKt\os, nepdiKos vlos, &C. vide supra. 
Archil. 95, ap. Athen. ix. 388 f. 7rrco<rcrouo-ai/ coo-re TrepSiKa : with which cf. 
Ar. Vesp. 1490, c., s. v. dXeKTpuwy. Pherecr. ap. Athen. I.e. *? roO 
TOV Xeipcom | e^icrw OKCOI/ devpo -rrepftiKos rponov. 

nEPIITEPA'. Etym. dub. According to Benfey (ii. 106) from Sk. 
pri, ' to love ' ; a derivation not much more convincing than 
the old on ncpio-a-ws fpa (Schol. Apoll. Rh. iii. 549). Hehn 
(Wandering of Plants, &c., Eng. ed. p. 484), and others compare 
O. Slav, pero, ' a feather/ prati, pariti, ' to fly/ 

Other forms are Trepiarcpis, Galen, vi. 708 (ed. Kiihn) ; irepio-repos, 
Pherecr. Tpa. 2 (2. 266), Alexid. Si^rpe^. 2 (3. 481) ap. Athen. 
ix. 395 a, b ; Eustath. Horn. p. 1712 ; a form censured by Lucian, 
Soloec. 7 ; cf. Lat. columlus^ Varro, De L. L. ix. 38. Dim. 


HEPIITEPA (continued}. 

jrepiorepiSeus, Schol. Ar. Ach. 866, Eust. 753, Suid.; jrepiorepio'ioi', 
LXX. Lev. i. 14, Athen. xiv. 654 a; Treptor^pioy, Pherecr. HeraX. 
2 (2. 322), Phryn. Com. Tpaya>8. 4 (2. 599) ap. Athen. ix. 395 c, 
xiv. 654 b, &c. (vide Meineke). 
A Pigeon. See also S. VV. elms, ireXeia, irupaXXts, rpuywv, <f>d<raa, 

First mentioned in Charon ap. Athen. ix. 3940, and Herod, i. 138; 
in Attic, first in Sophocles, then in the Comic Poets and Plato. 

Description. opvis ayeXmo?, Arist. H. A. i. I, 488; TO <ra>fia oyKcoSer, 
De Gen. iii. I, 749 b ; /ca/mo^a-ya Kal Tro^ayei, H. A. viii. 3, 593- i> K 
dvaKimTti Trivovcra, H. A. ix. 7, 613. Blinks with both eyelids, De Part. 
An. ii. 12, 657, Plin. xi. (37) 57. KOI Koviovrat Kal Xovvrai, Arist. H. A. 
ix. 49 B, 633 b ; does not migrate, Ib. viii. 3, 593, 597 b. Lives 
to eight years old (when blinded as a decoy) Ib. ix. 7, 613, Plin. x. 
(35) $2- Is the prey of hawks, (pao~l ras ir(pio~Tpas yivwcrKeiv CKOOTOV 
TO>V yevuv [T>V fcpairai/], Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 620, Ael. v. 50, &c., &c. Its 
COO, J. Poll. V. 13 f'lirois av Tre/narepay ynyyvfeiv. 

How pigeons purge themselves with the herb helxine, Plin. viii. 
(27) 41, cf. Diosc. iv. 39, 86 ; feed greedily on irepio-Tepewv or TrepioWpioi/ 
(verbena), Plin. xxv (10) 78, Diosc. iv. 60, Nic. Ther. 860 and Schol. ; 
and on the white seeds of Helioscopium, Plin. xxvi. (8) 42. 

Captured by nets (cTricrndcrTpois) or more easily by springes (/Spo^ois-), 
Dion. De Avib. iii. 12. 

Anatomical particulars. Arist. H. A. ii. 15, 506 /LHK/JOI/ e^et TOV 
JJya, <(7Tf \av6dveiv oXi'you rrjv aio-^fyaw Ib. 506 b rr]v ^oXr/i/ e^ei 
rols evrepois, cf. Plin. xi. 37 (74). Said to lack gall, Horap. i. 57; 
see also Clem. Alex., Paedag. i. 15, Isidor. Orig. xii. 7, 61, and many 
mediaeval naturalists and poets, e. g. Walther v. d. Vogelw. xix. 13 ros 
ane dorn, ein tube sunder gallen ; cf. Hamlet, ii. 2. Galen, De Atra 
Bile 9, states correctly that the Pigeon possesses gall and merely lacks 
rr\v errl ro) ^Trari KVCTTIV. Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 508 b np6\o[Bov %i npo TTJS 
KoiXias : cf. Plin. xi. 37 (79). tiepfjLrjv rrjv KoiXtW, De Gen. iii. 7, 670. 

Her wings are covered with silver, and her feathers with yellow 
gold: Arist. De Color. 3, 793 (6, 79, 96) ol ra>v TrfpurrfpSiv Tpax/yXoi 
putroeiSft? TOV (paras avaK\a)[j.fvov. Philo, De Temulent. TOV 
TTJS 7T(pi(TT(pas cv f)\iaKais avyals ov KaT(vor)(Tas pvpias ^pw/tiarcoj/ 
cxXXarroj/ra Ideas; rj ov^l (froiviKovv Kal Kvavovv Trvponov re Kal dvdpaKoeiSes, 
en 8e a>xpbv Kal epvdpbv Kal aXAa Traj/roSnTra 'icr^ci ^pcoyLtara. See also 
Ael. Promot, 480 a, cit. Rhein. Mus. xxviii. p. 277, 1873. Cf. Lucret. 
ii. 801 Pluma columbarum quo pacto in sole videtur, Quae sita cervices 
circum collumque coronat ; et seq. See also Cic. Acad. Pr. ii. 25 in 
columba plures videri colores, nee esse plus uno ; Nero ap. Senec. Q. 


riEPIITEPA (continued^. 

Nat., i. 5, 6 colla Cytheriacae splendent agitata columbae ; Plin. x. 
(36) 52 nosse credas suos colores varietatemque dispositam ; id. xxxvii. 
5 (18) ; Auson. Epist. iii. 15. The young birds are plainer and darker 
in colour, Arist. De Gen. v. 6, 785 b. 

Nesting and Breeding Habits. Arist. H. A. vi. 2, 560 b KVVOIKTIV 
aXXTyXas*, orav /ueXXfl dvaftaive.iv o appyv, rj OVK av o^euo-eiej/ o -ye 7rpeo-/3irrepos 
TO 7rpa>Toz>* vo~Tepov fJievTOi dvafiaivei Kal uf] Kvcras' ol de veaiTepoi del TOVTO 
TToifjo-avTes oxfvovcrLV, Kal ert at 6r]\eiat aXXqXat? avaftaivovaiv, OTUV appyv 
pf) Trapfj, Kvo-ao-ai vo-rrep ol appeves' KOI ovQev irpo'iffjievai els aXX^Xas 
TiKTOvmv (pa TrXfico 77 ra yovco yivdjj.eva' e lav ov -ytWrai VCOTTOS ovdeis, 
aXX* vn^ycfua iravra TO. roiavrd flcriv. Cf. De Gen. iii. 6, 75^ b, Athen. 
ix. 394 d, Ael. V. H. i. 15, Dion. De Avib. i. 25, Plin. x. 58 (79); Ovid, 
Am. ii. 6, 56 oscula dat cupido blanda columba mari. 

Their prolific increase : TLKTCI dnoveoTTevovo-a ndXiv ev rpiaKovQ' fjf 
H. A. vi. 4, S^o* TIKTOWI d' ai 7repio"T6pai nacrav &>pav KOI 
cav TOTTOV fx a)(riv oXeeivov Kol TO. eTTiTrjdeia' fl Se pf], TOV Bepovs povov. ra 
5' fKyova TOV eapos jSe'Xrtcrra KCI\ TOV (pQivoTrmpov. TO. de TOV Bepovs Kal 
tv Tals Gepurj/jiepiais ^eipta-ra, H. A. V. 13, 544 b. TroXXa pev ov 
7ro\\aKis Se, De Gen. iii. I, 749 b. Srro/ce? rt'/cret Se/cd/cts roi) 
H. A. vi. I, 558 b. fjftr] de Tives KOL ^ydncauff, at 6' ev Afywrro) KCU 
ibid. vi. 4, 562 b ; Athen. ix. 394 c. wa Xevxa* vTr^i/e/xta, H. A. vi. 2, 559, 

561, &C. o>s eVi TO TroXv appev Kal OrjXv, Kal TOVTMV Q)S eVt TO TroXu npOTepov 

TO appev TtKTei (Athen. ix. 394, &c. : cf. Flourens, C. R., Ixxiii. p. 740, 

1864)' Kal TfKovcra piav r^pepav SiaXeiVei, ?ra nd\iv TIKTCI OaTepov' 
eTraxi^ei 8e Kal 6 cipprjv ev T5 fjiepei TIJS fjfjiepas, Trjv de VVKTU f) 6r)\fia (cf. Ael. 
iii. 45, Athen. ix. 394 b). e/KTrerreTai TC Kal 6/<Xe7reTai CVTOS f'tKoaiv r)p.fpS)v 

TO yev6fJ.VOV TrpOTepOV T&V to)V (cf. ibid. Vi. 2)' TlTpd)OVCl 6 TO 6)6j/ Trj 

TrpOTepata rj e/cXeVet, &C. o^tuei de Kal o^eueTai e'fToy cviavTOv' Kal yap 

cKnyvos, H. A. vi. 4, 562 b : cf. Arist. fr. 271, 1527. 

Care and Nurture of the Young. Arist. H. A. ix. 7, 613 yevo/ieVtov 
8e TCOV vfOTT&iv TTJS a\uvpiovo~T]S fj.d\LO~Ta yrjs"7yO'ap-ej/os eio~nTVi Tols 
veoTTols dioiyvvs TO aro/za, irpoTrapaaKevdfav 7Tp(>s Trjv Tpocpyv. See also 
Ael. iii. 45, Athen. ix. 394 f, Plin. x (34) 52 ; hence the variant in Athen. 

394 C, Ael. V. H. i. 15 o apprjv e/zTrruet avTotr, "va p.r) (BaarKavd(ii)o~i. 

For other particulars regarding nesting, incubation, care of the 
young, c., see Arist. H. A. vi. i, 558, 2, 560, 8, 564, ix. 7, 612 : De 
Gen. iii. 6, 756 b, iv. 6, 774 ; Athen. ix. 394 ; Geoponic. xiv. i, 2, xvi. i, 3 ; 
Plin. x (53) 75, (58) 79, (60) 80 ; Varro, De R. R. iii. 7, 9, &c.; Colum. 
R. R. viii. 8, 5 j Eustath. p. 1712, c., &c. 

Conjugal Affection and Chastity. Arist. H. A. ix. 7, 6l2b OVTC yap 
0vydvdc<r&u [Antig. H. M. 38 avv.vvdfa6ai\ 6e\ovo~i irXeioaiv, OVTC 
TrpooTroXeiTTouai Tr]V Koivaviav, TrXrjv fdv X*IP OS *7 XnP a y^rjTai. eVi fie 
Trepl Trjv wSIva deivf) f) TOV appevos Qepaneia Kal (rvvayavaKTyo'is' edv T 


FIEPIITEPA {continued}. 

airofjia\a.Kir)Tai Trpbs TTJV eTcroSoi/ rrjs veorrias 8ia rr]V Xo^etai/, TVTTTCI KOI 
dvayKa^fi ettneVai. Ael. iii. 5 Tfcpiorfpav 5e opvidwv aaCppovea'TdTTjv, /cat 
KKO\aafJ.vrjv els d(ppo8!.Tr]v p-dXtara O.K.QVU) Xeyovrav' ov yap Trore aXX^Xtov 
diao~nS)VTai) ovre 17 ^Xeta, eav p,fj dfpatpedf) rv^rj TLV ^ TOV ovw6ftov t oure 6 
apprjv r)v M xw* yevrjrai i cf. also iii. 45, V. H. i. 15. See also Athen. 
ix. 394, Antig. H. M. 38 (44), Dion. De Avib. i. 25, Porphyr. De Abst. 
iii. 10, Plin. x. (34) 52, Propert. ii. 15, 27, c., c. Hence, in Egypt, 
a black dove a symbol of perpetual widowhood, Horap. ii. 30. 

Its simplicity and harmlessness (anepaiocrvvrj) Matt. x. 16; cf. Cyrill. 
De Ador. Spir. xv Trpbs aKpov fjneiv rrpqorrjTos, &c, &c. With ep. placida, 
Ovid, Met. vii. 369, cf. Hor. Epist. i. 10, 4, &c., c. 

As Epithets, Tj-epKrrepa and <pdo-<ra are applied to a wife and mistress, 
Artemid. Oneir. ii. 20 ; similarly Lycophron calls Helen Tpfjpav (Cass. 
87, ubi Schol. 8ia roXa^i/oj/), ne\fids (ib. 131, Schol. nopvr}), and Cassandra 
(ib. 357) (paa-a-a. In Lat. Columba is very frequent as a term of endear- 
ment, Plaut. Cas. i. 50, Asin. iii. 3, 103, c., c., while palumbes y 
Id. Bacch. i. i, 17 appears in the sense of lover, and turtur, Bacch. i. i, 
35 in that of mistress. 

Varieties. Aristotle enumerates the following names or varieties 
of pigeon: H. A. viii. 3, 593 (pd^ [om. A a , C a ], (paTra [om. D a ], 
7rfpi(TTpd, olvds, rpvyoav '. ib. viii. 12, 597 (pdrrai, TreXeiaSes 1 , rpvyoves, 
TTfptOTfpai I ib. V. 13, 544 b Trepiarepa, TreXeias-, ^)arra, olvas, rpvyav. 
Arist. ap. Athen. ix. 393 f Trepjorfpa, oli>ds, (pd-^r, (pdo-a-a, rpuycov. Callim. 
Trepi opveav, ap. Athen. ix. 394 d, Ael. V. H. i. 15 (pda-aa, TrvpaXXiV, 
Trepio-rtpa, rpvyw : for all which names, see under their proper 

irepiorepd is usually the generic word : 7rfpio-repo)i> p.ev ftvai ev yevos 
eid7 Se rrevre, Arist. fr. 271, 1527, &c. When used specifically, it refers 
to the Domestic Pigeon, Columba livia, var. domestica : Arist. H. A. 
i. I, 488 b TO. /zei/ aypoiKa &<rnep (pdrra . . . ra 8e (rvvav6pto7ri(i olov 
TrepurTfpd: ib. V. 13, 544 b ridaa-o-bv 8e yiverai /uaXXoy 17 nepiarfpa: cf. 
Soph. fr. 745 (ap. Plut. Mor. 959 e) Trepiarepav e<pmov OIKSTIV re : Plat. 
Theaet. I99b Xa/Sttj' (pdo-o-av avrl irepiarfpas, a wild pigeon for a tame 
one. Cf. eiwucis, f] KaroiKidios Trtpicrrepa, T) yap aypia, rrfXfids, Moeris 
(p. 405, ed. Koch, 1830) ; with which cf. Themist. Or. xxii. p. 273 C ov 
yap 8rj TWV 77epKrrepa>i> p,tv at eddftes iroXXaKis nvas Ka\ ^evas eVayoi/Tat. 
In its generic use it appears, e.g., in the statement that in cities 
TreptoT-fpai' are tame, in country districts very wild, Ael. iii. 15 rrfpiarfpal 
de ev rats TroXfcrt roils avdpomois avvayeXd^ovrai, Kai flai Trpaorarat /cat 
(IXovvrai Trapa rot? irbcriv, c. The passage in Ar. Lys. 754 appears 
to refer to the extreme familiarity of the city-pigeons. 

White pigeons : first seen in Greece near Athos, during the Persian 
War, Charon ap. Athen. ix. 394 d, Ael. V. H. i. 15; though white 


FIEPIITEPA (continued'}. 

pigeons were not honoured in Persia, being deemed hostile to the Sun, 
Herod, i. 138 ; the white doves had probably been the property of 
Phoenician, Cilician, or Cypriote sailors (Hehn). On white pigeons, 
cf. also Alexid. 3, 481, ap. Athen. I.e. Aevjcos 'A^poStV^r et/ul yap nepi- 
o-repos : see also Varro, De R. R. iii. 7, Ovid, F. i. 452, Ep. 
xv. 37, Met. ii. 537, xiii. 674, xv. 715, Martial, &c. The white 
pigeons were apparently the sacred race of Babylon, which after- 
wards spread to Syria and to Europe : cf. Hehn, Culturpfl. p. 279, 
Engl. ed. p. 258 ; they are still numerous in Damascus (cf. Thomson, 
Land and Book, p. 271). Galen distinguishes between the KaroiKidioi 
and the aypiai, ftoo-Kadfs, or vopades, De Comp. Medic, ii. 10 (xiii. p. 514, 
ed. Kiihn), cf. De Simpl. Med. Temp. x. 25 (xii. p. 302) ; for the latter, 
dove-cotes were built in the fields near Pergamus. Varro, De R. R. 
iii. 7 gives a similar account : agrestes maxime sequuntur turres, in 
quas ex agro evolant, suapte sponte, et remeant. Alterum genus illud 
columbarum est clementius, quod cibo domestico contentum intra 
limina ianuae solet pasci. Hoc genus maxime est colore albo. There 
is also a mixed breed, genus miscellum, reared in the Trepto-reporpocpejoi/ : 
cf. Ovid, Heroid. xv. 37 et variis albae iunguntur saepe columbae. 
See also on the care of domesticated and half-domesticated pigeons, 
Colum. De R. R. viii. 8, Pallad. i. 24, Geopon. xx. 

Homing or Carrier-Pigeons. Pherecr. fr., ap. Athen. ix. 395 b cwro- 
7Tfji\l/ov dyyeXKovra rov irepia-Tepov. Anacreont. fr. 149, Bergk, iii. p. 305 
(ed. 4) 'Ai/aKpecov p? cTrcp^ev \ Trpos TratSa, Trpos "Bd6v\\ov | ey&> 
AvaKpeovn \ diaKOvS) rocravTa' \ Ka\ vvv, opas } CKCLVOV 
A message sent from Pisa to Aegina, by Taurosthenes, 
a victor in the Olympian games, to his father, Ael. V. H. ix. 2. Cf. 
Varro, De R. R. iii. 7, 7 columbas redire solere ad locum licet anim- 
advertere, quod multi in theatre e sinu missas faciunt. Pigeons sent 
into the Consuls' camp by Dec. Brutus at the siege of Mutina, Plin. x. 
(53) 37 J cf' Frontin. Strategem. iii. 13, 8. See also Mart. Epigr. 
viii. 32, &c., &c. 

On Decoy Pigeons, see (int. al.) Ar. Av. 1082 ras Trepio-rcpas 0' 6p.oia)s 
iAAa/3a)i> el'p^as 1 %X l ) I KaTravayKii^et TraXeveiv 8edfp,va$ fv $IK.TVG) (cf. Schol. 
TOVTO y\o)o-(TT]p.aTiKS)s naXeveiv e\eyov) ; they were blinded for the purpose, 
Arist. H. A. ix. 7, 613. Cf. Hesych. \eyovrai yap rraXeurpiai avrai at 
f^aTraraxrai Kal V7rdyov(rai npos caura fjyovv eve8pvov(rai. 

A Dove-cote, irfpiarfpcuv, Plat. Theaet. 197 C, D, 198 B, 200 B, 
Galen, Aesop, c. ; also Trepto-TepoTpocpeW, Varro. On the dove-cotes 
in Herod's garden at Jerusalem, Trvpyoi rreXeiddw yp-tpav, Joseph. De 
Bell. Jud. v. 4, 4. Great dove-cotes are still conspicuous objects in many 
parts of the East ; they are very numerous and large, for instance, in 
Tenos, the modern site of the Panhellenic shrine and festival (cf. Bent, 


HEPIITEPA (continued}. 

Cyclades, 1885, P- 253). On the construction of dove-cotes, their 
internal niches (0-77*01, KvOplvot, Geop. xiv. 6), and perches (o-avides), on 
the duties of the Treptorfporpocpoy, ndaa-aroTpocpos (Opp. Cyn. i. 354) or 
pastor columbarius, on charms to keep the birds from straying, &c., &c., 
see Varro, Columella, Palladius, and Geoponica, loc. citt. For references 
to dove-cotes, see also Ovid, Met. iv. 48 albis in turribus ; id. Tr. i. 4. 7 
aspicis, ut veniant ad Candida tecta columbae, Accipiat nullas sordida 
turris aves ; Mart. xiii. 31 quaeque gerit similes Candida turris aves. 

According to Varro, a pair of full-grown pigeons was worth from 
200-1000 sesterces ; and L. Axius had purchased a pair of a dealer for 
500 denarii. 

The Sacred Doves of Venus or Astarte. Pigeons were sacred in the 
eyes of the Syrians, like the fishes of the river Chalos, Xen. Exp. Cyr. 
i. 4, 9 ; they were kept in great numbers at Ascalon, Ctes. ap. Diodor. 
ii. 4, Philo ap. Euseb. Prep. Evang. viii. 14, 64 (cf. the Dove on coins 
of Ascalon, Eckhel, Doctr. Numm. iii. p. 445) ; and at Hierapolis, Lucian, 
De Syr. Dea, c. 14, where the statue of Atargatis had a gold dove on 
her head, Lucian, ibid. c. 33. On Venus' doves, see also Virg. Aen. vi. 
190, Ovid, Met. xiv. 597, Fulgent. Mythol. ii, &c., c. 

On the doves in Palestine, cf. Tibull. i. 7, 17 Quid referam, ut volitet 
crebras intacta per urbes Alba Palaestino sancta columba Syro? cf. 
Hygin. Fab. 197, Lucian, De Syr. p. 912, Joseph: loc. cit., Clem. Alex. 
Trpos *EXhr)i> ii, Philo ap. Euseb. P. E. viii. c. 14, p. 398, &c. See also 
the account given above of the introduction of white pigeons into 
Greece, and compare the sanctity of the bird in modern times at 
Mecca, Constantinople, Venice, Moscow, &c. On the cult of Doves 
in Syria, cf. Broeckhuis, ad Tibull. 1. c. 

The cult of the goddess, carried from Ascalon to Cyprus (Herod, i. 
105, Pausan. i. 14, 7), brought thither the sacred doves ; cf. Antiphon. 
ap. Athen. xiv. 635 B 77 Kvnpos d' e'xei neXeias dia<popovs I the white 
Paphian doves, Martial, viii. 28, 13, cf. Nemes. fr. De Aucup. 22 ; see 
also Eustath. Horn. II. p. 1035. See also Fr. Miinter, Die himmlische 
Gottin zu Paphos, p. 25. 

As evidences of the cult in islands of the Aegean, cf. the Dove on 
coins of Seriphos and Siphnos, and the ancient dove-cotes still standing 
on the latter island. On figures of Astarte with the Dove, see (int. al.) 
Lenormant, Gaz. Archdol. 1876, p. 133 ; de Longpe'rier, Mus. Napol. iii. 
pi. xxvi. 2, &c., &c. 

At Eryx in Sicily ; Athen. ix. 394 f rrjs 8e SixeX/a? ev*EpvKi Kmpos TIS 
eortV, ov KaXovaiv 'Ai/aycoyia, eV <u (pcuri rf]v 6tbv els At/Sur/i/ avi'iyecrdaC TOT' 
cvv at Trept TUV TOTTOV Trepiorepal dcpavels yivovrai o>s brj T>] 6e<S arivcarobr]- 
/xovo-ai, K. r. X. Cf. Ael. iv. 2, x. 50, V. H. i. 15. For the Dove on 
a silver coin of Eryx, see Du Mersan, Med. inedites, Paris, 1832, p. 57. 


HEPIITEPA (continued*). 

Sicilian doves mentioned, Alexis and Nicander, frr. ap. Athen. ix. 
395 b, c, Philemon, ibid. xiv. 658 b. 

The story of Semiramis, forsaken as an infant by her mother 
Derceto, and fed by Doves in the wilderness, Ctes. ap. Diodor. ii. 4, 4, 
Ctes. fr. ed. Biihr, p. 393. Cf. Lucian, De Syr. Dea, ii. p. 885, Athenag. 
Leg. pro Christ, p. 156 (ed. Otto), Ovid, Met. iv. 47. Cf. Phornutus, 
De Diis, cap. De Rhea eoiKe Se fj avrrj y napa. Svpoi? "Apraya elvai, TJV 
ftia TO TTfpto-Tfpas /cai i%0vos aTre^eo-^at n/iooo-t. See also Selden's De Diis 
Syriis. Cf. also Hesych. Se^a'pa^is-, Trepiorepa opeios- 'EXX^j/iorrt. 

The Dove sacred also to Dione : Sil. Ital. iv. 106 Dilectas Veneri 
notasque ab honore Diones Turbabat violentus [accipiter] aves. 

The Dove in connexion with the Cyprian 'Ado>i/ia, Diogen. ap. 
Gaisford, Paroem. i. Pref. p. 5. On the Dove in connexion with 
Aphrodite, see also Apollod. ap. Schol. Apollon. iii. 593. 

How Doves hatched the egg from which Venus sprang, Hygin. Fab. 
197; Theon, ad Arat. 131. 

The Dove is not associated with Aphrodite in early Greek, unless, 
as is not likely, the obscure fragment of Sappho (Bergk 16 (8), Schol. 
Find. Pyth. i. 10) indicate ^such an allusion. In later authors, the 
references are very frequent : cf. Alex. Com. ap. Athen. ix. 395 B \CVKOS 
'Acppodirrjs Trepia-rfpos i Apoll. Rhod. iii. 548 ; Plut. De Is. 71 (Mor. i. 
463)? &c., &c. Cf. also Virg. Aen. vi. 192 turn maximus heros Maternas 
agnoscit aves ; Sil. Ital. iii. 683 Cytherei'us ales ; cf. Nero ap. Senec. 1. c. 
On Venus' car with its team of Doves, cf. Ovid, Met. xiv. 597 ; 
Apuleius, Met. vi. 6, 393 ; Claudian, Epithalam. 104. 

Venus and her Dove are associated with the month of April on the 
cylindrical Zodiac of the Louvre, &c. : and the sign Taurus was the 
domus Veneris. This fact also has a direct reference to Pleiad- 

The Dove on the mystical monument of the 'Black Demeter' at 
Phigaleia, Paus. viii. 42, 3. 

As an instance of the Syrian Dove adopted into Christian worship, 
cf. Hefele, Concil. ii. 771 : how the clergy of Antioch, A.D. 518, com- 
plained that Servius had removed the gold and silver doves that hung 
over the altars and font [note the apparent confusion of ideas in 
Ko\vfjL(3r]dpa], on the ground that the symbolism was unfitting. On 
the TrcpKTTtjpiov, or receptacle in the form of a dove for the Blessed 
Sacrament, cf. Chardon, Hist, des Sacram. ii. 242. On the sacred 
symbolism of the dove, cf. also Euseb. H. E. vi. 29. 

Various Legends. How Zeus pursued the virgin Phthia in Aegium 
in the form of a Dove, Athen. ix. 395 a. 

How Doves led the Chalcidians to Cumae, Philostr. Icon. ii. 8. 



F1EPIITEPA (continued'}. 

How a Pigeon caused a war between Chaonians and Illyrians, Ael. 
xi. 27. 

The Dove of Deucalion ; Plut. Mor. ii. 968 F Trepto-repai/ e< rijs \dpvaKos 
d(pip,VT)v } S^Xco/ia yfve<rdai Xip,>vos pev euro) TTaXiv evdvofjLtvrjv, evftias 8e 
aTTOTrrao-ai/ : cf. Lucian, Syr. Dea, c. 12, Apollod. i. 7, 2 (vide s.v. ueXcia). 

The Pigeon in Medicine. For references to the therapeutic value 
of Pigeons' dung, flesh, blood, feathers, and other parts in cases of 
poisoning, burns, ulcers, jaundice, and most other ailments, see Galen, 
De Simpl. Med. Temp, x, also Plin. iii. (6) 12, xxii. (25) 58, xxix. (6) 39, 
and xxx, passim. 

Fables. Trepiorf pa KOI KO\OIOS, Fab. Aes. (ed. Halm) 201 b. Trepurrfpa 

KOL KOpWVT], ibid. 358. 7TpL(TTpa KCU pvpfj.r)g, ibid. 296. TTfpHTTepa dl- 

^oia-fl, ibid. 357. 

See also, in addition to articles cited s.v. irAeia, T. Watters, Chinese 
Notions about Pigeons and Doves, N. China Br., R. As. Soc., iv. 
pp. 225-242, 1867. In this paper various resemblances are shown to 
exist between classical superstitions and Chinese popular notions, an 
important subject concerning which too little information is accessible. 
Among other points, the writer states that in Chinese legend the Dove 
is often confused with the Cuckoo, that the former as well as the latter 
bird is said to metamorphose into the Hawk, and that the Dove is said 
to lay in the Magpie's nest : these facts may have some bearing on 
the obscure Aristotelian statements referred to above (s.v. KOKKU) 
concerning the nesting of the Cuckoo in the nest of <j>d\|/. 

flEPIITEPA" MHAl'NH. An Indian Green Fruit-pigeon, Treron sp. 

Daemach. ap. Athen. 394 e; Ael. V. H. i. 15. Also Treptorfpal a>xpa', 
Ael. xv. 14, brought as presents to the Indian king; acnrep Xeyouo-t /-i^re 
rjfiepova-dai /xJjre irore npavveo-Qai. Cf. S.v. ireXeids \\wp6irTi.\o<$. 

nEPKNO'flTEPOI = opciireXapyos = uircuVros. A kind of Vulture. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 6l8b XevKrj Kpa\f), fifytdei be peyHTTOS, Trrepa 
de /Spa^urara, KOI ovponvyiov Trpn/ui/Kcy, -yuTTi opoios. ope'ineXapyos KaXelrai 
KOI inraifTos, oiKel 8' aXo-rj, ra pev KCIKO. rai/ra e^o>v rols aXXois-, r>v 
6' dyaQ&v ov8ev' aXurKerai yap KCU diaxeTai vno KopaKuv Kal TUV aXXcoi/. 
Qapiis yap KOI KaKoftios Ka\ TO. TeQve>Ta (pepwv, TreLvfj ' aet Kal /3oa Kal 
pivvpifri : cf. Plin. x. (i) 3. 

Of the three names, not one occurs elsewhere, save vTra/eroy, Boios 
ap. Anton. Lib. c. 20 (loc. corr.). The description is insufficient, but 
agrees fairly, except as regards size, with the Egyptian Vulture ; in 
which case the black and white plumage may explain TrepKj/o'Trrepor, 
and, together perhaps with the stork-like nest, opfiWXapyos-. 

Sundevall identifies TrepwoTrrepos with the Lammergeier, Gypaetus 
barbatuS) L., with which the epithet Xeu*oKe'<paXoy agrees ; but for this 


HEPKNOnTEPOI (continued}. 

he has to suppose Tn-epa jSpa^urara (alis minimis, Plin. 1. c.), to be an 
error for /za/cporara. 

The Egyptian Vulture, Neophron percnopterus, L., Sav., though the 
black-and-white of its plumage might be associated with the name 
opfiVe Aapyos-, , and though a comparison might also be drawn with 
the Stork in connexion with the Egyptian stories of its parental 
affection, is by no means p-eyedfi ^yia-ros, and is nearly all white, 
instead of merely on the head. In short, the bird is not to be clearly 
identified, and the passage, like much of its immediate context, is 
altogether obscure. 

riEPKNO'l. A kind of Eagle = jJtop^os, nr)TT<xf>6i/os, irXdyyos, q.v. 
(7repKi/0 = /xeAa?, Suid.). 

II. xxiv. 316 ateroi/ . . . /uop(pi/oi/ drjprjrrip' ov KOI TrepKvov Ka\eov<nv. Arist. 
De Mirab. 60, 835 < 8e d\taTO)V <t>f)vr] yiVercu, e/c Se TOVTWV nepKvol Ka\ 
yviTfs. Cf. Plin. x. (i) 3 ; Lye. 260. 

In regard to the obscure words jjiop<j>i/os, irepKyos, irepKos, it is hard 
to be content with the Scholiastic explanations which treat them as 
mere colour-epithets : such an interpretation may or may not be true, 
and various facts suggest that there is more to be learned regarding 
them. For instance, ennrepwos (Xen. Cyn. v. 22) is said to be likewise 
a mere colour-epithet (J. Poll. v. 67), but the relations between nepwus, 
fjiopfpvos, p,\ava6Tos and Xayox^ofos make it at least somewhat striking 
that ennrepwos, in the only passage where it occurs, should be applied 
to the Hare. 

nE'PKOI. A kind of Hawk. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 620 aXXoi & nrepKoi KCH O-TTIUH : fortasse nee 
Aristoteli ipsi cognita sunt, Scalig. p. 249. If nepKos and o-Tri^'ay are 
identical, the former, if it mean dark-coloured, agrees as an epithet 
with the traditional identification of the latter with the Sparrow-hawk. 

FIE'PNHI, v. 11. nre'pt'ig, Trrepkis, Trre'pnrjs. A kind of Hawk. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 620 6 S' dorepia? KCU 6 <pa<ro-o<povoff KOI 6 Trepvrjs 
aXXotoi. Hesych. Trrepvis, fldos U/XUCOC. 

nHNE'AO*. A kind of Wil Duck or Goose. 

Ibyc. 8 (13) TroiKi'Xai nav\ones. Alcae. fr. 84 (Bergk) opviQcs rivts 018' ; 
<uKedi/a) yas r O.TTV ireppaTow \ i]\6ov TraveXoTrcs noiKiXodeipoi ravvo'iTiTf pot, 
Ion. ap. Hesych. S. v. <poiviKo\(yvov' v lcoi> TOV irrjvfXorra TO opveov, TOV yap 
rpa^rjKov enirrav (powiKovv, f) Se \eyvrj Trape\Kei. 

Mentioned also, Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b (with x^aXeoTr?^, &ig f & c .) ; 
cf. Ar. Av. 298, 1302, and Schol. 6 nrjveXo^lf vrjTTrj jueV carti/ 5fj.oiov } Trepicrrf- 
pas 8e p-fyedos' p,ep.vr)Tai fie avrov 2T^O"i\opos Kal*I(BvKOS. 

From the superficial resemblance of the name 

L 2 


riHNEACW (continued*}. 

Hesych., and from its occurrence in some MSS. for the latter in 
Plin. x. (22) 29, it seems probable that both names are identical, and 
possible that both are corruptions of a foreign (Egyptian ?) word. The 
association of m and nrjveXo^ in an obscure and faulty Aristotelian 
passage, may be a mere confusion arising out of the story of Hermes 
visiting Penelope in the form of a goat (cf. Creuzer, Symb. iii. p. 502) ; 
in which case di'| should disappear from the list of bird-names. 

FlhTPIE' nepdig, Kp/jrey, Hesych. 

nfKOZ. A Woodpecker. Lat. /zV&tf ; said to be an Oscan word. 

Strabo, V. 2 nlKov yap TTJV opviv TOVTOV oyo/id^bucn, Kai Vop.iov(n.v "Apecop 
lepov. See also Dion. Halic. i. 14. Cf. Ovid, F. iii. 37, &c. Cf. also 
Grimm's D. Myth. p. 388, Creuzer's Symb. iii. 676, iv. 368. 

nfnoi s. miriros. A young chicken, Athen. ix. 368 f. (Casaub. for 


ninQ' (MSS. have also mira, TTITTOS, irtirpa. Some editors read unrw, 

cf. unnr]). The Greater and Lesser Spotted Woodpeckers, 

Picus major and minor, L. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 uXXa 8' eVri o-Kvnrocpdya, a rovs crKviiras QqpfvovTa 
fj jLtaXtoro, olov TTiTTo) TJ re /xei^tBi/ KOI f) eXaTTav' K.aXovo'i de rives dp.(p6Tpa 
ravra dpvoKoXaTTTas' o/nota S' d\Xrj\ois Kai (poovfjv e^ovtriJ/ opoiav, 7r\r)V 
/iet'^a) TO (jLfi^ov. vepfTat 8' a/Lt<porepa raCra Trpo? ra v\a Trpoo-Trero/xcj/a. 
Ibid. ix. 21, 617 TO. (TK.\rj jSpa^ea [e^ 64 Kvavos] rfj iriirtp 7rap6p.oia. Ibid, 
ix. I, 609 : hostile to 7701*1X19, KOpw&JU> t ^Xcopeu?' TO -yap a>a Kareo-diovo-iv 
d\\r)\a)v, and to e'pwStos (cf. Hesych.) : ra yap Ja KartffBiei Kai TOVS VCOTTOVS 
TOV fpa>8iov. 

Nicand. ap. Anton. Lib. C. 14 17 Se /i^rr/p abriav cyevero wnroXoyos 
TTtTrco* Trpoy TaiTr]V derco TToXfynos eVn KOI epwSiep* Karayvvai yap avr&v ra 
a>a, KOTTTouo-a r^v dpvv 8'ta rouy Kvliras (cf. CTITTYJ, q. v.). 

Lycoph. Cass. 476 dvrl TTITTOVS tritopiriov Xatpw o-?rao-ay. Tzetz. in Lye. 
(edit. Steph. p. 83) TTITTCO opvcov (<TTI OaXdcro'iov evTrperres Kai tveiSes 1 . 

The above identification, setting aside the statement of Tzetzes, 
depends solely on the existence of two species of Spotted Woodpecker, 
similar in appearance, but unequal in size. 

m'TYAOI 1 6pvi6dpi6v n aypiov, Hesych. Also iriiruXos, Schol. Theocr. 

x. 50. 
ni'^YrE (v. 1. m<j>iY, iri^i): m4>Xt^, Suid. An unknown bird = 

KopuSaXos = 7ri<paXXoy, S. TTKpaXXij, Hesych. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 610 ni<piy Kai apirrj KOI IKT'IVOS <pi\oi. Mentioned 
also by Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. xx, in a fabled metamorphosis, together 
with apTrj;, apira<ros, c. Cf. Etym. M. 673 ; Choerob. Cram. Anecd. 


ni<t>Yr= (continued}. 

Oxon. ii. p. 245 ; Lob. Proll. p. 96. I cannot help thinking that the 
word is akin to <|>wu, and its allies. 

nAA'lTOI (v. 1. irXdyxos, ir\(lt/os, Niphus icXdyyos, q. v. supra) = J'TJTTO- 

<j)6t/os = fJLopc^j'os (Arist.). 
A kind of Eagle. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 6l8b erepoi/ e yevos derov eVrii/ 6 7r\dyyos KaXemu, 
devrepos peyedei KOI pupy. ot/cei de (3f]<r<ras Kal ciyKrj KOI Ai/Liras 1 . eniKaXelrai 
6e vr)TTO(povos Kal p.6p<pvos' ov Kal f 'Op,rjpos fJ,ep,vr]Tat ev rfj rov Hpid/JLOV eda), 
II. xxiv. 316. 

Plin. x. i Tertii generis morphnus, quam Homerus et percnon vocat, 
aliqui et plancum et anatariam, secunda magnitudine et vi : huicque 
vita circa lacus, &c. 

Commentators have given innumerable interpretations of this word. 
If it be really a concrete specific appellation, then the Spotted Eagle, 
Aquila naevia, fulfils the conditions best : it is large and powerful, 
but less so than the Golden Eagle ; it frequents water, feeding partly 
on fish (especially on pieces of decomposing fish, cf. Shelley, Birds of 
Egypt, p. 206), and partly on waterfowl and sea-birds (cf. Buffon, 
Hist, des Ois. i. 127, Sundevall, p. 104) : if popcpvos, nepwos and 
(?) K\dyyos are to be taken as descriptive epithets (as they are by some), 
it is dusky, mottled, and noisy. 

The passage quoted from Pliny is full of fables, and includes the 
story of the death of Aeschylus, which suggests rather the habits of 
the Lammergeier (cf. s.v. de-ros, Ael. vii. 16). 

noiKIAl'l. An unknown bird: taken by mediaeval writers (Belon, 
Aldrovandi, &c.) for the Goldfinch, from the statement that it 
is identical with &Ka.vQi<s, q.v. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 ; hostile to Kopu8&>i>, nnro) (niTrpn), and ^Xwpeus. 
Schol. ad Theocr. vii. 171 (cit. Schn. in Arist. vol. ii. p. 5) aKavdls de 
opveov eori TTOIKI\OV nal \iyvpov, KaAemu Se Kal 7roiKi\ls dia TTJV ^poi'aj/. 

FloiKiXos op^is was also an expression for the Peacock. Cf. Athen. 

ix. 397 C 'Ai/TKpcojri Se T<B pfjropt \6yos jueV yfypanrai e^cov eVi-ypa/njua Ilept 
Ta>v' Kal ev avrcp roi Xdya) ovdepia p.Vfia TOV ovo^iaros yivfrai, opveis de TTOLKL- 
\ovs TroXXaKiy ev avrcS ovo/jid^fi. 

nONTIKO'Z "OPNII. The Pheasant. 

Hesych. (paa-iavoi' opveis TTOIOI, 01 de TOVS TIo^TiKovs (pacriv. 

nOP4>YPri. An unknown bird = Xa6nrop(|)upts. 

Mentioned Ar. Av. 304. Ibyc. fr. 4, ap. Athen. ix. 388 raz/uTrrepo? 
cos oKa Kopcpvpis. Ibyc. fr. 8, 1. C. alo\68eipoi \adinop(pvpides. According 
to Callimachus, ap. Athen. 1. c., 7rop<pvpis differs from 7rop0vptW. 


riOP4>YPl'aN. The Purple Gallinule, Porphyrio hyadnthus, Temrn. 

Mentioned Ar. Av. 707, 88 1, 1249. Arist. fr. 272, ap. Athen. ix. 
388 C, d (TX^avo-iroda OVTOV dvai, e^etv re XP^ a <^aveov, <rKe\r) 

e< rrjs Ke(pa\rjs (poiviKovv, peyedos d\(KTpvovos. 
ov, 8ib TO>V \afj.ftavop.eva)V fls TOV TroSa ra/zieuerat p,iKpa$ TCIS 
8e TrtWi (H. A. viii. 6, 595 ; Plin. x. (46) 63 morsu 
bibit). TrevTaSdKTvXos re (?) &v TOV p,f(rov e^ei p.iyi(TTov. Dion. De Avib. 
i. 29, a similar description, epvdpbv avroJ TO pa/u,<poy e OTI, KCU Kara KetfraXris 
wo-TTfp riva nl\ov e^ct, onoiovs ol ro^crai ITepo-ai (pepovcriv. Arist. H. A. ii. 
17, 59 a*V c/J/a fMKpov ex fl ' vre TOV irpoXofiov e^ft ovre TOV (TTopaxov fvpvv 
dXXa o-(f)6dpa pa<pov. Schol. Ar. Av. 1249 tcvdveoi cia-i. Arist. De Inc. 
IO. 7IO Callim. ap. Athen. I.e. TT^V Tpoffirjv XafJLJBdvew TOP Troptpvpiava ev 
CTKOTCO KaTaftvofjifvoV) tvo. fir) Tis avTov 6edo~r)Tai' f~\.6paivfi yap TOVS TrpOffiovTCis 
avrov Tfl Tpo(pfj. Ael. iii. 42 wpuioraro? re ap.a KOI (^epcoj/u/icorards 1 eVn 
{<p<ov, KO.\ xaipfi Koviopfvos, &c. According to Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. 
1. c., it inhabits Libya and is there held sacred. According to Plin. 
x. 63, it inhabits Commagene (Asia Min.) and a yet nobler sort (x. 69) 
the Balearic Islands. 

A bird of lofty morals and great vigilance, Polemon ap. Athen. 1. c., 
Ael. iii. 42, v. 28, vii. 25, viii. 20, xi. 15, Dion. De Avib. i. 29. 

An easy mode of capture, Dion. De Avib. iii. 21. 

The descriptions in Arist. fr. 272 and Dionysius clearly refer to the 
Purple Gallinule : that in Arist. H. A. ii. 17 is supposed by some 
(I think needlessly) to apply to the Flamingo, the Gallinule not having 
a very long neck. The bird occurs in Egypt and neighbouring coun- 
tries : it is rare in Greece, but inhabits Lake Copai's and Lake Dystos 
in Euboea (Erhard, I.e., also Naumannia, 1858, p. 21), though, accord- 
ing to other authorities (Von der Mtihle, Heldreich, Kriiper), nothing 
is known of its occurrence in Greece in recent times. 

nOY'noi. A late word for the Hoopoe ; vide s. v. 

Anon. De Avibus et earum Virtutibus in Medicina (MS. cit. Du 
Cange, Gloss. S. V. KovKOvfpos), eVox^ opveov ev dept TTOT&IKVOV' OVTOS KuXetrat 


flPE'lBYI. A name for the Wren =rpoxiXos, Hesych., Arist. H. A. 

ix. 1 1, 615. In this word one is much tempted to suspect a trans- 

position of letters, and to suggest, as a conjectural emendation, 

aire'pjSus; cf. also S.vv. aWpyus, <nropyiXos. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 TroXe/zios 5e KOL 6 vpeo-ftvs Kakovfuvot KOI ya\ij 
KOI Kopoivrj \rfj yXawuj ra yap wa /cal TOVS VCOTTOVS KaTeo~6iovo~tv avTrjs. In 
the preceding sentence 6'p^tXoy and y\avg are mentioned as hostile 
to one another. (Here Sundevall supposes the Jackdaw to be meant, 
on account of its egg-eating propensities, but the passage is mytho- 
logical, not prosaic.) 

nop<i>YpiftN nvrAproz 151 

F1PEIBY2 (continued}. 

Cf. Plin. viii. 25 ; Munk. ad Anton. Lib. p. 100 ; Lob. Path. 
p. 132. 
nTE'PNII. Vide s.v. 

riTEPYrOTY'PANNOI- opvis noios fv 'Ivdiicfj 'AX^ai/fyxa doBels, Hesych. 

riTE'PflN' flcjos opveov, Hesych. 

Meineke, Com. Fr. iv. p. 647 (ap. Hesych.) dXX' j) rpiopxos ?} Trrepwr 77 
arpovdias. Cf. Etym. M. 226, 37, Theognost. 36. 19. 

HTYT5. Arist. H. A. ix. 12, 615 b = u|3pis, q. v. For imryyi, MSS. 

have irtoyi, iTTOyyi, irrvyyiyi, for which Schn. reads ircovyyi; vide 
infra s. v. <|>wu|. Cf. Schn. in Arist. vol. ii. 97, 117 ; Anton. Lib. 5 ; 
Etym. M. 699, 10 ; Lob. Phryn. 72. 

RYTAProi, a. A sort of Eagle or Falcon; 8os aeroC, Hesych.; 
vide infra. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 6l8 b yevos dcrwv' Kara TCI TreSt'a KOI TCI 0X0-77 KOI TTfpt 
Tas TroXets 1 yiverat' eviot 8e KaXoixri vefipocpovov avrov' Trtrfrai de KCU fls TCI 
opr) KOI els TTJV v\r]v 810. TO Qdpaos. Cf. Plin. x. (1)3 secundi generis 
Pygargus, in oppidis mansitat et in campis, albicante cauda. Arist. 

H. A. Vi. 6, 563 b X a ^ e 7TO y Ktpi r TfKVa. 

Cf. Schol. Lye. 91. Also Etym. M. 695, 50 nvyapyos' flSos aerou* 
2o(poK\r]s (fr. 932 a) cVi roi) SciXoi), d-rro TTJS \CVK^S nvyrjs, cocrTrfp evavTius 
[j,fXaiJi7rvyr]s drro TTJS icr^vpds. 

Note Circus cyaneus, L. ( > =Falco pygargus, L.), the Hen-harrier 
or Ring-tail, is now called rrvyapyos in the Cyclades (Erhard, op. cit. 
p. 47). To it much of the description given is applicable, but certainly 
not the epithet vfftpo(p6i>os. Sundevall imagines the Golden Eagle to 
be meant, Gloger and others the White-tailed Eagle or Erne, Haliaetus 
albidlla (L.), to which latter the description in Aesch. Ag. 1156 e|orrti/ 
dpyias, seems to apply : but these are surely excluded by the evidence 
as to size (cf. Pliny, 1. c.), frequency, and affection for cities and plains. 
I incline to identify the bird with the Short-toed Eagle, Circaetus 
gallicus, which in French, as perhaps also here, seems to share its 
popular name (Jean-le-Blanc) with C. cyaneits. But the name was 
originally mystical (cf. s.v. jJieXdjjnruYos), however it may in later times 
have been specifically applied to a particular bird. 

HYTAProi, |3. An undetermined bird. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b. A water-bird, mentioned with o-^om'Xo? 
and KiyK\os, about the size of a thrush ; TO ovpalov KMI : frequents rivers 
and streams. 

The size agrees with Sundevall's suggestion of a Sandpiper. Aubert 



and Wimmer take the three birds to be different species of Wagtail 
(Motacilla). The name more strongly suggests to me the Dipper, 
Cinclus aquattcus, L., (Mod. Gk. vepoKoo-o-vcpos, Heldr.): but all three 
birds are quite doubtful. 

FIYPAAAI'Z, s. iruppaXis (Hesych.). An unknown bird: probably 
a kind of Pigeon. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609, hostile to rpuyoov, TOTTOS yap rrjs vop.r)s KCU ftios 
6 aiiTos. Cf. Ael. iv. 48. 

Callim. (fr. 100, c. 4) ap. Athen. ix. 394 d KaXXi'/xa^o? a>s 8ia<popas 
eKTiOfrai (pdacrav, TrupaXXi'Sa, Trfpurrfpav, rpvydva. Cf. Ael. V. H. i. 15. 

nVPn'THI' <nrupYiTY|s, a Sparrow, Galen. Vide s. vv. o-TropytXos, 

FIY'PPA. A bird, hostile to rpvyav. Ael. iv. 5, Phile, 685. Perhaps 

identical with irupaXXis. 

nYPPl'AI, s. mpias = eXaios, q.v. 

FlYPPOKO'PAE. The Alpine Chough, Corvus pyrrhocorax, L. 
Plin. x. (48) 68 Alpium pyrrhocorax, luteo rostro, niger. 

nYPPOY'AAI (v. 1. iruppoupas, &c. Lob. Prol. 132). Probably the 
Bullfinch, Pyrrhula vulgaris. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis a-KO)\r]Ko(pdyos. Sundevall, op. c., p. II I, 
identifies nvppovXas with the Robin, the Bullfinch being a seed-eater, 
and confined to the mountainous parts of Northern Greece : but 
Heldreich quotes the same word as the name for the Bullfinch in 
Mod. Gk. 

nft'Y~(r)=' TTOIOS opvis, Hesych. Cf. TTTU'Y. 

PA'4>Ol f opvfis rives, Hesych. (Verb, dub.) 

'PINO'KEPfll- TTOLOS opvis ev AlQioTTta, Hesych. Probably the Hornbill. 

'PO'BIAAOI- /Sao-tXtWos opvis, Hesych. (Possibly for pYyiXXor, L. 
regulus.). Vide s. v. jSaaiXeu's, &c. 

'PYNAA'KH. Supposed to be akin to Pers. jJ^ (Rund) nomen avis, 
quae frequenter in oryzetis invenitur (J. Albertus in Hesych., &c.). 
An Indian bird, of the size of a pigeon, Ctes. Pers. 61 ; also Hesych. 
In Plut. Vit. Artax. 19, p. 1020, purrdicrjs. 

C PQAIO'I = epw8i<5s 3 q.v. Hippon. p. 63 ; also Hesych. 

H. Also aaXirryKTiis, s. aaXTriaT^s. 
A synonym of opxiXos (q-v.), Hesych. Cf. Dind. Thes. vii. c. 45 B. 

nvrAproi IEAEYKII 3 53 

ZAPl'N' opi/eov etSos, opoiov ^dpo>, Hesych. Also crapKWJ>, 


In both cases it has been suggested to read o-apioy, quasi 
lEIPH'N' 6pvi6dpi6v TTOIOP, Hesych. Possibly, like the ' Sirens,' con- 
nected with the Heb. sir, to sing. 
Cf. Hesych. s. v. aeipTiyes' 01 p,ev ea> yvvaiKas <pao~i 

ZEIZOnYn'l, aetaoupa. Literally Wagtail, Motacilla. Identified with 
iciyKXos, Hesych. : and apparently with ivy, Schol. in Theophr. ii. 
17. Cf. also Suid. iVy, TO opveov, TO Xe-yo/zei/ov o-eto-oTrvyiy. In 

Mod. Gk., o-ovo-ovpdSa is the Wagtail. Vide s. v. KiyK\os. 
IEIIO'<*>EAOI- ro T>V rpox&w ftSos, Hesych. 

Perhaps for o-o-oXd(pos (J. Albertus in Hesych.), or o-fio-o[*:e](j6aXoy, 

s. o-eta-oKe/SXos, Meineke, Philol. xii. 621. 
ZEAEYKl'l, s. creXeuia'as. The Bose-coloured Pastor, Pas for roseus, 


Dion. De Avib. i. 22 rroXv^opcoraroj/ opveov fj areXcvKis, KOI /uera TrXeia-rr/s 
fvxns d(^iKvovfj.(vov Toiy dypotKoiy, tjv TOVS Kapnovs oKpidov fdyrai ir\rj6os. 
OTL ras p.ev (payoixrat) rds de Kal dirb (JLQVTJS TIJS crKias aTratpoutrat, eKKpivovaiv 
as av KaTafpiiyuxn pqdiws avriKa, Kal Tropdovpevois dvbpd<ri l-eviKrjv dv ns 
etTTOt avfjifj,axiav \T]\v6evai. aXX' el rrjs ^apiros rts roiis opvcis aTroare- 
pfjffdf, diacpOdpovcnv avrai rov crco^e'i/ra Kapnov. 

Zosimi Hist, i* 57. 6 (Schneid. Eel. Phys. i. 51) lv SeXeim'a rfj Kara 
KtXtKt'ai/ 'ATToXXcovoff lepov idpvro Ka\ovfj.evov SapTrrjdoviov, Kal ev TOVTW 
Xpr)(TTT)piov. Ta p.ev ovv ncpl rov deov TOVTOV Xeyopeva, Kal a>s aTratri rols 
VTTO Xvp-rjs aKpiduv eVo^Xovfiej/oty a-e\evKid8as rrapadidovs (opvea 8e ravra 
cvdiaiTQ>p.eva rols nepl TO iepbv TOTTOIS) o-vKet-fnepTrc Tols airovo-t, at 8e 
Tat? dicpiVi o~vp.7TfpnrTdfj,vai Kal Tols ard/uao't TUVTOS fie^o'^ierai 7rapa^pj}/ua 
re anfipov ev dxapiaia) Sie'cptfeipoi/, Kal TTJS K TOVTO>V /3Xa/3?;? TOVS 
TTi^XXarroj/, raCra p.ev rfj TrjviKavTa TO>V disdparrwv vdaip.ovia 
i, rov Ka6* f] yevovs diroo~fi(Tap.evov fleiav fi/fpyecriav. Cf. Photius, 
Cod. ccxxiii. p. 68 1 (teste Bernhardy, ed. Suid.). 

Plin. x. (27) 39 Seleucides aves vocantur quarum adventum ab love 
precibus impetrant Casii mentis incolae, fruges eorum locustis vastan- 
tibus. Nee unde veniant, quove abeant, compertum, nunquam con- 
spectis nisi cum praesidio indigetur. 

Cf. Ael. xvii. 19 ; Galen, De Loc. Affect, vi. 3 ; Hesych., &c. 

The bird, under the name Samarmog or Samarmar is in like manner 
reverenced to this day by the Arabs ; cf. Niebuhr, Beschreib. v. Arabiens, 
p. 174. In Mod. Gk. it is called dyioTroOXi on its Spring migration, 
when it destroys the grasshoppers, and 8ia/3oXo7rovXi in Autumn, when 
it devours the grapes (Heldr.). 


ZEMl'PAMIZ' 7rfpio-Tpa opeios, 'EXXijwori, Hesych. Cf. Diodor. ii. 6. 
Vide S. V. irepiorepd. 

ZE'PKOZ- dXe/crpvobi/, KOI aXcKTopioes acXices, Hesych. Baethgen, De vi 
et signif. Galli, Diss. Inaug., Getting. 1887, p. 10, collates feXicos, 
a word inscribed together with the image of a Cock on a Cretan 
vase (Roulez, Choix de vases de Leide, p. 40, nr. 13), and this in 
turn with rA^ai/or, s. Ff\x avos > Zf ^ s f/ 3 " Kpj/o-iV, Hesych., inscribed 
also on a coin of Phaestus (Bull. Inst. Arch., 1841, p. 174); further 
he suggests a kindred reference to the opvis TlfpmKos, in the corrupt 
Hesychian gloss, SeX^pot* Uepa-ai. A coin of Phaestus figured in 
the Brit. Mus. Cat. Coins (Crete, p. 63, pi. xv. 10), bears the same 
inscription and shows the god seated holding a Cock on his knee. 

ZE'PTHZ' yepavos, UoXXvpprjviot, Hesych, 
ZlAAENAPl'Z* notos opvis napa KaXXi^tci^o), Hesych. 

Schn. in Arist. H. A. viii. 3 (vol. ii. p. 596) suspects this bird to be 
identical with the corrupt KaXi'Spis, s. o-KavSpts, s. oxaXt&pis, of 
Arist., and suggests aicaXuSpts as an emendation for both. Cf. 
also aiaXis. 

ZIAAI'X. A bird so-called from its cry. Didymus ap. Athen. ix. 
392 f. Also Hesych. 

Zl'NTHI. Vide s.v. 

- 7re'p&, Uepyaioi, Hesych. 

ZITAPrz. An unknown bird, o-i'rrq' ^ v\>v o?/uu \tyoptwi o-irapis-, Suid.: 
cf. Zonar. 1645, Lob. Proll. p. 30. 

ZITTA'KH, Philostorg. H. E. Hi. ii. aiTTaK<Js, Ael. xvi. 15, Arrian. 
Ind. i. 8, &c. Vide s.v. 

Zl'TTAZ = airraKOS. crtrras, opvis Trotof evtoi 8e TOV ^firraKov Xeyovviv, 


Zl'TTH. (Some MSS. have O-I'TTTTTJ in Arist. H. A. ix. i.) With a-imrrj 
cf. (Wry, q. v. Also ITTTO- 6 SpvoKoXa^ edviK&s, Hesych. We might 
conjecture a form ^irrr?, akin to O. H. G. speh, speht, specht, 
Lith. spakas, Sk. pika, &c. 

A bird with fabulous attributes, allied to the Woodpecker; opvis 
TTOIOS, of Se opvoKo\dirTT)s, Hesych. Usually identified with the 
Nuthatch, Sitta europaea or S. syriaca, which latter very similar 
species is commoner in Greece (Von der Muhle, Lindermayer) ; 


IITTH (continued^. 

Mod. Gk. aKa\o6apT)s, <r(f)vpiKTfjs, and To-ojravoirovXt, i. e. the little 
shepherd (Heldr.). 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 b aerep TroXffiiov' Karayvvei yap TO. am rov OCTOV : 
ibid. 17, 6l6b /ta^i/no?, rrjv de dtdvotav cvdiKros Kal fvdr)p.a)V Kal ev/3iWoy, 
Kal Xe'yerat {^ap/xaxeia eivai dia TO nciXvidpis civaC TroXvyovos 8e Kal 

Callim. Fr. 173 (in Etym. M.) 6 8' rj\e6s ovS' eVi O-ITTTJV jSXev/ra?. 
A good omen to lovers, Schol. in Ar. Av. 705 ; fr. ap. Suid. cyw /ueV 
w AevKiTrnr) dfia criTTjy. 

21'TTOI" crirrov, ol pev y\av<a' YJ Kia-crav' rj iepaKa, Hesych. 

[O-I'TT;;, a-lrras and a-irros are all doubtful and corrupt words. They 
are probably akin to the equally corrupt and obscure TTITTO), which bird, 
like O-ITTTJ, is allied to the woodpeckers and hostile to the eagle.] 

ZKAAl'APIZ. (MSS. have KaXidpiSj o-Kavftpis, o-Ka\i8p$. Schneider sug- 

gests o-Ka\v8pis. Possibly identical with o-iaXe^Spis, q.v.) 
An unknown bird ; taken by Belon and later writers for a species 
of Sandpiper, e. g. Totanus calidris, auctt., the Redshank : but 
any one whom it pleases may interpret it as a Wagtail, whose 
gray plumage is enlivened with a ' noiKiXla ' of yellow. 
Arist. H. A. viii. 3? 593 ^ r " wpaiov Ktve'i, TroiKiXiav fX l ) T 
(rnodoeiftes (mentioned with ffgocnXaf, K/yxXor, and nvyapyos). 

IKI'AAOI- iKrlvos, Hesych. Cf. pdcriciXXos. 
IKlV. Vide S. v. 

IKOAO'flAE. Generally supposed, and by all the older commentators, 
to be identical with dcncaXwiras, the Woodcock. Mod. Gk. 
aoncaXoTra/cas-, 6pvi6ovKa\La (Coray), t-vKoKorra (Heldr.), v\6pvi6a 
(Bik.), /iTre/caro-a ( = Fr. because]. With <7-KoX-o7ra, cf. Gk. tr-icoX-o^, 
o-/caXov^, o-7raXa : rt. of L. cutter, &c. 
Arist. H. A. ix. 8, 614 eVi SeVSpov ov KaBi&i, aXX' eVi rrjs yfjs. Nemesian. 

Aucup. fr. 21 (in Wernsdorf' s Poet. Lat. Min.) praeda est facilis et 

amoena Scolopax. 

[(T7raXa| or o-KiiXo-^f in Theophr. De Sign. Temp. p. 439, ed. Heinsii, 

is sometimes taken to apply not to the mole but to this bird : cf. 

J. G. Schneider, in Arist., vol. iv. p. 131.] 

Etym. doubtful. The derivation from o-KeVrw is not more 
certain than the older one from ovco>7n-a> (Athen. and Aelian). 
The o- may be a late prefix, from the false analogy with o-KwnTeiv. 
According to Alex. Myndius, ap. Athen. ix. 391 b, Homer wrote 



K&rras for o-KSmas, and Aristotle likewise : so also Speusippus ; cf. 
Ael. xv. 28, and Cobet's note [falso dixit hoc Alexander, Casaubon 
in Athen. ii. 358]. Doederlein, Horn. Gloss. 2359, finds the 
stem in Kvfirjvais (yXau^i), Hesych., L. cucubare, &c. ; in which case 
KiKKapTj (q. v.), and Mod. Gk. KovKovpata, would seem to be cog- 
nate. Hesych. has also O-KOKCS. The name resembles the cry 
of the bird, and is in part at least onomatopoeic : cf. It. jacopo. 
In Switzerland it is called Todtenvogel, and cries Tod, Tod, Tod, 
Hopf. Orakelthiere, p. 102. 

The Little Horned Owl or Scops Owl, Ephialtes scops, L. Mod. 
Gk. KXaxrcros, ^LU>VI (Erh.). 

Od. V. 66 (TKatTTes T "prjKes Tf TavvyKaHTvol re Kopwvai | etfdXicu. 
Theocr. Id. i. 134 KTJ opeW roi or/coWrey cfyfido-i yapvo-aivro. 
Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b e'Xdrrooi/ yXavicos. Two varieties; H. A. 
ix. 28, 617 b (TKOiirfs fi' ol fj.ev del ncKrav &pav ei(ri, /ecu KaXovvTai deioTCaJTres', 
Kal OVK eirdiovrcu fiia TO ajSpooroi eimi* erepoi fie ylvovrai eV/ore row 0$ij/o7ra)- 
pov, (paivovrai d' e'cp* fj^epnv p.iciv f) dvo TO TrXetcrroi', Koi lo~lv cScofiijuot Kal 
(T<p68pa evdoKip.ovo~iv' Kal diafpepovcri TU>V dficrKcoTroov KaXov/ieVcov OVTOI aXXw 
fjiev a>s flirclv oiiSfvi, TW 8e nd^et' Kal OVTOI p.ev io~iv acpoai/oi, fKelvoi 8e 
(pdeyyovrat. rrepl 8e yevfa-fcas avrStv TJTIS O~TIV, ovOev a>7rrai, TT\TJV OTI 
Tols frcpvpiois (paivovTai. Cf. Callimachus ap. Athen. ix. 391 b ; Ael. 
XV. 28 dia(f)povo-i de TO>V dfio-Kanrw rc5 Trd^fi, K<U el< 
Tpvyovi Kal cpaTTr] (vide Jacobs, in loc.). 

Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ix. 391 b piKpoTepos eVrt y\avKos, Kal 

Trap' exarfpoj/ KpoTafpov dvafpepet TTTepd '. cf. Ael. 1. C. 

The account given of the size of the bird and the descriptions in 
Athenaeus and Aelian agree perfectly with the Scops Owl ; this is 
a noisy bird, repeating its cry with monotonous persistence. But it 
appears to spend the summer only in S. Europe, migrating to Africa 
in winter. The passage in Aristotle is perhaps faulty in this con- 
nexion, owing to misinterpretation of the name deia-KO)^ as though 
from del. Sundevall supposes the other variety to be the Short-eared 
Owl, Strix brachyotus, a somewhat larger species, which appears 
merely to pass through Greece on its migrations : vide infra, s.v. WTOS. 
The bird o-Ka>^r was quite unknown to Pliny, x. (49) 70 ; as apparently 
also to Hesych., who has o-K&Tres' eldos opvew, oi fie KO\OIOVS. 

According to Metrodorus ap. Athen. 1. c. dvTopxovp.tvovs dXia-Kea-dat 
TOVS <rKo)TTas. Hence ovcco^ and o~Ka>TTfvp,a as the name of a dance, 
Ael. xv. 28, Athen. ix. 391 a, xiv. 629 f, where there is a confusion 
between O-KCOX//- and O-KOTTOS, VTTOO-KOTTOS : cf. yXau. See also O. Jahn, 
Vasenbilder, p. 24 ; Rochett, J. des savans, 1837, pp. 514-517. 

; iniZA 157 

IMA'PAIKON' orpov&W, Hesych. Cf. airapdo-ioi/. 
ZMH'PIN0or opvis Trows-, Hesych. 

IOY~I4>A, s. oma(|>a. Indian birds which indicated to the mariner 
proximity to land, Cosmas, Indopl. ii. p. 182. Schneider, Lex. 

ZnAPA'llON- opveov epfapes vrpovOa. evtot ovcty, Hesych. Cf. \|/dp, 

<T|Jl<p8lKOl>, &C. 

HIE'AEKTOI- KfXcKdv, Hesych. 

znE'PrOYAOr op^ddpiov ayptov, Hesych. Vide s. v. orpouOos. 

inE'PPYI- 7Tpe'o-/3u9, Hesych. This is apparently a bird-name allied 
to a-nepyovXos ; the gloss Trpecrpvs may be itself corrupt. Cf. Ahr. 
Dial. ii. p. in, &c. See also s.v. -n-pecrpus, cnropyiXos. 

IHEPMOAOTOI (also airepfiofofjios, Hesych.). 

Although commentators now take this word adjectivally (as it is in 
Athen. ix. 387 b) or generically, I have no doubt that it applies 
specifically to the Book, Corvus frugilegus, L., in Ar. Av. 232 
crTTfp/xoXoycoi/ Te yevrj | TOXV TreTopeva, paXdaKrjv teWa yfjpvv : also ibid. 

579 ; and accordingly also in Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b. Cf. 
Hesych. cnrepnoXoyos' KoXotcoSe? <uoi> ; see also Suid. : cf. also Late 
Lat. frugilega. It is so interpreted by older writers, e. g. Caius, 
De Rarior. Anim. Hist. Libellus, p. 100. In Mod. Gk. the Rook 
is said to be called xa/3apow. See also s.v. oXairoi. 

im'rror o-n-iW, Hesych. 

im'ZA, im'ZH. (MSS. have also irl^ai\ Dim. am^V, Hesych. 

applied to all small birds; cf. eiri^a* opvea, Kinrpioi, Hesych. 

Perhaps from rt. ping, to paint, connected with Germ, fink, 

finch, &c. Cf. Eng. bunt-ing. 
The Chaffinch, Fringilla coelebs, L. Mod. Gk. crnlvos, and, on 

Parnassus, T&W (Heldr.). 

Soph. fr. 382 KOTO) Kpe/jLavrai O-TTI'' OTTO)? ev epKfo-t. Timo ap. Diog. 
Laert. iv. 42 fjvrf yXau/ca Trept crTT/^ai. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis 
(TKd)\r]Ko(pdyos '. ib. ix. 7> 6l3b didyovcri TOV p.ev 0povs ev rols aXeeivols, 
TOV 8e xeijjL&vos ev rot? -^vxpols. Compared in size with ?uy, KiWor, 
(nriiTr)$, opoo-rrigos, &c., ib. ii. 12, 504, viii. 3, 592 b, ix. 21, 617. 
a-nifr' opviddpiov, <TTpovd(S epfapes, Hesych. 

Evidently some very common bird, from its use as a standard of 
comparison. I follow Sundevall (in spite of Aubert and Wimmer's 
scepticism) in identifying it with the Chaffinch, on the ground of 


iniZA (continued}. 

tradition, and on the ground of the resemblance of the name to the 
various forms of the word am^os, which is still the Mod. Gk. name of 
the bird : partly also because the other common birds which might be 
meant (Goldfinch, Greenfinch, and Linnet) are fairly well identified 
under other names. 

imzi'AI. (Cod. Med. <myi'<). 

Mentioned (by name only) in Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b, ix. 36, 
620. (micas' iepaKos el8os, Hesych. Identified by tradition with 
the Sparrow-hawk, Accipiter m'sus, L. ; vide s.v. Wpicos. 

iniZl'THI. The Great Tit or Ox-eye, Parus major, L. eifioy alyiQa- 
XoO opvcov, Hesych. 
Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b. Vide s. v. alyiOaXos. 

im'NOX. Also <nriv6<s (Photius), cnripa, crmnrj, ami'Oia, Hesych. Cf. 
also amyyos, cnruyyas, myyas, Hesych. Dim. amvfoiw, Ar. fr. 
344 : ami'ioi', Eubul. Incert. 14. 

Probably identical with oiriyyos, <rm'a, the Chaffinch; still so- 
called (Heldr.). 

Ar. Av. 1079 ort crvveipav TOVS cnrivovs TrwXet Kad* CTTTCI roujSoXov. Pax, 
1148, Fr. 443, Eubul. ap. Athen. ii. 65 c Tt'XXcti/ re (f)aTTas KOI Ki^Xas 


Ael. iv. 60 (TTTiVoi de apa cro(p<aTpoi KCU avdpa>Tra>v TO p.e\\ov rrporyvw- 
KCVCU, icraat yovv KOL x fL ! JL ^ )Va /teXXoira, KCU ^ioi/a (ffOfuvrjv TrpojUT/^eoTara 
f(pv\davTO. Koi TOV KaraXrjfpdfjvai Seel, airodidpdo-Kovcriv es ra d\<r(i)dr) x^P^ ) 
KOI avTols ra ddcrrj Kprjcrrpvyera as civ CITTOIS fcrriv. Cf. Theophr. De Sign. 
vi. i, 3 ; Arat. 1024. 

Dion. De Avib. iii. 2, 4 a/*a rols aXXoi? arrpovdiois rots- Kara TOV ftoppav 
ciridrjfjLoicri TOV eapoy t^w tfqpaij/rai, Tols KaXdpois eiriKadicravTfs, K.T.\. 
0ea/iara>i/ 6' rjdicrTov crTpovdovs opav t|ai ircTTfO'rjfJifVovs Kal KaTaninTOVTas (!). 

inOPn'AOX. In Ar. Av. 300, SiropyiXos probably means a Sparrow, 
and the usual reference to Sporgilos, a barber, if justified 
at all, makes the joke a double-barrelled one. The word is 

the same as atrepyovXos or cnrepyvs, and as Mod. Gk. O-TTOU/)- 

yiYjjr, a Sparrow, irvpyinis, a word applied to a Sparrow by 
Galen, &c., is rendered in the dictionaries turrilis, as if from 
Trvpyos: it is obviously cr-TrvpyiTrjs; in like manner irtpyov\os, 
Hesych. = cr-7repyov\os ' } and I have suggested above, somewhat 
less confidently, that irpeo-fivs as a bird-name should perhaps read 
aneppvs=<rnpyvs. These words form a parallel series, with n 



for r, to o-rpovdos, &c. ; they have a near ally in Eng. Sparrow, 
and a still nearer in sprug. 

ITAYNI'E- iVpa, Hesych. 

ITHOl'AI' opvis TTOIOS, Hesych. Perhaps a misreading for orpouOuxs. 

ITPl'E. Also OTpiy, orXt. Cf. Hesych., orpiyXos, 01 Se 
Also <rru', 6 GTKCOX//' TO opveov. An Owl, Lat. strix. 
Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. 21. Cf. Hygin. Fab. 28. Theognost. in 
Anecd. Oxon. ii. 41, 132. 

A charm to scare them, orptyy* dnoTre^TToV) ia>Kri/3oaz>, rav o~rpt'yy' cnrb 
Xaou | opviv dv&vvfjLov wKVTropovs 7rl vfjas eXavve, Anon. fr. Bergk. 26, ap. 
Festus, p. 314. Cf. Plin. xi. (39) 95 quae sit avium constare non arbitror ; 
Isidor. xii. 7, &c. 

XTPOYOOKA'MHAOI, s. orpou0<Ss. 

vrpovdos Kardyaios (Herod.), vrp. 6 p.f'yas S. rj fitydXr] (Ar., Xen., Ael.), 
orp. 6 fv Aifivr) or 6 AtfivKos (Arist.), crrp. 6 rwv anrrivtov (PailS.), 
(TTp. 6 ^fpo-aios (Ael.), arrp. 6 'Apa/3tos (Ath., Heraclid.), trrp. ^a/uai- 

TrerTjy (Lucian), o-TpovdoKdp.r)\os (Diod. Sic., Strabo, Pliny), also 
simply a-rpovdos (Ar. Ach. 1106, Theophr. Hist. PL), orp. 
liavpovo-ios (Herodian), orp. 6 ayptos (Hesych.). 
The Ostrich, Struthio Camelus, L. 

Herod, iv. 175 * s T v 7rdXep.oj/ trrpovdav Karayaiav 8opas (popcov&i 
rrpo^X^fiara [01 Maieat (to the south of the Persian Gulf)] : ibid. 192 
Kara rovs Nd/iaSas (i. e. in the country of the Bedaween) etcri arpovOol 

Xen. Anab. i. 5, 2 orpov^oi al /ueyaXat, met with in ' Arabia/ near the 
Euphrates, (rrpovdov 8e ovdeis e\a/3ey* ot fie 8i<navTS TWV imretov ra^v 
firavovro' iro\i> yap cineo-naTO 0euyov(ra, rots pev Troal Spo/za), rais de 
apao-a, &<rirep torta) ^pca/ieV/; (cf. Ael. ii. 27, iv. 37, viii. 10) el 8e 
cu peXXot, TOVS TrapaTrtTrrovras 1 \i6ovs ?$ rovrnVeo (T(pevdova rois 
iroa-iv : cf. Phile, De An. iv. 144 ; Claudian in Eutrop. ii. 

Ar. Av. 875 Koi o-TpovQo) fjieydXy, prjTpl 6ea>v Kal av^pcoTreoj/. 

Ar. Ach. (1106) IIl8 /caXoV ye KOI XCVKOV TO TTJS arpovdov irrcpov. 

Arist. De Part. iv. I4j 697 ra P* v yup opvidos fx l i Ta ^^ Cv ov TerpaTroSos. 
a>s fj.fv yap OVK &v rerpcirrou? Trrepa e'^ei, a>s 5' OVK &v opvis ovre Trererai 
^creajpi^d/iei/os 1 , Kal ra rrrepa ou xPW l P- a npos TTTTJO-W aXXa rpi^cofi^. crt Se 
a>? /ueV rfrpaTrovs cbi/ jSXe^api'Sa? e^et ra? avaBev (ibid. ii. 14, 658) Kal \JaXdy 
eo~Ti ra Trepl r/}v K.e<paXr)V Kal ra ai/co rou av%evos, &o~T rpi^caSeo'repas X* LV 
ras (3\(papidaS) cos 5' opvis &i> ra KdraOev cTirfpcora/, cai SITTOVS pev eVrtv 
a>s opi/is, di%a\os de (ibid. iv. 12,695) ws rerparrovy ; ov yap daKrvXovs 


ITPOY0OKAMHAOI (continued}. 

ie^ei dXXtt ^jjXa?. TOVTOV 6' CUTIOV on TO ptyedos OVK opviOos e^ei aXXa rerpa- 
TroSos : cf. Plin. x. I, x. (22) 29, xi. (37) 47, &c. Arist. H. A. ix. 15, 616 b, 
lays more eggs than any other bird (the fact being that several lay 
in one nest), cf. De Gen. iii. i, 749 b, and Ael. iv. 37. On the number 
of eggs (vnep TO. o-ySoryKoiTct !), on the construction of the nest, and on 
its maternal affection, v. Ael. xiv. 7, Phile, 1. c. 

Heraclides ap. Athen. iv. 145 d o-rpovOol ol 'Apu/3toi, at the banquets 
of the Persian King ; and of the ' Indian ' King (o-rp. 01 ^po-moi), 
Ael. xiv. 13 ; also of Heliogabalus, Ael. Lampridius, De Heliog. 28. 

On the capture of the Ostrich see also Diod. Sic. ii. 50, Ael. xiv. 
7, Opp. De Ven. iii. 487. The interesting account in Strabo, xvi. 4, n, 
doubtless refers to the Ostrich. 

How the Ostrich swallows stones, which are a medicine for the eyes, 
and how its fat and sinews are a useful tonic, Ael. xiv. 7, Phile, I.e. The 
price of Ostrich-fat, Plin. xxix. 30. 

Pausan. ix. 31, I rfjv 8e 'Apo-ivorjv (a statue in Helicon) o-rpovOos (pcpei 
XO^KTJ rS)V dnTrjvaV Trrepa p,ev ye KCU avrai Kara ravra rais aXXais (pvova-iv, 
lino 8e ftdpovs KOI Sia peyedos ov% old re fariv dvfx fiv 0"<as es rov aepa 
rot TTTcpa. Cf. the ales equos of Cat. Ixvi. 54, and Ellis's note thereon ; 
cf. also Flav. Vop. Firm. c. 6 sedentem ingentibus struthionibus vectum 
esse ut quasi volitasset. 

Opp. De Ven. iii. 482 et seq. peya Qavpa, p-era arpovdolo Kdfj.rfXov . . . 
TJjff TJTOL p.ey0os p.ev VTrepfiiov, ocrvov vnfpde \ i/coroiy fupuraroio~t <pepeiv 
Vo6r)\a Kovpov' \ ov8e fj,V opvidtvo-iv 6fj.oi'ios a/u,/3aS6v fvvfj, \ Ba/crptoj/ ola 
de (pv\ov e^ovffiv dnocrrpocpa Xc/crpa, &c. 

Ostriches eV rfj JUT) vo/xeV^ rf)s Aiftvrjs, Theophr. Hist. PI. iv. 3, 5. 

Callim. Rhod. ap. Athen. v. 200 f o-rpov0<j/ <rvi>a>pides o/crco, i. e. eight 
yoke of ostriches (drawing chariots?) in a procession of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus at Alexandria. Cf. Plautus, Pers. ii. 2, 17 Vola curriculo. 
Isthuc marinus passer per circum solet. Ostriches harnessed to the 
coach of the Emperor Firmus, Flav. Vopisc. Firm. c. 6. 

Ostrich plumes mentioned, ibid. iv. 4, 5, ix. 12, 5. 

How the eggs are eaten by the Garamantes (in the Libyan Desert), 
Lucian, Dipsad. 235, but are of inferior quality, Galen, De Ovis, xxii. 

How the Ostrich hides its head in the sand, Oppian, Halieut. iv. 
630 rola 8e Kai Atfivrjs Trrepocv /3oroj/ dyKV\6deipov \ vrjTTia Te^a^et, K.r.X. 
Cf. Plin. x. I. 

The name (rrpov6oKdp.T)\os is modern, cf. Galen, De Alim. iii. 20 
TO de Tojf o~Tpov6oKaiJ.T)\(dv [ovofjLa Kai rots TTflXaiots 1 ] drjdes. 6vofj.dovcri 
yap avras peydXas (rrpovdovs : cf. ibid. De Prob. Succ. Alim. vi. 
ITPOYGO'I, 6 and 17. Also arpous, Hesych. Dimin. <rrpou0ioi', Arist., 

Anax., 3. 164, Ephipp. 3. 326; orpouOdpioy Eubul. 3. 268 (14); 

o-TpouGtas, Com. Anon. 4.647 (172); orpou0i's, Eust. Opusc. 312, 


ITPOY0OI (continued}. 

cf. Alexid. 3. 449, and Meineke's note ; o-Tpouduricos, Theod. 
Prodr. Cf. o-TropyiXos, aire'pyouXos, Goth, spar-va, O. H. G. spar-o, 
Eng. sprug, sparrow, &c. 

A Sparrow, Passer domesticus, L., in Greece, as here, the com- 
monest of birds (Von der Muhle, &c.) : in Elis, called also 
q. v. Mod. Gk. <rnovpyirrjs (Erhard) ; on Parnassus 
(Heldreich) ; and in Cyprus <rrpov6os (Sakellarios). 

Very often used generically, like Lat. passer, Heb. Ti, of any 
Small birds (cf. Phavorinus, &C., o-rpovOia 8' ovSen-'pco? travra T 

r&v opvidcov) ; sometimes of larger birds, e. g. o-rpovQbs 

Nic. Alex. 60. 535 ; transferred to the Ostrich (vide s. v. orpouOo- 
KdjunrjXos) ; applied to the Stymphalian birds, Epigr. Gr. 1802. 5. 

Early and Poetic References. The story of the serpent and the 
brood of sparrows, II. ii. 308-332 : this is an instance where the name 
is used vaguely and not specifically (as is TiDV in Deut. xxii. 6) ; the 
Homeric account of the nest is reflected in Ael. iv. 38, and the state- 
ment as to the number of eggs reappears in Arist. fr. 1527, ap. Athen. 
ix. 391 f. 

Venus' team of sparrows, Sappho fr. I. 9 KaAoi 8e o-' ayov \ a>Kee? 
(rrpovdol Trepi yds p,e\aivas \ TTVKVU divevvres Trrep' CLTT a>pai/oo aldep\os did 
/zeVo-o). On the connexion between this image and the lascivious pro- 
pensities of the sparrow, cf. Athen. 1. c. 

The story of Aristodicus and the sparrows' nests in the temple, Herod, 
i. 159. 

Not mentioned in Attic Tragedy, save for Aesch. Ag. 145 Kara/xo/*(pa 
re (pda/j-ara (TTpovQ&v, on which line see the textual commentators. 
Frequent in Aristophanes: Vesp. 207, Lys. 723, Ach. 1106, c. 

Description. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis o-KuXrjKotydyos. Ib. ii. 
J 5> 55 b npos rols evrepois TTJV ^oX^i/ e\fi. Ibid. 17, 509 OVK c^ei ovre rbv 
<TT6p.a%ov OVTC rov TrpoXo/Soj/ rvpuf, dXXa rfjv KoiXiav naKpav. drrocpvaSas 
e^ei' aXXa niKpa nafj-nav. Ib. ix. 49 B, 633 b Kai Koviovrai. KOI \ovvrai. Ibid. 
7, 613 Xeyotxrt de rives Kai ran/ crTpovdlcov eviavrov p,6vov rjv TOVS cippevas, 
TTOIOV/JLCVOI vr]p,elov on TOV capos ov (paii'ovTai exovTfs evdvs TO, Trepl rov 
tr<aymva /ueXava, vcrrepov 8' ICT^OVO-IJ', w? ovdevbs <ro>ofj.evov rwv Trporepcaj/' 
ras de 9q\tias fia/cpo/Stcorepa? eii/ai r&v arpovdiuv' ravras yap dXiffKecrdai ev 
rots veots, <al diadfaas flvai ra> ex flv Ta n pi Ta X 64 '^ o~K\r]pd. Arist. fr. 
273. 1527 (ap. Athen. 392 a) //era/3aXAet. On albino varieties, cf. H. A. 
iii. 12, 519 ; De Gen. v. 6, 785 b. 

Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ix. 391 b Suo yevrj flvai rwv arrpovdcov, rb pev 
rjjj.epov, rb 8' aypiov' rds 8e dr)\eias avr&v dvdevea-repas rd r* aXXa elvai, Kai 
rb pvyxos Keparocides p.d\\ov rf]v XP^ av ) r ^ Trpoa-conov ovre 


ITPOY00I (continued}. 

Reproduction. Arist. H. A. v. 2, 539 b oeW o-uyyiWm : De Gen. iv. 
6, 774 b TiKTovaiv areXJ; *ai rtKpXa' TroXvroKoCo-ty, cf. fr. 273, I5 2 7 (&p. 
Athen. 391 b) riKrei /ue'xpi OKTO>. Athen. ix. 391 e o^evrtfcoi cla-iv. Hence 
used as an aphrodisiac, Terpsicles, ap. Athen. 1. c. The erotic symbolism 
of the sparrow is alluded to by Festus, s.v. strutheum. 

Whatever Lesbia's 'sparrow' may have been, I am pretty sure in 
my own mind, pace Professor Robinson Ellis, that it was not Passer 
domesticus, the most intractable and least amiable of cage-birds 
(experto credej cf. also Bechstein's ' Cage-birds ' ; on the point at 
issue, see De Quincey, Selections, viii. p. 82). As to o-rpou&'oj/, or 
passer, used (non-specifically) of a cage-bird, cf. Job xl. 24 9rai'0 Se 
fv nireo <u<T7rep opyeeo } TJ 8rj(Tfis O.VTQV locrrrep (rrpovBiov TratSt'a) 5 cf. also 
Boch. Hieroz. ii. 152. 

A "Weather-prophet. Theophr. Sign. vi. 3 a-rpovdos o-rrifav eadev x<-t/ze- 
piov [ov/p-diVei]' (TTpovdbs eav XCVKOS ^ei/ia>ra p.yav (rrjfJLaivei : cf. ibid. C. 2. 

ITYM4>AAl'AEI, s. ZTujj^YjXi'Ses opa0es. Fabulous and mystical birds. 
They were met with by the Argonauts at the Island of Dia ; they 
shot forth their feathers like arrows, and were put to flight by the 
beating of spears on shields, ex more Curetum, Apoll. Rhod. ii. 1054 
and Schol, Q. Smyrn. vi. 227, Hygin. Fab. xx, Claud. Idyll, ii. They 
were shot by Hercules in his fifth labour, in insula Martz's, Hygin. 
Fab. xxx, or at Lake Stymphalus, Paus. viii. 22, 4; or terrified by 
him with a brazen drum, Strab. viii. 371, 389: cf. Pisand. ap. Paus. 
I.e., &c. They inhabited Arabia, an.d had migrated thence; they 
were as large as cranes, and resembled the Ibis, but had stronger 
beaks ; they pierced through iron and brass but were held by reed- 
mats, eagres (pXdiVai, as small birds by bird-lime, Paus. 1. c. Repre- 
sented, three in number, on the metopes of the temple of Zeus at 
Olympia (now in the Louvre) Paus. v. 10, 9 ; cf. Expdd. de la Moree, 
i. pi. 77, &c., &c. Also, together with female figures having birds' legs, 
on the temple of Artemis Stymphalia at Lake Stymphalus, Paus. 1. c. 
Also on medals, cf. Med. du Card. Alban, ii. p. 70, &c. ; on an amphora 
in the Brit. Mus., J. de Witte, Gaz. Archeolog. 1876, pi. iii ; on coins, as 
crested water-birds (6.0.431-370), B. M. Cat. Coins, Peloponnese, p. 199. 
According to Dupuis (Orig. de tous les cultes, ii. p. 260, 8vo, Tan 
iii), the Stymphalian birds are the constellations of Aquila, Cygnus 
and Vultur or Lyra, which rise together with, that is to say are 
paranatellons of, the sign Sagittarius (cf. Hygin., Columella, &c.). 
Starting from the Lion (with which the labours of Hercules began) 
the sign of the Archer is the fifth in order : it was moreover the 
domicile of Diana, to whom belonged the temple at Stymphalus. 
A similar explanation possibly underlies the story of the Birds of 


ITY'E. A bird-name, mentioned, in connexion with a fabled meta- 
morphosis, by Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. xxi. Vide s.v. <rrpt. 

lYKAM'Z (MSS. have also *caXk, avKaXXts, crucaX/r). On the form 

(rvKa\\is, cf. Athen. ii. 65 c. 
Probably the Black-cap Warbler, Sylvia atricapilla, auctt. Lat. 

ficedula. Vide S. v. jjieXayKopu^os cf. also 

Epich. fr. 49 Ahr. ap. Athen. ii. 65 c ayXaai 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis <rK(0\r)Ko(pdyos. Ib. ix. 49 B, 632 b 
OVTOI ((TUKaXi'Sf? KGU p.e\ayKopv(poi) p.Ta[3d\\ovo~iv els aXX^Xous* ylverai 
5' r) p.ev (TVKaXls TTfpi TTjv OTTWpav, 6 8e p.\ayK6pv(pos fvOetoS juera TO 
fyBivonupov. Cf. Plin. x. (29) 44, Geopon. xv. I, 22, Festus. 

Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ii. 65 b arepos TCOV a!yidd\uv i>(p' u>v p-ev e'Xatoi/ 
KaXeTrat, vnb 8e nv&v Trvppias' avKaXls 8', orav aKjj.d^rj ra crvKa. Athen. 
ibid. 8vo 5' etVat yfvr] avroi), (rvKaXida KCU fjL\ayKopv<pov. a\i<TKovTai 5' 
aurai rcS TWV CTVKWV Kaipcp. Mentioned also, Ael. xiii. 25. 

Aubert and Wimmer suppose the Marsh Tit, Parus palustris, L., 
P. atricapilluS) Gmel., to be meant. Sundevall supposes a confusion 
between that bird (fj.f\ayi<6pv(pos) and the Black-headed or Pied 
Flycatcher, Muscicapa atricapilla, L., (o-uKaXk), as accounting for 
the imaginary metamorphosis. But the Black-headed Flycatcher is 
probably chosen incorrectly, and should be the Black-cap Warbler or 
true Beccafico, Sylvia atricapilla. It is the latter and not the former 
bird which comes down into the plains in autumn and is caught in 
multitudes on the fig-trees (Kriiper, p. 241, &c.). The former is 
a comparatively scarce bird in Greece (Kriiper, Lindermayer). Coray, 
on the other hand, identifies a-vKaXis with the Golden Oriole, in Mod. 
Gk. o-vKoqxiyos. The Golden Oriole is also known now-a-days as 
KiTpivoTTovXi and o-ox^aios, the latter of which names might possibly be 
a corruption of a-vKaXis. 

lYPIITH'l' ycpavos apprjv, Hesych. 

2YPOriE'PAI=. A variety or species of Partridge. 

Ael. XVI. 7 &vpo7rpdi yiverai Trepi rrjv 'AvTio%(iav TTJV Hicri8iaS) KOJL 
(rireirai KOI \idovs' p.iKporepos 8e eVn rou TrepStKO? KOI peXay rfjv XP av > 
Trvppos fie TO pd/JLCpos. ov% fjfitpovTai de Kara TOV a\\ov, ovde yivfTai 
Tidaaos, aXX' ayptos es TO ae! diap.evd. ecrTi Se ou /xeya?, fipadrjvai T 
Tjoiav TOV erepov, KCU rr]v o-dpKa TTCOS SoKet Trv/fi/orepo?. Cf. Phile, De Anim. 
330. The species cannot be certainly identified from this account. 

IXOINTAOI. (Also o-xoivixXos, o-^ow/IXoff, &C. Hesych. ar^oiviKos.) (From 

a'xo'ivos, iuncus.) 

Probably a Wagtail, Motacilla sp. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b : mentioned with KiyxXos and rrvyapyos 

M 2 


ZXOINIAOI (continued}. 

as a small bird, smaller than a thrush, which moves its tail and 
frequents rivers and ponds. 

The identification hangs by that of Kiy<\os and nvyapyos, q. v. Of the 
three bird-names, not one is to be identified with any certainty ; I am 
somewhat inclined to interpret nvyapyos, the largest of the three, as 
a Sandpiper, and to suppose the other two to be both Wagtails ; at any 
rate, o-xom'Xoy, i n its derivation, rather suggests a Wagtail than a Sand- 
piper. The same bird appears elsewhere under such names as <i\\ovpos, 
(relo-ovpa, o-eia-oTrvyis ; vide also s. v. o-KoXiSpis. The identification with the 
Reed Bunting, Emberiza schoeniclus, adopted by Turner, Gaza, &c., &c., 
is based purely on the derivation of the word, and is contradicted 
by the fact that the Reed Bunting does not flick its tail as the 
others do. 

ZXOINl'flN. An unknown bird; perhaps, as Gaza and others take 
it, identical with axoiiaXos. 
Arist. H. A. ix. I, 610 o-xomW KOI Kopvdos (pi\oi. 

IfTAEI, at. An unknown small bird, caught with bird-lime : Dion. 
De Avib. iii. 2. 

TAfH'N, TArHNA'PION. Apparently names for an-aycis (q. v.), Suid. 
rayrjvapi is given by Tournefort (Voy. ii. p. in), as Mod. Gk. 
for the Francolin. 

TANYIl'nTEPOI. A species of Hawk, sacred to Hera, Ael. xii. 4. 
TATY'PAZ. Vide S. v. re'rapos. 

TAQ'l, s. raws. According to Trypho, ap. Athen. 'ix. 397 e, in Attic, 
e.g. Ar. Av. 101, 269, rao>?, i.e. rafeos-. The word is referred, 
with Hebr. tukk-iyim, Arab, tdwus, Pers. tdus, to Tamil togai, 
Sk. fikkf(v. Edl., &c.). Cf. LzLpavo, A. S. pawa, Ger.p/au, &c. 
On the change of Semitic / into / see Hehn, Wanderings of 
Plants, &c., pp. 208, 266. 

The Peacock. Mod. Gk. iray&vi (Heldr.), i. e. rrafcoi/i; also o natov 
and TO Trawi/ij/, novXoXdyo? ap. Wagner's Carm. Gr. Med. Aevi. 
History and Mythology. Menodot. ap. Athen. xiv. 655 a ol raol 
lepoi etcrt TYJS "Hpas. Kal p,fj rrore Trpcoricrrot KOI eyfvovro KOI erpd^ijtrav ev 
2a/x,w, KCU evrevOev ds TOVS e^co TOTTOVS SieSo^(raj/. Cf. Antiphanes, ibid., 
17 8' ev 2a/io> ^Hpa TO ^pucroCv, (^acrtV, opviOuiv ytvos [f^fi], j TOVS KaXAt^tdp- 
<f>ovs KOI Trepi/SXeVrov? raw?. The Peacock on coins of Samos, Athen. 
1. c., cf. Eckhel, Doctr. Numm. ii. p. 568 ; Imhoof-Blumer and Keller, 
pi. v. 49. Samos was, according to this evidence, the original home of 
the Peacock in Greece. The bird was sacred to Hera (as also at 



Tiryns, Paus. ii. 17, 6) as Queen of Heaven (cf. Eur. Hel. 1096) from 
its starry tail (Hehn) : cf. Ovid, Met. xv. 385 lunonis volucrem, quae 
cauda sidera portat ; ibid. i. 723; Juv. vii. 32; Stat. Silv. ii. 4, 26; 
Claudian, Eutrop. ii. 330. Cf. also Job. Lydus, De Menss. p. 66 KOI 
TaS>va Tr}v opvida TO~IS ifpois TTJS "Upas ol (pvatKol didoaanv, olovel TOV 
do-TfpoiTrbv depa, fjroi ovpavov. Cf. also Lucian, De Domo, xi. p. 908 ; 
Hemsterh. ad Nigr. i. p. 247. The Peacock is associated with Hera 
on coins also of Cos, Halicarnassus, c. On a Roman zodiac (Millin, 
Galer. Mythol. pi. xxix. fig. 86) a Peacock comes after Capricorn, 
coinciding with the Athenian month Gamelion, the month (Hesych.) of 
Hera; cf. Boetticher, Philologus xxii. p. 399, 1865, Pyl> Der Zwolf- 
gotterkreis im Louvre, Greifswald, 1857, &c. [The association of Hera 
with the month Gamelion (Jan.-Feb.) is due to the fact that this was 
the month of the sign Aquarius ; and the connexion in turn between 
Hera and Aquarius is connected with the fact that the Full Moon 
stood in that sign when the Sun was in Leo, in the month of Zeus, at 
the season of the Olympic festival.] 

The story of Argus, Mosch. Id. ii. 58, Ovid, Met. i. 720, Dion. De 
Avib. i. 28 (ppovpbs OVTOS [6 raoos-] TJV rrjs 'loCy, rjv'iKa "Hpa KO.T avrrjs 
e^aXcTraii'ei/* 'Ep/uJJy 8' dveiXev avrof, Kal reXeur^o-ai/roy, dvf)Ktv opviv f) yfj 
T>V 6<j)6ah p.S>i> ex VTa Ta 0-rjfj.ela T>V npoo-Oev. Hence a Scholiast in 
Ar. Av. 102 suggests (sed hyeme gallica frigidior est haec coniectura, 

Bochart) Tao>? 6 Trjpevs' Trapa TO rrjpflv TTJV 'lot. 

On Peacocks in Athens, in the time of the Persian Wars, Antiphon 
ap. Athen. ix. 397 C TOVTOVS rpefaiv Afj/jiov TOV IlvpiXdfJurovs KOI TroXXovy 
TrapaylvfcrQai Kara iroOov rrjs TO>V opvidcov deas ecc re AaKedai^ovos Kal 
QcTToXias Kai <nrov8f]V Troiflcrdat, T&V (pav lAeraXajBelv . . . dXXa ras fJ.ev 
vovp.r)vias 6 j3ov\6fjLvos etcn/et, ray 8' fxXXay f)fj.pas f'i TIS e\doi (3ov\<jfi.fvos 
Qedcravdai, OVK ea-riv ocrns eru^f. Kai ravra OVK e^des ovde Trpwrjv, aXX' err) 
ir\fov TI rpiaKovrd eanv i cf. Ael. v. 21. Its rarity at the time is 
suggested in Ar. Av. 102, 270: but already a nickname in Ar. Ach. 
63 ; cf. Strattis, Ma/ce$. 7, ap. Athen. 654 F TroXXoii/ <Xva'po>j> Kal raG>v 

Its former rarity and subsequent abundance, Antiph. ap. Athen. ix. 
397 a T&V ra5)V [j.v ws a7ra| TIS fvyos rjyaytv povov | (nrdviov ov TO XPW* 1 
irXeiovs 8' fio~l vvv T>V oprvywv (at Rome), cf. Eubul. 3. 259 ; for other 
citations, see Athen. xiv. 654 -655 a; eriftcoyTo 8e TOV appeva. Kal TOV 
6rj\w dpaxn&v pvpiav, Antiph. ap. Ael. v. 21 ; cf. also Plut. i. 160 d, 
Plin. x. (20) 22, Varro, R. R. iii. 6, Macrob. Sat. iii. 13, &c. 

On the probably independent introduction of Peacocks into Rome, 
cf. Hehn, op. c. 

The Peacock is an Indian bird, Aelian passim, Lucian, Navig., &c. ; 
and was bred for the 'Indian' King, Ael. xiii. 18 eV rots 


TAfll (continued}. 

TptyovTai raa>? fjp.epoi. It was likewise kept in Babylon, Diod. Sic. ii ; 
and the passage in Ar. Ach. 63 may imply that the Persian ambassador 
was bringing a present of peacocks to the City. How Alexander 
protected the Indian Peacocks on account of their beauty, under pain 
of a heavy penalty, Ael. v. 21. An Indian Peacock presented to the 
Egyptian King, Ael. xi. 33. The Indian Peacocks larger than elsewhere, 
ibid. xvi. 2. The Peacock throne at Babylon (as to this day, according 
to report, at Teheran), Philostr. 386 k. 

The Peacock, like the Cock, was also called the Persian Bird. 
A Schol. on Ar. Av. 707 has ra TroXureXi) navra, of? povos fiao-iXevs e^p^ro, 
e/caXetro Hepo~iKa' Kal vvv OVK tSi'cos TIS opvis Hepo~iKos. Tives de TOV 
aXcKTpvova, ol de TOV raa>. Cf. Suidas, M.rjdiKos opvis, 6 raws. Tacos 
v7rr)\Tj, 6 MrjftiKos Kal xpuaoTTTepos 1 Ka ' d\aoviKos opvis : cf. Philostr. 
loc. cit. Vide s. v. MYJ&IKOS opyis. 

The Peacock as food, Ael. iii. 42 ; first so used by Hortensius, ibid, 
v. 21, Plin. x. (20) 23; cf. Hor. Sat. ii. 2. 28, Juv. Sat. ii. 143, vii. 32, 
Varro, De R. R. iii. 6, Columella, viii. n, and innumerable other Lat. 

Description. Arist. H. A. vi. 9, 564 6 de racb? r] p.ev nepl irevre <a\ 
e'lKocriv er/7 (cf. Plin. x. (20) 22), yevva de Tpierrjs /idXio-ra, ev ols Kal rfjv 
iroiKiXiav rS)v Trrepav aTroXafj-ftdvei' e/cXe7rei 6' ev rpidKovd rj^ 

1T\(ioO~lV. OTTOt^ TOV TOVS JJLOVOV TtKTet, TiKTl 8' Cpa 8a)8tKa T] 

riKrei Se SiaXeiTrcoi/ dvo T) rpeT? rj^ifpas KOI OVK e(p^rjs (cf. Ael. V. 32, Plin. x. 
(59) 79, Colum. viii. II, Pallad. i. 28, &c.). at de TrpoaroroVoi /udXtara 
TTfpt oKTcb tad. TiKTOVQ-i 8' oi Taw Kat VTrr)vep,ia. o^euoi/rcu 8e TTfpl TO cap' 
de KOI 6 TOKOS fvdetis /nera TrjV o^eiav. TTTfpoppvfi 8e a/na Tols 
TU>V oevdpwv Kal ap^fTat avdis dnoXafJifBdveiv Tr]V 7TTfpcoo~iv ap-a TTJ 
TOVT&V j3Xa(rr^<ret. aXe/cropi'Si d' v7TOTideao~iv avT&v TO, wa entpd^fiv ol 
Tpf(povres dia TO TOV appeva TTJS OrjXeias TOVTO 8pa>o~r]S fTrnrfTOfievov o~WTpi- 

fteiv: cf. Arist. fr. 274. 1527^ ap. Athen. ix. 397 b. 

Its plumage and its ' pride,' Mosch. Id. ii. 59 opvis dya\\6p.vos 
TTTepvyaiv noXvavde'i XP ol fi ( c ^ Ael. 1. C. COIKCV dvdr)p(p Xei/icoft) | rapcra S' 
avcnr\a>o~aS) axrei Te TIS ajKuaXos vrjvs, \ ^piMrctov raXapoio Trepi'ovcfTre ^et'Xta 
rdpcroi?. Ael. V. 21 6 rau>? oidev opvidav wpaioraros &v, Kal evdd ol TO 
Ka\\os KadrjTai KOI TOVTO ote, feat eV aurw Kop,a, Kal o~ojBepos eo~Ti } Kal 
flappel Tols TTTfpols, o)O~Trepovv avTco Kal Koo-p-ov TTapaTidrjai, Kal Trpos TOVS 
ft-a>6ev <po(Bov aTToareXXei, K.T.X. Ach. Tat. i 6 de roC rao> \eip.a>v evavQc- 
o-Tepos' TT(pvTVTai yap avr<0 Kal xpva-os ev Tols mfpols, KVK\W 8e TO aXovpyes 
TOV xpvvbv TrepiOefi TOV 'Lvov KVK\OV. Arist. H. A. i. I, 488 b opvis (pdovepbs 
Kal (pi\oKa\os. Lucian. Dom. II (3. 196) eViorpe^ei yovv eavTOV, Kal 
nepidyei Kal e^no/jLTrfvei TO) KtiXXet. Dion. De Avib. i. 28 TO <cdXXos 5e 6 
Taa>s TO oiKelov Tedavfj.aKf, Kal el KO\OV TIS OVTOV ovoudo-fiev, evOvs TO>V 
O. avdr) p.ep.iyfj.fva ^puaw, &o~7rep TIVCI Xet/xcova, deiKwaiv dvao-TT]o-as, 

TAfll TETAPOZ 167 


Trepidyav etp KVK\OV avra SiaTfTaypfvois 6'/u,/ia<rij>* ra 817 Kara rrjs ovpas 
\d/j,7Tovo-i,v &o-rrp aVrepes 1 avrcp, K.r.X. Chrysipp. ap. Plut. ii. 1044 C 6 raws 
evK.a TI)S &pas yeyove, dia TO KaXXo? avrrjS. Cf. Opp. Cyneg. iii. 344 otrcroi/ 
cv rjfpioiori raws- KaXbs ouoi/oi<ri. Plin. x. (20) 22 Gemmantes laudatus 
expandit colores adverse maxime sole, quia sic fulgentius radiant : . . . 
omnesque in acervum contrahit pennarum, quos spectari gaudet oculos. 
Colum. R. R. ix. 1 1 Semetipsum, veluti mirantem, caudae gemmantibus 
pennis protegit, idque cum facit, rotare dicitur. Ovid, Art. Amor. i. 627 
Laudatas ostendit aves lunonia pennas ; Si tacitus spectes, ilia recondit 
opes : cf. id. De Medic. Fac. 33, Met. xiii. 802. Cf. also Hor. Sat. ii. 2, 
24, Lucret. ii. 806, Stat. Silv. ii. 3, 26, Mart. xiii. 70, Propert. ii. 24, ii ; 
Phaedr. iii. 57, &c., &c. It is, however, much ashamed of its ugly feet : 
Phile, 208 (ruoTe'XXerai de KCU Karaa-rra TOV rvfpov \ opwv dvaeiBels e'/c pvTidwv 
TOVS Ttodas. 

Its harsh cry, Anaxilaus ap. Ath. xiv. 655 a olptofav raws : Eup. 2. 
437 (4) p-faoTf 6pf\ls(o napa Hep&ffpovr) roiovde raS>j/, os TOVS evSovTas eyeipei. 

Various legends. 

Uses as a charm \ivov pifav, which it carries under its wing, Ael. xi. 18. 

How the peacock swallows its excrement, lest we should use it in 
medicine, Plin. xxix. 38. 

A peacock enamoured of a maid, Clearch. ap. Athen. xiii. 6o5 c. 

Fable. The Crane and the Peacock, Babr. Ixv, cxlii (ed. Rutherford) 
" (TV &' o)s a\KT<op rnlcrfie rals Karaxpvo-ois \ ^a/zai Trrepva-crr]" (pr^a-iv, " ot8' 
ava> (paivr)" Cf. Suid., S. V. yepavos. 

TEAE'AZ. A bird-name (?). Ar. Av. 168 and Schol. 

TE'TAPOI. A Pheasant. A Median word, whence Pers. tedyrw, 

adopted into Old Scl. tetravi, tetria, &c. ; also Lith. teterva, 

teterwas, teltera, whence Finn. tetri\ adopted further into Sw. 

tjader, Dan. fuir t and possibly incorporated (Hehn) into Eng. 

turkey. Cf. Hind, tittiri, a Partridge or Francolin; Lat. tetrao, 

Gk. Te'rpaf, Terpdwi/. Cf. Pott, Etym. Forsch. i. p. Ixxx. 

Ptolem. Euerg. ap. Athen. xiv. 654 C ra re TMV (pao-iav&v ovs rerapovs 

(al. TfTpa&vas) 6vo[j.dovcriv. \ovs] ov p.6vov fK Mrjftfias juereTre/zrrfro, dXXa 

KOI vofMadas opviQas V7roj3d\a>v CTroirjo-f n^fjdos, wore Kal <jiTtl(r6ai. TO 6e 

/3pw/za 7ro\vTf\fs dTrocfxiivovviv : cf. ibid. ix. 387 e. 

Also rarupas, Epaenetus, Artemid. and Pamph. ap. Athen. ix. 387 d 
6 (pao-iavbs opvis TaTvpas KaXelrai : cf. Hesych., who gives also rtrupas, 
Ttrupos, cf. Theophr. Char. vi. 2. Hesych. has further -rerapy?;' (pao-ya- 
v>v fldoi, where word and gloss are alike corrupt ; cj. rerapot* <pao~iav>v 
eloos. Taurao-os and reyyupos, Hesych., are probably also akin. See 
also s. vv. Te'rpa, 


TETPA'AHN* opveov ri, 'AX*ato?, Hesych. Cf. ibid. TerpdSucru'* dr,o6va. 
See Schmidt in /oc., and Bergk, P. Lyr. Gr. iii. p. 192, fr. 154 

TETPAfON' opviddptov TI, Adicavcs, Hesych. Cf. TerpaSwi/. 

TE'TPAE. A doubtful word, applied to the Guinea-fov^L. 

Ar. Av. 885, Eust. 1205, 27. 

A discussion concerning the identity of this bird in Athen. ix. (c. 58). 
398, C-f. Alex. Mynd. ibid. rcVpal TO p-cyedos "ia-os o-Trep^oXoyw, TO xpco/xa 
KpafjLOi>s, pvirapais o~Tiyp.als Kai peydXais ypap.iJ.als iroiKiXos, Kapirocpdyos, 
oTav woTOKT) de, TfTpdei Trj (pcovfj. [The disputants here seem to suppose 
that Alexander Myndius referred to some very little bird, TWOS 
Epicharm., ibid, rerpayas o"irepp.aTo\6yovs re Kay\aas 
?. . . . epwfitoi . . . rerpayes re [xott] <T7repp.aTO\6yoi. Athen. 1. C. 
a/ia de ravra \eyovros OVTOU, clo-rj\0 ns (pepav ev T< TaXapw rov TfTpciKa. 
rjv de TO p,ev peyedos iVep aXe^TpuoVa TOV p.yi(TTOv, TO de eiSos 7rop(f)vpia>vi 
7rapan\r]o-ios' KOI OTTO T>V &TODV eK.a.Tepa>&fV el% Kpepdp,fva axnrfp of aXe*- 
TpvovfS TO. KaXXnia' jSapeta 8' r)v f) (pcovrj. tiavpao-avTuv ovv f]p.5)V TO evavdes 
TOV opvidos p.T ov TroXv Kai co~Kvao~p,vos Traprjve^df]) Kai TO. /cpea 
rjv TraparrX^o'ia [TOI? TTJS /Lte-ydX^s] CTTpovOov^ rjv KOI avTrjv TroXXttKtS' 

According to Larensius (ap. Athen. 1. c.), he had seen the bird and 
heard the name in Mysia and Paeonia : he probably alluded to some 
one of the Grouse family ; cf. tetraon in Plin. x. (22) 29. The bird 
brought into the banquet was evidently a Guinea fowl, the descrip- 
tion given of the colour, wattles, &c. being characteristic. The account 
in Alex. Mynd. is not capable of identification : it also may possibly 
refer to the Guinea-fowl, which is not mentioned under the name 
p.e\eaypis by this author. Sundevall supposes that Alex. Mynd. alluded 
to some small bird, perhaps the Whinchat, Pratincola rubetra^ L., 
and that the same was identical with rerpi^ and oupd, J. G. Schneider 
(Anmerk. z. d. Eel. Phys. p. 45) conjectures the Little Bustard, Otis 
tetrax^ L., on whose cry at breeding-time, cf. Buffon, iv. p. 55. 

The name occurs also in Nemesian, i. 128, Anthol. Lat. 883 (ed. 
Riese), in a passage, however, which adds nothing definite to our 
knowledge : Tetracem Romae quern nunc vocitare taracem Coeperunt, 
avium est multo stultissima ; namque Cum pedicas necti sibi contem- 
plaverit adstans, Immemor ipse sui tamen in dispendia currit . . . 
Hie prope Pentinum radicibus Apennini Nidificat, patulis quae se 
sol obiicit agris, Persimilis cineri dorsum, maculosaque terga Inficiunt 
pullae cacabantis imagine notae. 

TE'TPAI. A bird-name, Schol. in Ar. Av. 168. Probably = 


TETPA'HN, for rerapos, Ptol. Euerg. ap. Athen. xiv. 654 c : Hesych., 


In Sueton. Calig. xxii tetraones numidicae were probably Guinea- 
fowl. In Plin. x. (22) 29 tetrao is the Black Grouse, Tetrao tetrix : 
decet tetraonas suus nitor, absolutaque nigritia, in superciliis cocci 
rubor. The larger variety mentioned next is the Capercaillie, T. uro- 
gallus : altertfm eorum genus vulturum magnitudinem excedit, quorum 
et colorem reddit ; nee ulla ales, excepto Struthiocamelo, maius corpore 
implens pondus, &c. 

TE'TPIE. An unidentified bird. 

Arist. H. A. vi. I, 559 a 17 5e re'rpi ^v KO.\OVO-IV 'Atfqmtoi ovpaya, oi>V 
TT\ rrjs yrjs veoTTfvei OVT eVl rols SevSpeaiv, aXX' enl rols ^a/zai^Xoi? 
(pvrols. A few lines before it is mentioned with the lark as nesting 
on the ground. 

' Only these two conflicting references occur. Belon took reVpi for 
the Black Grouse, Camus and Buffon for the Capercaillie, neither of 
which occur in Attica. Sundevall identifies it with the Whinchat, 
vide s. v. TTpa. 

TITI'I. A small bird, Phot. (Cf. rmo>.) 

TO'PrOI. A Vulture. 

Hesych. ropyos' ei'So? yviros ctfyuaroppdcpov. eon Se Kal 6 yv\ls Trapa 
SiKeXicoTat?. Cf. ibid. Topyiov' opos lv SifceXia, OTTOV VOTTvov<riv oi yvnes. 
afi ov KOI avrol ropyoi. 

Callim. fr. 204. Frequent in Lycophron. Cass. 1080 ropyouriv eucop^a 
(pOLviois defects : ib. 86 Xeucrcrco deovra ypvvbv eTrrepco^evot/ | rp^pcovos els 
apTray/za, HecpvaLas KVVOS \ r\v ropyos vypo(poiTos e/<Xo^euerai | Ke\v<pdvov 
orpo'/SiXoi/ ci)(TTpaK(ii)p,vr)v' ubi Schol. ropyos de Kvpias 6 yvty, vvv 8e rov 
KVKVOV \eyfi) ov p,ip.rj(rap.evos 6 Zevs o~vvep.iyr] rfj A.rjSfl '. ibid. 357 Trjp.os 
jSiaicos (paoxra rrpbs ropyov \e%os \ yajj.'^aia'iv apTrais olvas e\Kvo'6rjO'op,ai ) 
where the Scholiast is in doubt whether to translate olvas by a/iTreXoy, or 
(as is of course correct) by Trepto-repa. 

The word ropyos comes to us through Alexandrine writers (late- 
brasque Lycophronis atri !). I take it (in spite of Hesychius) to be an 
Egyptian word, and to be connected with the root of opxtXos (q. v.) and 
rpoxiXos ; see also s. v. rpi6pxr)S. The name To'pytov, cited by Hesychius, 
is at least more likely to be derived from ropyos, than the latter from it. 

TOY~TII- 6 Koo-o-v<pos, Hesych. A very doubtful word. 
TPH'PflN. A Pigeon or Dove. 

On the possibility of Tprjpwy being a true pigeon-name, and 

not merely an epithet derived from rpe'w, vide supra, s. v. 



TPHPflN (continued}. 

Moero, ap. Athen. xi. 491 B of the doves that fed the Infant Jupiter 
in the Cretan cave, rbv pen apa rp^pcoi/ey VTTO #e<u rpt<pov aWpo> | 
dp.^po(rir]v (popfowai cm* a>Keavolo podcov. 

Lyc. 87 (vide S. v. ropyos) ; ibid. 423 or' els voBov rpfjpwvos rjvvdadrj 
Opp. Cyn. i. 73 Tprjpwas e\ov dovaKrjes I ibid. i. 352 eirre yap es 
a 6oal Tprjpwvf? i'oo<rt | fjn.yvvp.evai oTO/mreoxri j3apv(p()6yyois dXo^oKTi : 
ibid. i. 385 etapi Ka\ Tpfjp&ves enidvova-L TreXei'my. 

Hence TroXvrp^pcoi/, an epithet of Laconian Messe, and Boeotian 
Thisbe, II. ii. 502, 582 ; cf. Stat. Theb. vii. 261 Dionaeis avibus circum- 
sona Thisbe. There is a curious apparent coincidence between the 
association with doves of the town Thisbe, and the connexion of 
Thisbe in the story of Pyramus and Thisbe (Ovid, Met. iv) with 
Babylon, urbs Semiramidis : on the dove-myth of Semiramis, vide s. v. 
Trepiorepd. ^ 

TPl'KKOr opviQdpiov o Ka\ ftao-iXevs VTTO 'HXeiW, Hesych. Cf. SpiKKtti, 

SpiK^ai, &c. ; also possibly, rpixas. 

TPIO'PXHZ. MSS. have also rpiopxis ; rpiopxts in Ar. Av. 1206, 
Simon. Iambi. 8. irupiopxts in Cram. An. Gr. Oxon. ii. 457. See 
also s. v. J3e\\ouVT]s. 

A Buzzard (?), Buteo vulgaris, auctt. Mod. Gk. 

Ar. Av. 1181, 1206; also in Ar. Vesp. 1532, where the Buzzards are 
called the children of Poseidon. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b eort 8e 6 rptopxrjs TO fieyfdos O(TOV LKTLVOS. 
Kal (paivcrai OVTOS dia Travros. Ib. ix. 36, 620 Kpariaros rS)V IcpaKcov. 
Ibid. I, 609 rpiopxrjs Kal (ppvvos Kal o<pis TroXe'ftiot* KaTeaQiei yap 6 
rpiopxis avrovs. Ael. xii. 4 ; sacred to Artemis. Mentioned also, Lyc. 
147 ; Plin. x. (8) 9 Triorchem a numero testium. Buteonem hunc 
appellant Romani. 

Tradition interprets rpiopxrjs as the Buzzard, with which the descrip- 
tion given agrees save for the important epithet Kparioros. Some writers, 
e.g.Thuanus, De Re Accip., 1612, pp. 22,100, repudiate the identification. 

The mediaeval anatomists, Aldrovandi, Gesner, &c., sought and 
found (!) the abnormality from which the bird apparently derives its 
name : but the derivation is probably quite false, and the word 
corrupted by Volksetymologie. Is it possible that its origin lies hid 
under the name ropyos, (q. v.) ? 

According to Nicander, ap. Anton. Lib. c. xiv, Munychus was meta- 
morphosed into the bird rpiopxis, and his son Alcander into op^iXos-, 
other two sons becoming Ixvevpav and KiW, both of which are here 
spoken of as birds. There is, to my mind, an Egyptian look about 
the whole story. 


TPIXA'I. The Song-Thrush, Turdus musicus, L. Mod. Gk. T^'yXa. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 2O, 617 KIX^W fidos' ov (frOeyyeraC TO Se peyeOos ovov 
KOTTV(POS. Vide s. v. K/xXq. 

This word (anag \ty6p.evov) was translated by Gaza pilaris (quasi a 
0pi'), whence our modern name Turdus pilaris, L., the Fieldfare. 
The word survives in Mod. Gk. as ro-i'^Xa, rryXa, T^^Xa, and is pos- 
sibly the same as TPIKKOS, q. v. ; it is a parallel form to KixXt], and is 
the same as our thrush. [Cf. Lith. s-trasd-as (Nessl. p. 506), Russ. 
drosd?) I eel. trast, L. turdus, &c.] 

TPOXl'AOI, s. rpoxiXos, a. (Most MSS. have rpoxfXoy ; for other forms, 
v. Lob. Par. 115.) Derived, in my opinion, from the root of 
opxiXos (q.v.), and not connected with rpe;(a>. 

The Wren, Troglodytes europaeus, L. Mod. Gk. KoXu/^/Spi, Tpwo- 

Kapvda (Erhard, Bikelas). 

Arist. H. A. ix. II, 615 \6xpas Kal Tpa>y\a$ OIKC'I' dvvaXaros de Kai 
8pa7TTT]S Kai. TO rjBos aadevf)?, cvfitoTos 5c KOI TCX VIKOS ' KaXerrcu fie Kai 
irpeo-ftvs Kai j3a<Ti\vs (cf. Plin. viii. 37)) Sto KOL TOV afTov avrw <acrt 
TroXe/xeti/: cf. ibid. ix. I, 609 b. Mentioned as an oracular bird, Plut. 
ii. 405 c "XX' rjp.f'is epcoSiots ol6fj.eda <al rpo^iXoi? KOI Kopa^i ^prjcrdai (pdey- 
ynfj.evois 0-77 fjuiivovra TOV 6f6v. On superstitions connected with the Wren, 
* The king of all birds,' &c., Dyer, Brit. Pop. Customs, 1876, p. 497 ; 
id. Engl. Folk-lore, 1880, p. 67 ; Croker, Researches in S. Ireland, 
1824, p. 233 ; N. and Q. (6), xi. p. 297, 1885, &c., c. 


The Egyptian Plover or Ziczac, Pluvianus aegyptius = Hyas 
aegyptiacus = Charadrius melanocephalus . Also called K\aSap6- 
pvyxos. This identification, due in the first instance to Geoffroy 
St. Hilaire, is generally accepted : a recent writer, however, 
states that the true ' Crocodile-bird ' is a somewhat larger species, 
the spur- winged Plover, Hoplopterus spinosus (Ibis, 1893, p. 277). 

Herod, ii. 68 6 rpo^iXos fodtjpw es TO orofia [TOV KpoxoSeiXou] KaraTnWi 
ras jSSe'XXa?* 6 de axfieXevfjLcvos rjdfTat, Kai ovdev criVerai TOV rpo^t'Xoi/. 
Arist. H. A. ix. 6, 6l2 T&V KpoKodeiXow x ao ~ KOVTCOV 0<L fpo^fXoi Kadaipovcrtv 

flffTTCTO/JLeVOl TOVS OOOVTttS Kill ttVTol /JiV Tp6(j)r)V \afJL^O.VOVO~lV ) K. T. X. Cf. 

Arist. Mirab. 7, 831 a; Ammian, xxii. 15, 19; Antig. Car. c. 33; Ael. 
iii. II, viii. 25, xii. 15 ; Plut. De Sol. Anim. ii. 980 d; Phile, De An. 
Pr. 97 (82). Mentioned among TOVS opvidas TOVS Trapevdcao-Tas ccaXou- 
fj.evovs, Athen. x. 332 e. In Dion. De Avib. ii. 3, the name is apparently 
applied to various sandpipers. Mentioned also Ar. Av. 79 (eon de <al 
opveov rpo^i'Xos 1 , Kai Xe'yercu elvai Spt/xu, Schol., Suid.), Ach. 876, Pax, 
1004, &c. 


TPOXIAOI (continued}. 

Pliny confuses it with the foregoing : Parva avis quae trochilos ibi 
vocatur, rex avium in Italia, H. N. viii. (25) 37. 

Cf. G. St. Hilaire, Descr. de l'gypte, (2) xxiv. p. 440, Mem. du Mus. 
xv. p. 466 ; Curzon, Monast. of the Levant, c. xii ; Brehm, Thierleben, 
Vogel, iii. p. 216 (2nd edit.) ; Newton, Diet, of Birds, pp. 442, 733, c. 

TPYTfAI. In some MSS. and editions (Aid. Schn. &c.) for nvyapyos, 
Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b. 

TPYra'N. Cf. Heb. lin, L. tur-tur. On the derivation from rpv&iv, 
cf. Eust. Horn. II. (xi. 311), p. 751, Od. pp. 229, 1951 ; Schol. ad 
Theocr. Id. vii. 140, &c. ; cf. Isid. Orig. 12, 17 turtur de voce 
vocatur. I am inclined to think that rpvyav cannot be directly 
derived from rpv&iv, but that the verb was applied to the dove's 
note from mere coincidence of sound : and further that the root 
of rpuywi/ is probably foreign, like that of ol^dis. See also s. v. 

A Turtle-dove, Columba turtur, L. Mod. Gk. rpiywvi (Heldr.), rptyovt 

(Von der M.), rpvyvviov (Erh.), SeKOKrovpa, Bikelas (from the cry). 

Mentioned Ar. Av. 302, 979, &c. 

Description. Arist. H. A. v. 13, 544 b TO>V 7Tprrfpoa8ooi> eXa^i'trr?} : 
cf. Athen. ix. 394 A. Compared in size with xeXed?, H. A. viii. 3, 593, 
and with xXcopeus, ib. ix. 22, 617. Arist. fr. 271, 1527, ap. Athen. I.e., 
TO xp&j/ia Tf<ppdv, cf. Eust. Horn. Od. p. 1712. Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 
KapTTo^a-yet KOI rroijcpayfl' </>ntVerai TOV Bepovs, xew&vos dfaivifaai' (pcoXet 
yap. Cf. ibid. 12, 597 k dyeXd^ovrai S* tu re (pdrrai Kal at rpuyovef, orav 
Tf TrapayivcovTcii Kal ndXiv orav &pa 77 rrpbs rrjv dvaKOfjLiftrjv. See also 
ibid. l6, 599 <p<o\fl yap . . . Kal Tpvya>v' Kal fj y rpvya>v 6p,oXoyov- 
fjifvos /uaXttrra irdvT&v. ovdels yap as eiTreiv Xeyerat rpvyova I8e~iv ovScifj.ov 
XfifjL&vos. apteral Se TTJS (poikeias a~(p68pa rrieipa ovaa, Kal TTTfpoppvel p,ev 
ev rfj (^coXet'a, vra^eia (JLCVTOI SiarcXet ov<ra. 

Cf. Plin. x. (24) 35 verius turtur occultatur, pennasque amittit. On 
its migration, see also Varro, De R. R. iii. 5, 7, c. Arist. H. A. ix. 7, 
613 OVK dvaKviTTOvo-t irivovvai, eav pr) IKUVOV iriaxriv (cf. Alex. Mynd. ap. 
Athen. ix. 394 E, Plin. x. (34) 52) ; o>o-t Kal OKT<*> err] (Plin. 1. c.), at 
TfTV(p\(i)iJLvai virb To>v TTaXevrpias rpefpovTW avrds : on their capture by 
decoys, see also Dion. De Avib. iii. 4, 16. 

The voice of the Turtle. Theocr. Id. xv. 88 & dvcrravoi, dvdvvTa /tam'X- 
Xovo-ai | Tpvyovfs : cf. Virg. Eel. i. 59. On the verb rpvfav, vide supra ; 
cf. also Pollux, V. 14 eiTTOis S' av rpvyovas Tpvfiv, Trepio-Tepas yoyyvfciv : 
Suid. dcrfjp-dis (pdeyyerai Kal yoyyvcrTiKws : rpvyofciv, A. B. 1452. Hence, 
of a talker, rpvyovos \a\icrrcpos, Menand. TlXoK. 13, ap. Ael. xii. 10, in 
which passage a ' double entendre ' is expatiated on by Aelian, Suidas, 


TPYfflN (continued]. 

&c. ; see also Demetr. Sic., ap. Ael. 1. c., Arist. H. A. ix. 49 B, 633 b, 
&c. ; cf. also rpuXieii>, of a quail, Poll. 5. 89. 

Reproduction, Nesting, &c. Arist. H. A. vi. I, 558 b SiroKet (i. e. lays 
two eggs). Ibid. 4, 562 b TIKTOVO-I rpvy&v KCU (pdrra ev rw eapi, ou TrXeo- 
vi'iKis f) 8is. TiKret Se ra Seurepa, OTUP TO. Trporcpov yevvrjdevra dia(p6apf)' 
TroXXai yap 8ia<p6eipov(Tiv avra rcov opvidoav. TLKTCI p.ev ovv, oocrTrep e'iprfTai 
Kal rpi'a Trore' dXX' e^dyerat ovderrore dvotv TT\LCO veorrolv, eviorc ' Ij/ p,6vov' 
TO 6' vTroXetTrdfieyoi/ TOW (BO)!/ del ovpiov (TTIV (cf. Plin. X. 58 (79)), Tas 6e 
(pdrras KOI ras rpvyovas evioi (pacnv o^evecr^ai xal yevvav Kal Tpi/jLrjva ovra, 
arjfjielov iroiov^fvoi rrjv TroXvn\fjdfiav avrav. eyKva 6e yiVerai delta KOI rerra- 
pas rjfjiepaS) Kal eVwa^Vi aXXa? rcxravTas' ev erepais de SeKa Kal rerrapcrt 
TTTepovvrai OVTWS ware p,rj paStcoff KaraXafjipdveaQai. Ib. ix. 7, 613 e^et 
Se roy appeva 17 rpvyvv rbv avrbv Kal (parra, Kal aXKov ov TrpoaievTai. 
(Concerning its chastity, see also Ael. iii. 44, x. 33, Dion. De Avib., 
Phile, De An. Pr. xxii, &C.) *ai eTradfrvcriv dpcpoTepoi, Kal 6 appqv /cat 
TJ 6r)\eia. diayvwvai 5' ou pqdiov rrjv 6rj\iav Kal rbv appeva, aXX' rj rots eVro?. 
VOTTVOV(TL 8e Kal at (pdjSeff Kal at rpvyoves ev rols avrols TOTTOLS dei. 
The Cuckoo builds in its nest, Arist. De Mirab. 3, 830 b. 
On White Turtle-doves, which are sacred not only to Aphrodite and 
to Demeter, but also to the Fates and the Furies, Ael. x. 33. 

How Turtle-doves were brought as tribute to the Indian king, 
Ael. xiii. 25. How the Turtle-dove is slain by xXwpei!?, Arist. H. A. ix. 
I, 609, Phile, De An. Pr. 690 ; is hostile to TrvpaXXis, Arist. 1. c., and to 
TTupprt, Ael. iv. 5, Phile, 1. c. 685 ; to Kopag and to KipKos, Ael. vi. 45 ; is 
friendly to Korrvcpos, Arist. H. A.ix. 1,610 (cf.Plin. x. (76) 96 ; to Trfpicrrepd, 
Ael. v. 48, and to the Parrot, Plin. x. (76) 96, cf. Ovid, Heroid. xv. 38 
et niger a viridi turtur amatur ave ; id. Amor. ii. 6, 1 2 tu tamen ante 
alias, turtur amice, dole. Plena fuit vobis omni concordia vita, c. 
These last references probably allude to the practice of keeping Turtle- 
doves together with Parrots in aviaries. On Turtle-doves in captivity, 
see Varro, iii. 8, Columella viii. 9, Geopon. xiv. 24, &c. Mentioned as 
a delicacy, Juven. vi. 39, Martial, xiii. 53, &c. Is killed by pomegranate 
seed, Ael. vi. 46, Phile, 1. c. 657, and uses the fruit of the Iris as a charm, 
Ael. i. 35, Phile, 1. c. 727. Possibly identical with the trigon or trygon 
that is said to issue tail first from the egg, Hylas ap. Plin. x. (16) 18. 

They are captured by the aid of decoys, at their drinking-places, 
Dion. De Avib. iii. 12 ; or with bird-lime, ibid. 2. An incredible story 
of their being beguiled by dancing and music (sometimes referred 
to Tpvyav = pastinacd) Ael. i. 39, Phile, De An. Pr. 22 (21), 464. 

Proverbs. rpvyuvos \a\iarfpos, vide supra, rpvyova s. Kara, rpvyova 
\jrd\\fiv '. Suid. S. V. rpvyovos' Kal napoifj-ia Tpvyova v/mXXeiy eVt TCOV (pav\a>s 
l ibid. S. V. Trovrjpd' Trovrjpa Kara Tpvyova tyd\\fis' eirl ra>v 
Kal firnrovus o>z/ro>j/, Kal yap fj rpvyvv eirfiddv Trciva Tore 
ct. Cf. also Hesych. 


TPnrM'THI. A small bird, probably identical with TpwyXo8uTT]s. 

Phile De An. Pr. 691 aerov fie TOV \iiyo.v | alyviribs fie'fioiKe* TOV fie, 
TpcoyXiTTjs. Hdn. Epim. 136, 181 ; Eust. 228, 35. 

TPiirAOAY'THI. The Wren, Troglodytes europaeus, L. 

Philagr. Med. ap. Act. xi. n (cit. Schn. in Arist. vol. iv. p. 85) o-rpou- 
6iov eo~T\ crfJLiKpoTaTov o~x f ^v airavTO)v TWV opveav TrX^i/ TOV jBcKTikiaKov 
Ka\ovfj,fvov' napfoiKe fie TOO /3a(rtX ICTK&) Kara TroXXa, (ivev T>V Xpvo~i6vT(i>v 
cv /uercoTro) Trrepav' vp.yedeo~Tepov 8' eVrl /UKpa) 6 rpajyXofiirny? TOV /SaaiXiV- 
KOV KOI /LieXa^rcpos 1 , KOI rrjv ovpav eyrjyepnevrjv fX fi " et 'j Xev/c<B Kareo'TLynevriv 
omcrQev ^p<t)juar6. AaXiartpo? 8' e&rlv OVTOS TOV ^ao~L\io~Kov ) KOI riff ore 
^apcorepo? eV a^pa 7repiypa<pfj r^? Trrepuyof. /Spa^e/a? Se ras TTTfpvo-eis 
Troietrat, Kat dvva/J.iv e^ei (pvaiKrjV aiav Bav^aa^ov. a<pdovov olfjiai TO yevos 
avT&v TTdVTaxov KCLTa TOV ^ei/noova (paivopevov. 

TY'rrrA* opviQdpiw rt, Hesych. 

r' tuyya cj. Bourdelot, ad Heliod. p. 57, sed sine causa fortasse 
(M. Schmidt, ad Hesych.). 

TY'AAI, for tXXas, q. v. A kind of Thrush, Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. 
ii. 65 a. 

TY'flANOI. An unknown bird. 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 oVoKretWi 17 Kop<avr) TOV KaXov/jievov Tvnavov. The 
fact that the Crow is also said to be hostile to op^iXoy and to TrpeV/Sus-, 
gives some ground for supposing that TVTTO.VOS is here a misreading for 

TY'PANNOI. The Gold-crested Wren, Regulus cristatus and igni- 
capillus. (Both species occur in Greece, Von der Miihle, p. 68, 
Lindermayer, p. 96.) Cf. Gk. /3acnAiW>?, Lat. regulus, Fr. 
roitelet, Germ. Zaunkonig, &c. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3> 59^ b TO [JLeyedos /xtxrpcS /uei'icov aKpidos, eari de (poivt- 
KOVV \6<pov tx&V) K.a.1 aXXcoy ei/'^api ro opvi6iov Kai evpvdpov. 

TYTii'* 17 y\avg, Hesych. 

Cf. Plaut. Menaechm. iv. 2, 90 Vim afferri noctuam, quae tutu 

usque dicat tibi? Cf. O. Keller, Lat. Etym., 1893, p. in. 
'YBPI'Z, s. uppis. Probably the Eagle-Owl, Strix bubo', cf. /3piW (for 
pu'as), of which word vfyts is perhaps a corrupt form. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 12, 615 b 17 5' vfipis, (paal 6e Tives elvat TOV avrov TOVTOV 
opvida r< TTTvyyi, OVTOS fjfiepas p.v ov (paiVerai dia TO p,rj {3\fTTfiv o^v, TOS 
de VVKTO.S dijpfvei, &aTTp ol dfTol [cj. Sundevall, ot wroi], Kai /ia^ovrai 8e 
irpos TOV dfTOV OVT(O o~(p68pa &O~T ci/jifpa) \afjLJSdvfo~dai iro\\a.Kts S>vTas t'Tro 
r>v vo/jLeav. TLKTCI p.ev ovv dvo wa, veoTTevei de Kai OVTOS ev TicTpais KOI 
anijXaiois. Hesych. vftpis' opvfov 


'YnAl'ETOI (male -yuTrmero?); also uvj/iaieros, (Boios ap. Anton. Lib.). 
An obscure name for an Eagle or Vulture. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 32, 6l8b TrepKvoTrrepos* opcnrcXopyo* KaXetrai Ka\ 
vTraieros. Boios ap. Anton. Lib. C. 2O KOI eyevero KXetvis //,eV v\^iaifTos' 
OVTOS ecrri devrepos opvidav p.ra TOV aierdr, 8iayv)vai S' ov ^aXeTToV 6 p.ev 
yap eVri vf(3po(f)6vo$ epf/ii>df, p.eyas re Kal a\Kip,os, 6 6* aero? /neXuvrepos Kai 

eKfivov. On this perplexing passage, see Schneider in Arist. I.e. 

'YnOAEAIft'I. A Libyan bird-name, Ar. Av. 65. 

The word is commonly taken as a Comic derivative of 
(cf. Soph. Aj. 169). The five bird-names beginning with the syllable 
VTT- are all obscure, and what little is said about them is replete with 
signs of foreign influence. I am pretty certain that in none of these 
cases does VTTO- mean sub, and for my own part I suspect it to be 
a corruption of a foreign, and probably Egyptian, word or prefix. 

c Yno0YMl'X. An unknown bird. Ar. Av. 302. 

. (MSS. have also un-oX&ns, uiroXXis, uiroXiV uiroXri'ts, Hesych.) 
An indeterminate small bird. Perhaps the Wheatear, Saxicola sp. 
The Cuckoo lays her eggs in its nest, which is on the ground, Arist. 
H. A. viii. 7, 564, ix. 29, 618, Antig. H. Mir. 100 (109), Theophr. De 
Caus. PI. ii. 17, 9. Also in some editions for eViXatV, H. A. vi. 3, 592 b. 
Sundevall suggests the Wheatear, which makes its nest under a stone, 
from a supposed connection with Xaa? ; and the conjecture is supported 
to some extent by the circumstance that the Cuckoo is known some- 
times to use the Wheatear's nest in Greece (Kriiper, p. 184); but the 
derivation is very doubtful. The Orphean Warbler is the bird in whose 
nest the Cuckoo in Greece usually lays its egg, and further the state- 
ments in Aristotle as to the birds in whose nest the Cuckoo lays are 
very untrustworthy. 

'YnOTPIO'PXHZ. A kind of Hawk. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 620 ot 8e TrXarurepot [Schn. and others read 

7T\aTVTTTfpoi] IfpaKCS VTTOTplOpXdl KaXoiVTCll. 

There is nothing by which to identify the name, which indeed seems 
to be to some extent generic. The name subbuteo is traditionally 
applied to the Hobby, which if TrXariWfpos means broad-winged, is, as 
Sundevall remarks, excluded by the epithet. 

<t>ABOTY'nOI, s. {frnpoKToyos, Hesych. A kind of Hawk. Cf. <j>ao-ao- 
<j>6^os, q. v. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3? 59^ b o re (paftorvTros KOI 6 (micas' 
8* OVTOI TO p.yeOos no\v d\\f)\(0v. 


<t>AAAKPOKO'PAE. A bird, commonly identified, on the strength 
of its name (cf. <j>a\apts)j with the Coot; according to others, 
the Cormorant. See also s. v. Kopa, |3. 

Plin. x. (48) 68 lam et in Gallia Hispaniaque capitur [attagen], et 
per Alpes etiam, ubi et phalacrocoraces, aves Balearium insularum 
peculiares. Cf. ib. xi. 47 quaedam animalium naturaliter calvent, 
sicut . . . corvi aquatici, quibus apud Graecos nomen est inde. 

4>AAAPI'I, s. <J>a\T]pi's. (MSS. have also (papaXis.) 

((pdXos, the ' beak ' of a helmet ; $dXapo?, a white spot or ' blaze ' ; 
cf. Germ. Bksshuhn, from Bletz = blaze, Buttm. Lexil. s. v. $dXos : 
the Engl. bald-coot is analogous.) 
The Coot (?), Fulica atra, L. Mod. Gk. <paXapi8a (Heldr.). 

Ar. Ach. 875, Av. 565 r\v 'A^poSiT/; Ovy, Trvpovs opvidi (paXrjpiSi dveiv 
(ubi Schol. r) fie (pa\r)p\s opi/eoV eari Xifj.vaiov cvrrpfires). Arist. H. A. 
viii. 3> 593 h opvis oreyai/oTrouy, /3apurepos* Trept noTafj.ovs KOI XL/JLVUS e'ortV. 
(Mentioned with KVKVOS, J^TTO, KoXup/3i's.) Id. fr. 273, 1527 b aXXarreo-0ai 
a>s T<JDV Koa~a'v(f)a)v KOI ^aX^piScai/ aTroXevKatvonevav Kara Kaipovs. 

Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ix. 395 e fj 8e (f)a\ap\s KCU avrr} o-revbv e^oucra 
TO pvyxps (TTpoyyvXcorepa rr]v ofyiv ouaa, evrecppos rf)v yaorepa, fjn<p<a 
p.\avTepa TO V>TOV. Cleom. ap. Athen. ix. 393 C <pa\^pi8as rapixnpas 
p-vpias. Its mode of capture, Dion. De Avib. iii. 23. Plin. x. (48) 57 
Phalerides in Seleucia Parthorum et in Asia, aquaticarum lauda- 
tissimae; Colum. viii. 15, I ; Varro, R. R. iii. II, 4. 

The identification rests mainly on the modern name, of which 
Sundevall and Aubert and Wimmer seem to have been unaware, and 
is supported by the derivation of the word. Sundevall suggests Mergus 
albelhts, and Aubert and Wimmer also suppose a species of Mergus. 
Gesner, Camus, and other older commentators agree in the identifica- 
tion of Coot. At best the identification is doubtful, and the various 
references perhaps refer to more birds than one. The allusion in 
Athenaeus to ten thousand salted (paXrjpidas is especially puzzling. The 
connexion with Aphrodite in Ar. Av. 565, where we might rather 
have expected some such word as Trepiorepa, is not explained. 

<t>AIIANO'l, s. $a.<<$ ; sc. opyis. 

A Pheasant, Phasianus colchicus, L. Vide also s. v. re'rapos. 

Mnesim. ap. Athen. ix. 387 b o-rravicorepov napeo-riv opvidoav yd\a | 
KOI (jjacnavos aTToreriX/zeVos' KaXcos. 

Ar. Av. 69 ; Nub. 109 (sometimes supposed to refer, in the latter 
passage, to a Phasian horse, cf. Suidas, Lob. Phryn. 460, but not so 
according to Athen. ix. 387 a). 

Agatharch. ap. Athen. ix. 387 C Trept TOV <3>ao-iSos TrorajuoO TOP \6yov 
ypd(pL KOI Tavra' " TrXrjdos 5' opvi&av TO>V KaXovpevav (pacriavnv 


<t>A2IANOI (continued}. 

(poira rpoipi)s X<*P IV Trpo? Tas eK/3oXaff TWV (TTOfjaTcnv " I cf. Lucian, De 
Merc. Cond. 17, Navig. 23. Callix. Rhod. ap. Athen. 1. c. (describing 
the procession of Ptolemy Philad. at Alexandria) efra efpepovro *v 
dyyeiois (paatavoi K.r.X. Cf. Ptolem. ap. Athen. xiv. 654 c (cf. ix. 387 e) 
TO. re T&v (f)ao~iavu>v ) ovs rerdpovs [j. rerpaooi'as] ovop.a^ovo'iv^ [ovs] ou p.6vov 
fK MrjSfias /xereTre/iTrero, aXXa Koi vop,d8as opvidas V7ro/3aXo)i/ eVonjcre 
7rXfj$oy, ooorre KOL o-iTfladaC TO yap /3/>a>/za no\VT\es drro(paivov(riv. avrrj 
f) rov Xa/LtTrporarou /SacriXea)? (pcov^, os oiide fyaaiaviKov opvidos Trore 
yfixrao'dai <u/ioXoy?j(rei/, aXX' axnrep TL Keiju^Xioi/ dvaKei^evov el% rowa'Se 
TOVS opvidas. Arist. fr. 589, 1574 a (Theophr. fr. 179), ap. Athen. 
1. C. roil/ (pao-iavS)!/ ou Kara Xdyoi/ 17 vTTepo^i) ra>y dppevcov, aXXa TroXXcp 
fjieifav. Ulp. ap. Athen. 1. C. eip r;)j/ ayopai' Tropeutfei? a)vf] (pao-iaviKov, 
ov o-vyKaredo/jiai o~ot. Arist. H. A. ix. 49 B, 633 opvis ov TTT^TIKOS aXX' 
eniyeios, KOVHTTIKOS (cf. Arist. fr., and Theophr. fr. ap. Athen. ix. 387 b). 
H. A. V. 31, 557 e> " P-n KOVIWVTOI, 8ia(p6eipovTai VTTO ran/ (pOeipvv. Ib. 
vi. 2, 559 Karecrrry/Lie'i/a ra wa rcoi/ /leXeaypiSooi/ Kat (pao-iav&v (this error 
is repeated by Buffon, Hist. Ois. iv. 78). 

On Pheasants reared by the Indian kings, Ael. xiii. 18. On the 
breeding and rearing of Pheasants, see Pallad. R. R. i. 29, Colum. 
viii. 8, 10. 

For Latin references to the Pheasant as a dainty, cf. Juv. xi. 139 
Scythicae volucres ; Mart. xiii. 45, 72, c. ; Stat. Silv. i. 6, 77, ii. 4, 27 ; 
Manil. Astron. v. 376 ; Suet. Cal. 22 ; Lampr. Alex. Sev. 37 lovis 
epulo et Saturnalibus et huiusmodi festis diebus phasianus ; Capitol. 
Pert. 12 phasianum nunquam private convivio comedit aut alicui misit ; 
Amm. xvi. 5, 3 phasianum et vulvam et sumen exigi vetuit (lulianus) 
et inferri, munificis militis vili et fortuito cibo contentus ; Ambr. 
Hexaem. vi. 5 exquisitum illud et accuratum opipare convivium, 
in quo phasiani aut turturis species apponitur. 

4>AIKA'I. Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. ix. 395 D. Vide s. v. /Sao-icds. 
4>A'IIA, Att. <J>arra. 

A Ringdove or Woodpigeon, Columba palumbus, L. Mod. Gk. 
(pdo-a : L. palumbus s. palumbes. Identical with <|>d\|/, q. v. Some- 
times applied also to the Domestic Pigeon, v. infra. Dim. 
<J>CITTIOI>, Ar. PI. ion, Ephipp. 3, 334 (Mem.). An artificial 
masc. form 4>drros in Luc. Soloec. 7. Used as an illustration 
of the interchange of <ro- and rr, Luc. Jud. Voc. 8. [On the 
interchange of o-, TT, (pdo-o-a, <<ty, (pdpos, cf. J. Schmidt, Philol. 
Anz. xxv. p. 139, 1 88 1.] 

In Homer, only in the compound fao-o-ofpovos : otherwise, first 
in Aristophanes. 



4>AIIA (continued}. 

Description. Arist. H. A. v. 13, 544 b peyio-rov [TO>V 
f) <parra Ian \ cf. fr. 271, 1527 (ap. Athen. ix. 394 a) aXexropoy TO 
*X l > XP^ a S* O-TTOO'IOV. Alex. Mynd. ap. Schol. Theocr. Id. v. 96 rj fj.ev 
(paoxra VTTOKvdveov fX L T *i v Ke(paXr]v Kal paXXoV ye ep.7rop(j)vpov, rS>v 8e 
o<pdaXfja)v XevKfov ovi(>v TO ev avrois /ze'Xav aTpoyyvXov f\i. Arist. H. A. 
ix. 7> 613 ftiayvoovai 8' ov pa&toi/ TYJV 6r)Xeiav Kal TOV appeva, aXX' r) rot? 
fVTos. a>(Ti &' at (parrai iroXvv XP OVOV ' KOI yap eiKoaiv err) KOI 
Kal TpiaKovTa tt>p.p.evai elo~iv, eviai 8e Kal TfTTapaKovra TTJ. 
de yivofjitvav avra)V ol ow^e? av^avovraC aXX' a.TroTp,vov<Tiv oi rpe<f)oi>TS 
(hence (parrot here are tame pigeons). aXXo S' ovSet/ j3Xa7rron-ai eVtS^- 
Xa>ff yrjpao-Kovaai i with this somewhat incredible statement as to 
length of life, cf. ib. vi. 4, 563, Athen. ix. 394 b, Plin. x (32) 52. Arist. 
H. A. ii. 17, 508 b 7rpoAo/3oi> npb TTJS KoiXias e^ouo-t. Ib. viii. 12, 597 b 
curaipovat) K.CLI ov ^i^a^ovai [the contrary stated, viii. 3j 593]' yeXabj/rcu, 
OTO.V re TrapayivavTai Kal TraXij/ orav &pa rj Trpos rrjv avaKop.ibr]v. Ibid. 
1 6, 600 TWV 8e (pa(r<rcov eviai p,ev <pooXov<rti>, eviai ' ov (pooXoixriv, aTre 
S' ap.a rotr ^fXtSdo'tj'. Ib. ix. 49 B, 633 rou /zeV x fi ^ vos i> 
nXfjv fj8rj TTorf fi>8ias eK ^ei/icovos <r(po8pov ycvofj.evr)s efpdeygaro K 
T<a6r) VTTO T&V enneipwv' aXX' orav cap yfvrjrai, Tore apteral <pa>velv : cf. Alex. 
Mynd. ap. Athen. 394 e. Arist. H. A. viii. 18, 601 of avx/uot o-u/i^epova-i 
Kal irpbs Trjv fiXXrjv vyteiav Kal irpbs rovs TOKOVS, Kal oi>x fj<i(rTa rat? (parTais. 
Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. 1. C. ov niveiv <prjo~l rrjv (pd(ro-av avanvirrovaav 
wff rr)v rpvyova. 

Beproduction, Nesting, &c. Arist. H. A. vi. 4, 562 b eVtot (pacrtv oxeu- 
evBai Kal yevvav Kal Tpiprjva ovra, (rrjfjieiov Troiovpfvoi rf)V iroXvTrXrjdeiav avrStv. 
fyKva de yiverai deKa Kal rerrapa? f]p.epas, Kal eVwa^et aXXas 
fv Tpais Se Sexa Kal rerrapai nrfpovvrai oura)S wore p,f) paSioos 
fiavfaOai . . . ovo TLKTOVUII eVi ro TroXu, ra de TrXelcrra rpia* eV rS icapi 
n'/cret, ov nXcovaKis y Si's: cf. vi. I, 558 b, Plin. x. (58) 79, (53) 74. Arist. 
De Gen. iv. 6, 774 b riKrovo-tv areXJ; Kal rv<pXd. H. A. iii. I, 510 6Yai> 
i, ar(p68pa /xeyaXov? lo-^ovo-tv (TOVS opxfis) . . . eooV eVioi o'lovrai 
v X 1 P'^ >VOS PX CLS avra ' JX- 7> 613 f/( ei ^^ T I/ a PP^va f) rpvy&v 
rbv avrbv Kal <parra, Kal aXXov ov 7rpoo~i'ei/rai* Kal fTratdfcovmv dp.<p6Tpoi Kal 
6 apprjv Kal f] BrjXfia. Arist. fr. 271, ap. Athen. ix. 394 b OVK aTroXei- 
TTOVO~I 8' eW davdrov ovrf ol appeves ras ^^Xei'ay, o0re at dfjXeiai TOVS appevas, 
aXXa Kal reXeuri/o'ai'ro? xiP vl vnoXftTrop-evos : cf. Porph. De Abst. iii. II. 
How it places a branch of laurel, Satpv/;, in its nest for a charm, Ael. i. 35, 
Phile, 722, Geopon. xv. i, cf. Plin. viii. (27) 41. How the Cuckoo builds 
in its nest, and the young Cuckoo, assisted by their parents, casts 
out its foster-brothers, Arist. De Mirab. 3, 830 b, Ael. iii. 30. 

In Plat. Theaet. 199 b Xaftclv (paTTav oWl Trepio-repas, is to take 
a wild pigeon for a tame one. Its flesh is mentioned as a dainty, 
Ar. Ach. 1105, 1107 KoXov ye Kal ^avdbv TO Ttjs (paTTrjs Kpeas. Mentioned 


>AIIA (continuecf). 

as coming from Boeotia, Ar. Pax 1104. In Anth. Pal. ix. 71 the oak 
is otK/a (pdTTuv. Its capture is difficult, but is effected by means of 
nets and by the aid of blinded decoy-birds, Dion. De Avib. iii. 12. 

A lover's gift, Theocr. v. 133. The Dim. ^dmcy, used as a term 
of endearment, Ar. PI. IOII vrjTTapiov av KOI (pdmov v7reKopiero : in 
Philip. Obel. fr. ap. Athen. viii. 359 b, a little pigeon, a skinny 

Proverb. Plut. ii. 1077 C (pdrra (pdrTij, as like as two peas. 

Cf. also <f>cty, irepiorepd, &c. 

4>AII04>0'NOI, s. <j>a<rao<j)6i/TY]s. Cf. <J>aj3oTuiros. 
A species of Hawk. 

II. XV. 238 LprjKi COIKWS | co/tei (pa<ro~o(p6v(p. Arist. H. A. ix. 12, 615 b, 
36, 620 f) 8e KUfj-ivSts p.eye6os o<rov ipa 6 (pao-(ro(j)6vos KaXovpevos. Ael. 
Xli. 4 'Ep/zi; TOP (pao~o~o(p6vTT)V aBvpfJ-a clvai (paa/i/. 

Commonly translated Goshawk, i. e. Astur pahtmbarius, L., which 
has moreover a reputation for extreme swiftness : but the Goshawk is 
rare in Greece (Lindermayer, Von der Miihle), and there is no definite 
tradition in regard to the name (Scaliger, in Arist. p. 249 certe pericu- 
losum sententiam suam dicere). The above references are all mystical ; 
cf. s.v. ire'Xeia. 

A Wild Pigeon; almost certainly identical with <J><xor<ra, the 
Ringdove. Cf. 4>a|3oTuTros, <J>ao-ao<|x>vos. 

Apparently distinguished from (pdo-o-a in Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 a, 
15, where however, in the catalogue of pigeon-names, some 
MSS. (Aa, Ca) omit <<ty, and others (Da) (pdrra. In the follow- 
ing line, (pdrra p.ev ovv Kal TrepiaTcpa del (paivuvrai, the MSS. PDa 

read 0<ty, as in Arist. fr. 271, 1527, Athen. ix. 394 a. In Arist. 
ap. Athen. 1. c. there is further confusion in the statements as to 
their size, tpdvo-a and <<ty being apparently cited as different, but 
the passage is corrupt. 

Supposed to be connected with rt. (pop. $e'/3o/A<u, but the derivation 
is as doubtful as its supposed parallel, Tprjpwv, Tpeo>. As var. IL 
(p\dpes, and <p)(dpu>v occur in Arist. passim; cpap&v is specially 
cited in Aesch. Philoct. (fr. 232) ap. Athen. ix. 394 a. 
First in Aesch. fr. Prot. (2) 194, ap. Athen. 394 a (riTovp,evr)v bvarrjvov 

d6\iav 0a/3a, /xecraKra TrXeupa npos TTTVOIS 7TTr\yfJ.fvr)V. 

Description. Arist. H. A. ix. 7, 613 owe dvaKinrrovo-i rrivova-ai (vide 

S. v. (jxiaaa, Athen. ix. 394 c) VCOTTCVOVO-I ev rots avrots TUTTOIS dei. Arist. 

H. A. vi. 8, 564 ^ p-cv 6r]\eia dno SeiXrjs dp^afj.fvrj rrjv re vv\ff o\r)v e7T6)a^t 

Kai ea>s aKpari'oyiaros &pas } 6 6' "tpprjv TO \OITTOV TOV ^poj/ov. Ibid. 7; 5^3 ^j 

N 2 


4>A^ (continued). 

ix. 29, 618. The Cuckoo lays her eggs in its nest (cf. s. v. <|><{a<ra, 
Arist. De Mirab. 3, 830 b). 
Mentioned also Lye. 580. 

EAAl'NAX. An unknown water-bird, mentioned, with epithet ra^vf, 
as being captured in nets, Dion. De Avib. iii. 23. 

4>H'NH. According to Doederlein, connected with (prjvos (= Xaju,7rpo'y), 
<au, (paivco, &c., i.e. having ra o/A/xara XajuTrpa : or according to 
Von Edlinger and others, from root bha-n = </>a>i/eu/. I incline 
to think the word is an exotic, and probably Egyptian, connected 
with (pow, Eg. bennu. 

A kind of Vulture. 

Od. iii. 371 *Adr}vrj | (ptjvrj fldop,evrj. Od. xvi. 2l6 K\alov 8e Xtyecoff, 
dSivooTepov 77 r' olavoi, \ (pf]vai rj alyvniol yap^mwx^ s. Ar. Av. 304. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b aeroC peifav, TO xp/ia o-irodoftftes. Ib. ix. 32, 
619 dfTos 6 yvf)<rtos fjieifav rrjs (prjvijs. Ib. vi. 6, 563, ix. 34, 619 b Kft\r)dtVT(i 
Tp(f)ft ra roO dcTOv reWa (cf. Ambros. Hexaem. V. l8). eVapyejuos- T' eori 
Kal TTfTrrjpwTat rovs 6(j)0a\fjLovs (? 3. reference to the blood-red sclerotic of 
the eye). Its maternal affection referred to (cf. tuyumos, &c.), Opp. 
Hal. i. 727 KOL [it? TIS (pr'jvrfs dftivbv yoov K\vev dvrjp \ opOpiov dfj.(f)l rz 

Arist. De Mirab. 60, 835 a e' aXiniercoi/ (771/77 yiWrat, CK de 
TTfpKVoi Kal yiTres. 

Ael. xii. 4 4>rjvr)V 8e Kat apTTT]v 'A.@rjvq rrpoave/JLovo'iv. 

According to Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. vi, Zeus -metamorphoses the 
wife of Periphas into the bird 0ryi>/7, Kal 81801 rrpos aVao-ai/ npa^iv av^pcoTroi? 
ata-iav enKpaiveadai : cf. Ovid, Met. vii. 399. 

Also ^tJ'i'S, Diosc. ii. 58 (pivis TO opveov, o 'Pttftatari Ka\ovo-iv oo-o-i(ppayov: 
cf. Plin. x. 3. 

Identified by Aldrovandi, Gaza, and by most moderns, with the 
Aquila barbata of Pliny, N. H. x. 3, that is to say with our Lammer- 
geier, Gypaetus barbatits, L., which is accurately described by Dion. 
De Avib. i. 4 under the name fipimj. The Lammergeier is also 
identical with Lat. ossifraga (Plin. 1. c.), a name accurately descriptive of 
its habits, and Lat. sanqualis (Festus, 316,317). The brief description 
in Arist. H. A. viii, inclines Sundevall, Aubert, and Wimmer, to identify 
<pT)vr) with Vultur monachus. The references are in the main poetical 
or mythical, and both the name and the stories of the bird's maternal 
affection seem to me to point to an Egyptian origin. With the stories 
of the Eagle's bastard brood, cf. the Mod. Gk. name /u77XaSeX0t = 
Tfpoda\r)s (Coray,*ATaKra, v. 204), said by Heldreich to be applied 
to Aquila Bonellii. 


4>AErY'AI- 6 derts, Suid. fab gav66s, t&s, Hesych. Cf. Hes. Sc. H. 
134 (vide infra). 

<frAE'EII. An unknown bird. 

Ar. Av. 882. Perhaps connected with (JjXeyuas, a name or ep. of 
jjt6p<J>kos in Hes. Sc. H. 134, where it seems to mean the ' lightning bird/ 
from <p\fy-<D, fulg-eo^ Sk. bharg, to shine. Cf. Steinthal, app. to 
Goldzieher, Myth, of the Hebrews, p. 384 (ed. London, 1877). 

*OINIKO'nTEPOI. The Flamingo, Phoenicopterus antiquorum, L. 

Ar. Av. 271 *EII. OVTOS ov T&V rjdddav TO>I>' o>i/ opaff vfj,f1s del, | d\Xa 
\ifj,valos. TIE. /3a/3at, KaXos ye KOI (froiviKiovs. 'ED. CIKOTMS' KOI yap oVo/z' 
nvrfi> y' eo-ri (froiviKonTepos. This is the only reference to the bird 
in classical Greek, and the identification here is at best doubtful. 
The succeeding reference to the Cock might lead one to suspect that 
under the name Phoenicopterus some bird less unlike the Cock than 
the Flamingo is, was here alluded to : such a bird, for example, 
as Porphyrio hyacinthinus, the Purple Water-hen (vide s. v. Trop^upiwy). 
The question, however, is not capable of settlement. The Flamingo 
occurs in Greece only as a rare straggler, though abundant on the 
opposite coast of Asia Minor (Von der Miihle, p. 118 ; Lindermayer, 
p. 155, c.). Cf. Gesner, H. Anim. lib. iii Mirum est huius tarn pul- 
chrae et eximiae avis nomen ab Aristoteli taceri, cum Aristophanes, 
qui vixit eadem aetate, meminerit ; sed Graecis etiam raram esse hanc 
avem puto. Flamingos were seen, however, by Bory de St. Vincent, 
in the marshes of Osman Aga near Navarino. 

Heliodorus, Aethiop. vi. 3 describes the bird as NeiXyov (powiKOTrrepov : 
and the Scholiast ad Juv. xi. 139 states in like manner, abundans 
est in Africa : it, apparently, is also mentioned as a dainty, by Philostr. 
Vit. Apoll. Tyan. viii. p. 387 (ed. Paris, 1605) as opvts (powiKeos. 

In Crat. Nem. fr.4, ap. Athen. ix. 373 d opvis (poiviKO'irrepos, is probably 
the Cock. 

It has been stated above, s. v. yXwrris, that Belon (Hist, des Oyseaux, 
viii. 8) identified that bird with the Flamingo ; so also did Aldrovandi 
(Ornithol. iii. 20, 4), with as little reason. To the opinion there ascribed 
to Linnaeus, the following words of Gesner should have been sub- 
joined : ego vero iis quas Gallinulas aquaticas nostri vocant avibus 
Glottidem adnumero, quae omnes fissipedes sunt ; cf. also Scaliger 
(in loc. Aristot.) Glottis autem quae sit nondum mihi constat ; ridiculum 
quod quidam de Phoenicoptero ausus est pronuntiare. 

In Latin, references to the Flamingo are frequent and free from 
doubt. Cf. Juv. xi. 139 et Scythiae volucres et phoenicopterus ingens ; 
Martial, Ep. iii. 58, 14 nomenque debet quae rubentibus pennis ; ib. 
xiii. 71 dat mihi penna rubens nomen ; Suet. Cal. 22, c., c. 

' That the Tongue of this Volatile was much commended, and in 


>OINIKOnTEPOI (continued}. 

great Esteem, for its excellent Taste and most delicious Relish, will 
appear from the following Quotations' (Douglass, op. infra cit.) : Plin. 
x. (48) 68 Phoenicopteri linguam praecipui saporis esse, Apicius docuit ; 
Martial, xiii. 71 sed lingua gulosis Nostra sapit : quid si garrula lingua 
foret ? cf. also Sueton. Vitell. xiii. The brain was also a tid-bit, and 
Heliogabalus (Lamprid. 20, p. 108) exhibuit Palatinis dapes extis et 
cerebellis Phoenicopterorum refertas. Receipts for the cookery of 
Flamingos are given (without mention of the tongue) by Apic. (?) De 
Re Coquin. vi. 7. I am inclined to believe that such costly indulgences 
of the palate were often determined by obscure superstitious motives 
(as are many Chinese luxuries) rather than by real or imaginary 
refinements of taste. Nevertheless the Flamingo's tongue is said to 
be still appreciated: cf. Von der Miihle, Ornithol. Griechenlands, 
p. 118 Ein franzosischer Schiffscapitain brachte mir einige von Smyrna, 
wo sic sehr haufig sind, und von den Jagern den Englandern zum 
Verkaufe angeboten werden, welche die dicke fleischige Zunge als 
teckerbissen verzehren. Cf. (int. al.) the interesting paper by 
Dr. J. Douglass in Phil. Trans, v. p. 63, 1721. 

<l>OINl'KOYPOI. The Redstart, Luscinia phoenicurus, L., and L. tithys 
(Scop.). Mod. Gk. KOKKivoKaXos, yiawaKos, KaXavrtfjs (Bike'las). 

Arist. H. A. ix. 49 B, 632 b ; Plin. x. (29) 44 ; vide s. v. epiOaicos. Cf. 
also Geop. xv. i, 22. 

E s. <f>otVi|. The Phoenix, an astronomical symbol of the 

Egyptians. Eg. bennu. 

First in Hes. Fr. 50, 4. 

Herod, ii. 73 eon e xai aXXos opvis tpd?, rw OVVO/JLO. (poling' eyaj p,ev /UP 
OVK eidoi/, ei p.Yj oo~ov ypa(pfj' /ait yap drj KOI orrrdvios enKpoira o~<pi } Sia ereav 
(a>s 'HXiovTroXtrai Xeyovo~i) 7rfVTaKoo~ia>v. (potrav Se Tore (petal, eVecif ot 
airoOdvy 6 iraTrjp. fort Se, (I rfj ypa(pfj ira.p6p.oios, T0o~6o~8f KCU TOiocrSe' ra 
p.fv avrov xpvo~oKOfj.a T>V Trrep&v, ra de epvdpd' es ra /xaXiara aierw Trepirj- 
yrjo~iv o/ioidraros, <ai TO p,eyados. TOVTOV de \eyovo~i p-rj^avaadai rae, e'/zoi 
p.V ov TTKrra \tyovT6S. e 'Apaftirjs 6pp.ea>p.evov cs TO ipbv TOV 'HXi'ou 
Ko/j.ieiv TOV Trarepa ev o~p.vpvr] ejU7rXa(T(roj/ra, ai Qcmrew fv TOV 'HXt'ou r< 
fpw. K0p,iciv de OVTO>' npayrov, TTJS ap.vpvr)s woi/ rrXao-o-etv oo-ov re Swaros 
eVri (pepeiv' /iera 5e irfipa<r6ai avro (^ope'oi/ra' fireav de diroireipijdf}, ovrw 
drj KOiXfjvaVTa TO o)dr, TOV Trartpa es avro evTtOevcu, o~p.vpvr) 5e aXXfl e/i7rXacr- 
(reiv rovro Kar* o rt roi) woO eKKoiXrjvas evedrjKf TOV Trarepa' e'o-Ketfievov de TOV 
TTarpos 1 yiveo~0ai rcouro (Bdpos' e/i7rXao*ai/ra 8e K0p.ieiv p.iv eV AiyvTTTOV es 
TOV 'HXiou ro ipov. Cf. Ael. vi. 58, Philostr. Vit. Apollon. Tyan. iii. 49, 
p. 135 (Olear.), Antiph. Com. iii. 96 fv 'HXi'ou p,ev (pao-i yiyveadai TrdXet 
(poiviKas, ev 'kOyvais de yXavKas. Artemid., Suid., Ovid, Metam. xv. 
392, &c. 


4>OINI= (continued}. 

An Indian version, Dion. De Avib. i. 32 OK^KOCI 6V, as -rrapa rots 'li/Soi? 
opvis fir) yovecov a.Tep KOI p,it-ea>s %<apis v(pio~Tdfji,vos ) (po"ivi rovi/o/ua, KOI (Siovv 
(f)ao~iv eVi rr\elo~Tov Kal p.era 7rdo~r)$ dfpofiias avTov, u>s ovre TO$~QIS ovre \i6ois 
ovre Ka\d[jLOLS T) TTiiyctis Tav dvSp&v TI KOT' avTutv Troielv neipafjievwv. *O Se 
Qdvaros avra> TTJV dpx^jv iroiel rrjs <orjs' ty yap nore yrjpdaas yrpo? ras 7rr?ycrei? 
favrov "idy vco0<TTfpov, rj ras avyas rS>v o^ardnv e'Xao-o-ovfievas 1 , e'<' vtyrjhrjs 
TTtrpas Kapfprj trvXXe^a? nvpdv nva rrjs reXeuT^f, rj Ka\iav (rWTiQijfft rrjs 
, f)v eV /Lteaa) Ka6r)fj,evov TOV (poiriKos r] TO>V rjXiciKcov UKTIVOOV KarcKpXeyei 
OVTO) de dicKpOapfvros avrov vfos CK rrjs Te<ppas avdis erepoj 
yiverai (polvig KOI rols Trarpows edeai ^pfjrai, wore vrro TTJS fjXiaKrjs povov 
avyijs, Trarpos re Kal fir/Tpos X^P lf ) T v P VLV yivfadai TOVTOV. Cf. Physiol. 
Syr., c. xvi (who adds that the Phoenix builds its nest in the month 
Pamnuth, s. Faminoth, a Coptic word); Epiphan. in Physiol. c. xi, 
Eustath. Ant., p. 29 (ed. Lugd. 1677), Pseudo-Hieronym., p. 219 (ed. 
Venet. 1772). 

Chaeremon, fr. 16 eVmuroV (poivit-. Horap. i. 34 ijXtou e'orij* 6 (poivig 
... tyvxriv Se evravda iroXvv XP VOV Swrpipovo-av /3ovXo/xej/oi 
i) r) ir\rjfj.p,vpav, (poiviKa TO opveov a)ypa<povcriv I ibid. 35 Ka ^ T v 
e OTTO evr]$ eViS^//.o{!j/ra 8r)\ovvTs, vraXti' (poiviKa TO opveov icoypa- 
<povo-iv : ib. ii. 57 aTro/caraoracriz/ Se TroXv^pdj/ioi/ /3ouXo/xei/ot o-T]/jLrjvai, 
(poiviKa TO opveov a)ypa<povo~iv' eKelvos yap ore yevvaTai, a7TOKarao"racris 

A symbol of long life, Prov. i)i /ni) (poiviKos CTTJ ^to>a-?7, Luc. Hermot. 53 
C 1 ? 793) 5 c f- Jb xxix. 18, where for sand read Phoenix. 

Cf. also Nonnus Dion. xl. 394 /mi ^uXa Krj&evra (pepwv 
rdpo'co | ^iXter/;s o~o(pos opvis eV ei>68fjL(o o~eo /3co/zca | (polvi, Teppa 
avrocnropov apxfa I TiKrerat, IO-OTVTTOIO XP OVOV Trd\w ayperos CLKWV \vo~as 
& ev rrvpl yr/pas, afulfkmu eK nvpbs fjfirjv. See also the Phoenix of 
Claudian; Auson. Id. xi; Ovid, Met. xv. 402; Senec. Ep. xlii ; Pompon. 
Mela, iii. 9 ; Lactant. (?) Carm. Phoenice ; Lucian, iii. 27, 276, 350 ; 
Solin. Polyhistor. c. 36 ; Clem. Rom. Ep. i ad Corinth, c. 24, p. 120, &c. 

Late apparitions of the Phoenix, Plin. x. 2 ; Tacit, vi. 28 ; Dio C. Ivii ; 
Suidas ; Tzetz. Chiliad, v. 6. A new Phoenix-period is said to have 
commenced A. D. 139, in the reign of Antoninus Pius; and a recru- 
descence of astronomical symbolism associated therewith is manifested 
on the coins of that Emperor. 

Various remedies were to be obtained from its nest, Plin. xxix. 9 
(Irridere est vitae remedia post millesimum annum reditura monstrare). 

For further references, oriental and classical, see Bochart, Hieroz. ii. 
coll. 8 1 8, 849. 

On the Phoenix as an astronomical symbol of a cyclic period, see 
(int. al.) Marsham, Canon. Chron. p. 9, 387 ; Creuzer's Symb. i. p. 438, 
ii. p. 163 ; Lewis, Astr. of Anc., p. 283 ; Kenrick's Egypt of Herod., 


4>OINI= (continued}. 

p. 100 ; Larcher's Herod, ii. p. 320 ; Encycl. Metrop., Art. Herodotus 
(8vo ed.), p. 249; Drummond in Class. Journal, xiv. 319; Ideler, 
Enchir. Chron. Math. i. p. 186. See the Bhagavad Gita, viii, for an 
account of the similar cyclical 'day and night of Brahma.' For a 
corresponding Chinese tradition, see Martini, Histor. Sinica, cit Coray 
ad Heliod. p. 201 ; Creuzer, Symb. ii. 164 ; on the Persian account, cf. 
Dalberg, 'Simorg, der Persische Phonix,' in Von Hammer's Fundgruben 
des Orients, i. p. 199. See also Henrichsen, De Phoenicis fabula apud 
Graecos, Romanos, et populos orientales, Hafniae, 1825, 1827. 

In Aristid. ii. p. 107 (Jebb) the Phoenix is called 'li/St/coc 6'pi/is. 

For representations of the Phoenix, see Jomard's Descr. de l'g. 
Antiq. i. c. 5. 

The Phoenix has been taken by Cuvier, Lenz, and others, for the 
Golden Pheasant, a coarse materialising of a mythic symbol (Hehn). 
On the study and interpretation of such sacred enigmas of the ancients, 
see Grote's Hist. i. c. 16. 

The subject deserves to be studied under many heads ; for example, 
the varying terms assigned to the Phoenix-period, and the various 
astronomical cycles thereby indicated ; the relation of the Phoenix to 
the Palm-tree (Eg. bennu = $oivi TO opveov, benne <poli>i TO devdpov, 
Lauth, Sitzungsber. Bayer. Akad., 1876, p. 94) in connexion with the 
whole symbolic imagery of the latter ; the relation of the Phoenix to the 
Heron (Lauth, I.e.; cf. supra s.v. |3aiTJ6), involving also the depicting 
of the Soul as the Phoenix and the question of the term assigned to the 
Soul's wanderings. The whole subject is of great complexity, and lies 
beyond the scope of this book. 

4>PYn'AOI. An unknown bird, obscurely referred to in Ar. Av., with 
a play on the word 'Phrygian'; 763 cppvyiXos opvis tv6a$ eo-rai, 

TOV 3>i\r)fJiovos yevovs '. and 873 <ppvyi\fd 2a/3ai'<u. I conjecture it 

to be a form cognate to TrepyoCW, <nre'pYouXos, &c., and to mean 
a Sparrow ; in which case <ppvyi\o> 2a/3a'&> is an exact parallel to 
o-TpovQa peydXrj p.r)Tpl 6ewv. Supposed also to be connected with 

<l>PYNOAO'roi, s. <f>pui/oX6xos (<j>pvvrj, a toad). 

A kind of Hawk, probably a species of Harrier, Circus sp. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 36, 620 ot 8e Xetoi KCU ol (ppvvoXoyoi' OVTOI eL>/3ia>raroi 
KCU x&i/iaXoTrrJjrai. Vide S. v. eXeios. 

Of the various hawks that feed on reptiles, the epithet ' low-flying ' 
seems best applicable to the Harriers. 

, Hesych. 


<KTy=. (MSS. have <a>u, 6S>vg, Aid. and Camus $ou, Schn. 7ro>i>. 

7ro>uy in Anton. Lib. c. 5; Et. M.) 

A bird of the Heron kind ; supposed to be a name for the Bittern, 
but equally applicable to the Common Heron. 

Arist. H. A. ix. 18, 617 of pev ovv epeoSiot TOVTOV j3iov<ri TOV rporrov, f] 8e 
KaXovp-evr) (p&vf; i'dtoi/ e^et Trpos raXXa' /zaXicrra yap eo~Tiv 6<pda\p.o(36pos 
T&v opvid&v. 7ro\ffj.ios 8e rfj apTrr), Kal yap fKeivrf 6[j,oioftioTOS. 

Boios ap. Anton. Lib. 1. C. 17 8e BovXis eyeWo 7ro>t>y, Kal avrfj rpocpyv 
edtoKfV 6 Zevs fj.rjo'ev CK yijs (pvouevov, dXXa ((rOieiv ofpda'^p.ovs LX^VOS rj opvidos 
f) o(pfo>S) on e/xeXXef AlyvTrnov TOV TratSos d(pe\ecrOai ras o^eis. Etym. M. 
Haivyyes, at aWvtai, al K\r]delcrai /3oCyyes, irapa TTJV ftorjv Ka\ Ivyrjv. 

XAAKIAIKO'Z' cldos aXfurpvovos, Hesych. Vide S.V. aXeKTpucji', p. 24. 

XAAKI'I. Vide supra, s. v. KU'JU 

XAPAAPIO'I. A bird conjectured to be the Thick-knee or Norfolk 
Plover, Charadrius oedz'cnemus, L., Oedicnemus crepitans, auctt. ; 
so identified by Gesner, followed by Sundevall, Aubert and 
Wimmer, &c.. Mod. Gk. rovp\i8a (Erh.). Applied by the 
LXX. to Heb. ns3N. The derivation from ^apaSpa is more 
than doubtful. 

Ar. Av. 265 es rr]V \6xfj,r)v | f/J.j3as eVw^e, ^apaSptov fJ.ifJLOVfj.fvos I ib. 1 14! 
ot ^apaSptot KCU raXXa Trora/xt' opvea. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b, mentioned with Xapos, KCTT^O?, aWvia. Ib. 
ix. 11,615 Tas S' oUrjo-eis of fj.ev 7rep\ ras ^apaSpay Kai ^?;pa/xovff noiovvrai 
Kal nerpas, olov 6 Ka\ovfj.evos ^apaSptds* eWi S' 6 ^apaSptoy Kat TTJV xP oav 
Kal TTJV (pavrjv (pav\0f } (paiverai Se i/^Krcap, r}fj.epas 5' a7roSiSpao~/<ei. 

Proverb, x a p<*8piov fiiov ^j/, of a glutton, Plat. Gorg. 494 B (ubi Schol. 
opvis TIS os afia rco iffOitai c/dtpufi). 

Is killed by cio~<pa\TOf } Ael. vi. 46. TrtTrrei ^apaSptos nrai/ou o'Trno'af, 
Phile, De An. Pr. 673. 

According to Boios ap. Anton. Lib. c. xv, Agron is metamorphosed 
into the bird ^apaSptoy, the other characters in the story turning into 
various other nocturnal birds. 

The sight of it is said to cure the jaundice, the bird catching it itself 
through the eyes ; hence aTroo-rpe^erat TOVS txreptSj/ray, KCU ra op/nara 
o-uyAcXetVas e'x ft - [From which we may conjecture that the experiment 
has never been fairly tried. W. H. T.] Plut. Symp. ii. 68 1 c, Ael. 
xvii. 13. See also Suidas (and Schol. in Ar. Av. 267) Xapabpios. 
opveov, els ov aTro/SXe^ai/Tes, a>s Xdyor, of iKTepiavTes paov a7raXXaTTOi>rai* 
odev Kal a7roKpviTTov(nv avrovs of irnrpdo'KOVTes, Iva fjirf TTpotxa ax^eXcoirat of 
KapvovTes. "Kal fj.^v KaXvnTfi, fj.S>v ^apaSptov Ttepvas ;" OVTWS 
Kal Trapoijui'a evrevdev, XapaSptoi/ /it/iou/zej/oy, eVl TG>J> 


XAPAAPI02 (continued}. 

OVTWS Ev(f)povios. fTTfl yap rovs iKTfpiwvras &>0eXet 6 xapaftpibs 6(p6eis, 
Kal rovrov ol TTfpv&vTfs KpinrrovcriV) Iva JUT) Trpo TOU wvrjcraa'daL TIS ladfj 
Trepte'pyws. etrri Se fldos opveov /ueTa/3ctXXdp,ei/oi/ els ra irpOKeipeva, K.r.X. Cf. 

In these mythical stories, with which compare Physiol. Syr. xv 
(volucris tota alba, nee ulla in ea nigredo est : reperitur in regum 
palatiis), Epiphan. in Physiol. xxiii, Eust. Hex. p. 32, Bochart, ii. p. 340, 
we have to do with eastern tales of the Stork, Heb. chasad (Lev. xi. 19, 
Deut. xiv. 1 8) arising from a confusion of names. 

In Babr. Ixxxii (Ixxxviii, W. G. R.) Cod. Ath. has x a P a &P l s f r 
daXXos : the word is here perhaps a corrupt connexion of 
It. calandra, which occurs in Dion. De Avib. iii. 15. Cf. W. H. 
Thompson's note on Plat. Gorg. I.e. 

XEIAfTNEX* TCOV d\(KTpv6v<*v nves, Hesych. Cf. s. v. icdXXwy. 

XEAIAH'N. Etymology very doubtful. Cf. Lat. hirundo, Sp. golon- 
drina, &c. Supposed by some to be from Sk. rt. har, ' to catch 
or seize,' cf. Lat. hir-udo, a view somewhat akin to one much 
older, Isid. Orig. xii. 7 hirundo dicta est, quod cibos non sumat 
residens, sed in acre rapiat escas et edat. 

A Swallow. The Chimney Swallow, Hirundo rustica, and the 
House Martin, H. urbica. Mod. Gk. xeXtdovi. See also s. vv. 
airous, SpeTrayis, KuvJ/eXos, KwnXds. 

Dim. x^&oi'i&eu's, Eust. 753. 56 : x c ^ l &4" lo| 'i Galen, xiv. 386 : 
XeXi&oyis, Anth. Pal. vi. 160, vii. 210, &c. A Swallow-chick is 
called poo-xos x<Xt8o'i>oy, Achae. ap. Ael. vii. 47, or opraXixos (q. v.), 
Opp. Hal. v. 579. 

In Homer, Od. xxi. 411 f] S' wro Ka\bv aeto-e, xeXi&w elKe\r) avdqv (of 
the bow of Ulysses), xxii. 240 \^Adr)vrj] c^er' araia(ra, ^eXiSort eiKeXrj 

avrrjv : cf. Plut. Is. and Osir. xvi, ii. 357 C, where Isis turns by night 
into a Swallow. 

Epithets and Phrases. moXo'Setpo?, Nonn. Dion. xii. 76. 'Ar0t 
Kopa, fj.e\i6 'perrre , XaXo? XaXoi* dp7raacra | r/TTtya (and Other epithets), 
Even, xiii, Gk. Anth. i. 98. dva-yap.cs, Lucian, Traged. 49. 
eXiSot, Anacr. fr. 57 ap. Hephaest. vii. 39. 4, p. 22. 
\ deivbv eVt/Spe/xerai j QpyKia ^6Xi8toi/, Ar. Ran. 679-68 1. XaXo?, 
Arrian, Nonnus, Babr. govdrj, Babr. Fab. cxviii (cf. Rutherford's note, 
and vide supra, s. v. iTnraXeKTpuwi/). 6p6poy6i], Hes. Op. et D. ii. 186. 
optfpoXaXo?, Philip, xviii, Gk. Anth. ii. 200. navdiovis, Hes. I.e. ; Sappho, 
p. 88 (Bergk) ; freq. in Anthol. nedoiKos, Aesch. fr. 45 ap. Hesych. 


XEAIAflN (continued). 

, irondXos, Ar. Av. 1411 (cf. Alcaeus, fr. 84, ap. Schol.). 

os, Anth. ^oi/SdX^Trror, Lye. 1460. 
Description. Arist. H. A. vi. 5, 563, viii. 3, 592 b opvis <rapKo(payo9. 
Ib. iii. 12, 519 povoxpoos. Ib. i. I, 487 b, ix. 30, 68 o/zotoy TW wro&r cvnrepos 

Kal KdKOJTOVS. Ib. IX. 3O, 6l8 TT]V KvfjfJLtJV OVK 6^61 ScKTeldV. Ib. ii. IJ , S9 ^ Tf 

TOV 0-Top.axov ovre TOV irpuXofiov X eL cvpvv, aAXa TTJV Koi\iav paKpav. Ib. ii. 1 5, 
506 b npos Tols fVTepois e^ei r n v X^*l v - The Swallow is said, like the 
Nightingale, to have no tongue, Acs. Fab. 416, &c. 

West and Reproduction. Arist. H. A. ix. 7, 6l2 b (TvyKaTcnrXeKei yap 
Tols Kap(j)o~i TrrjXoi/* Kav drropiJTai TrqXoC, /3pe^ov(Ta avTrjv KoXivfte'iTat ro'is 
TTTfpols Trpos Tr]i> Koviv. TL 5e <rn/3ao7roieiTai Kaddirfp of avdpunoi, ra cr/cX^pa 
Trpcora viroTiQtlcra KCU TW /zeye^et (Tvp.p,Tpov noiov<ra -rrpos avrrjv. Trepl re 
TTJV rpofprjv To>v TfKvoav (Kiroveirai afj.(poTpa' SI^<B(TI S' exarepa) dta.TTjpovo'a. 
TIVI <rvvr)6fia TO 7rpoetXr/(pop, OTTCO? ^17 51? \dj3rj. Kai rfjv KOTTpov TO p.^v 
7rp5)Tov avTal eK^d\\ov(nv t OTO.V S' av^rjOSxri, p.eraa'rpe^oi'ras' e^o> 8i8acr/<oi;(rt 
rouff vfoTTovs irpoievm. (This accurate account evidently refers in par- 
ticular to the House Martin.) Cf. Ael. iii. 24, 25, Antig. Mirab. 37 (43), 
Plut. De Soil. An. ii. 966 d. Arist. H. A. vi. 5, 563 p.6vov ro>z/ o-apK.o<pdyav 
dls veoTTvi. The nests of the Swallow, House Martin and Sand Martin 
are adequately described by Plin. x. (33) 44. 

Phile, De An. Pr. (20) 454 evavTiav Se $curi TJJ TWV opveav, TTJV p,iiv 
avT&v evpedrjvai KCU ^evrjv. 

For poetic references see (int. at.) Ar. Av. 1151 (which quotation is, 
however, by a recent emendation, no longer apt : cf. Rutherford, Class. 
Rev. 1891, p. 90) ; Antip. Sid. Ixiii, Gk. Anth. ii. 23 ^eXtSoi/, /nT/repa 
TCKV&V | apTi (re 6d\irov(rav TraiSa? vrro Trrepvyi : Agath. Ivii, Gk. Anth. 
iv. 23 eVtrpu^ei 8e ^eXiSeoi', | KapfacrL KO\\TJTOV Trrj^ap.ei'r] fldXapov I Theaet. 
Schol. ii, Gk. Anth. iii. 214 KOI (pi\6jrais VTTO yeicra dopovs Tevt-ao-a 
^eXi^coi/ | e<yova ir/yXo^roi? geivodoKel ^aXajLtoI? : Marc. Argent, xxiv, Gk. 
Anth. ii. 248 fjdrj KOI (piKoreKvos VTTO rpauXottri ^eXiScor, | ^eiXecri Kap<piTi]v 
7rrj\odofjifl ddXapov l Anth. Pal. X. 2 rjdrj de TrXacrcrci p,ev V7r<i)po<pa yvpa 
o'lKia. Nonn. Dion. ii. 132 Kal poftov dyyeXXovtra KOI dvde- 
tparqv | eVo-o/uat elapivolo (pi\rj Ze(f>vpoio ^eXi8a>j', | (pQeyyopevrj, 
XaXoy opvLS, VTTWpocpirjs p,e\os r)Xv f i I PX 7 ?fy l< P VTepoevTi nepLaKaipovcra 
KaXirjv: cf. ibid, xlvii. 30. Opp. Hal. i. 729 ^e KCU ciapivfjcri ^eXiSdo-ty 
cyyvs eKVpfre p,vpop.evais ea Tewa, rare (r(pio~t \rjto~o~avTo | e^ evvrjs rj 

(pS>Tfs dnr)Vs rje dpaKovres : cf. ibid. v. 579. See also the Fable of the 
Nightingale and the Swallow, Babr. xii (ed. Rutherford). 

Migration. Arist. H. A. viii. 16, 600 (pwXovo-i de TroXXol KCU T>V opvi- 
Qwv, Kal ov% &s Ttves otorrotj els dXfeivovs TOTTOVS direpxovra.1 TrdvTfS' aXX* 01 
p,v iT\T)a'iov ovTfs ToiovTow TOTTWV, fv ols del 8ia/zej>ovcn, KOI IKT^VOI Kal 
^cXiSdj/e? a7ro^copoO(rti/ evTavda, ol fie Troppcorepw ovres TO>V TOIOVTGDV OVK 
KTOTriov(Tiv dX\a Kpv7TTOV<riv cavTOvs. fjdr] yap wp-fievai TroXXat ^ 


XEAIAflN (continued}. 

i(rli> ev dyyet'ois e^tXcD/iei/ai Tra/iTrai/. Cf. Plin. x. (24) 34 in vicina abeunt 
apricos secutae montium recessus, inventaeque iam sunt ibi nudae atque 
deplumes ; Claudian, Eutrop. i. 118 Vel qualis gelidis pluma labente 
pruinis Arboris immoritur trunco brumalis hirundo. In reference to 
the migration, see also Aesch. fr. 48 nedoiKos (i. e. 
Arch, xxvi, Gk. Anth. ii. 86 alav o\r)v VTJVOVS re 
The Swallow as the bird of returning Spring : Hes. Op. et D. 568 (ii. 
1 86) TOV 8e' opdpoyoT] Hav$iov\s wpro ^eXiScov | es (pdos avdp&Trois, eapos 
veov iarajj-evoio. Simon. 74 (l2l) ap. Schol. Ar. Av. 1410 ayyeXe K\vra 
eapos ddvodpov, \ Kvavea ^eXifiot. Stesich. fr. 45 (Bergk) ap. Eust. II. IO. 
I oTav rjpos oopa K.e\a8fj ^fXificoi/. Ar. Pax 800 v/zi/eiv, orav rjpivd p.ev (puvfj 
XaSry. Id. Eq. 4^9 o"/ce\^ao"^e rraldes' ov% 6pa$' | eopa 
Id. Av. 714, &c. Ael. i. 52. Babr. 131. Cf. Ovid, Fasti, 
ii. 853 Fallimur an veris praenuntia venit hirundo : Hor. Ep. i. 7, 13, 
&c. Cf. also a well-known vase (first figured in Mon. Inst. Corr. 
Archeol. ii. pi. xxiv) with the inscription 'iSou x^tSd)f. NJ? TOV 'HpaxXea. 
Avr^r. "Eap fjdr). 

How the Swallows come with the wind xeXiSoiuas or Favonius,Theophr. 
H. P. vii. 15, i, Plin. ii. 47. 

Artemid. p. 1 53 orav Se ro cap TrapajSaX?; Trpurr} irpoveiaiv' ws av e'irroi 
diroSeiKviiovcra TWV epyw eKaora, Kai orav ye (paivrjTai oi/SeTrore e(rjrepas 
aSet, dXX' eoidev T]\IOV dvl(r)(OVTOs ovs av 5>VTas KaraXa/i/Sapoi {jTrofMifivfj- 
o-Kovo-a T>V epyoav : cf. Nonn. Dionys. iii. 13 /ecu Xiyup^, /tiepoTreo-o-i crvvea- 
rios, etapi Krjpvt;, \ opOpiov virvov cipepve XaXos rpu^oucra ^eXiScov | dvrKpavrjS I 
Apul, Florid, ii. 13 cantum hirundinibus matutinum ; &c., &c. 

Hence invoked at the Spring festival of the Thesmophoria : Ar. 
Thesm. I o> Zev, ^eXiScbi/ apa nore (pavf/aerat : cf. Ar. fr. 499 rrvdov x c Xt5cbj/ 
TTY]VLK arra (paiverai (Eratosth. ap. Schol. Plat. p. 371 ; vide also Suid. 

S. V. ttTTa). 

How the Swallow is visible in Egypt all the year, Herod, ii. 22, 
Pausan. x. 4, 9 ; but never stays to nest in Daulis, the country of Tereus, 
Pausan. 1. c. Neither does it visit Thebes, quoniam urbs ilia saepius 
capta sit ; nor Bizya, in Thrace, propter scelera Terei, Plin. iv. (n) 18, 
x. (24) 34 ; it goes, however, to rap Karca e^as, Babr. Fab. cxxxi. 

On Swallows used as messengers, Plin. x. (24) 34. 

Proverb. p,[a ^eXiScbi/ cap ov Troicl, Arist. Eth. Nic. i. 6. 1098 (from 
Cratin., according to Cramer, An. Par. i. 182) ; cf. Ar. Av. 1417. 

The Rhodian Swallow Song, x e ^ l &o i/ta J JLa > sung in the month Boe- 
dromion (?), Athen. viii. 360 c ^X0', rjXde x*XiS&>i/, | K a\as a>pas ayova-a,\ 
KaXovs eviavrovs, \ eVi yaorepa \evKii, \ eVt va>ra peXaiva \ . . . avoiy avoiye \ 
TCLV Bvpav ^eXiSdi/i* | ov yap yepovre's \ eVftej/, dXXa TratSt'a : emended by 
Ilgen, Opusc. Phil. i. p. 165, Bergk, P. Lyr. iii. p. 671. Cf. Eustath. 
1914, 45- 

XEAIAflN 189 

XEAIAflN (continued}. 

In Sappho, fr. (52) 88 rl /*e Uav8inv\s wpdva xeXt8o>i>, we have perhaps 
a fragment of a ' Swallow-song.' This difficult line is variously read 
and interpreted : Hesychius gives <u 'pdvva xfXiSo>i>- opocpfj, but the gloss 
is, in my opinion, fragmentary and meaningless : Bergk, after Is. 
Vossius, reads S>"pawa ; I venture to suggest &pa vea, as in Ar. Eq. 419, 
which latter line is itself probably a fragment of a Swallow-song. 
Another fragment of a Swallow-song perhaps exists in Horn. Carm. 
Min. XV. 1 1 vevfj-ai rot, i/eu/zcu eViavtnoy, wore ^eXiScov | earrjK ev irpodvpois 
^/t\T) Tj-dSay. In the Rhodian Swallow-song already referred to, two very 
curious features are the alternate balance or ' parallelism ' of successive 
lines and the apparent influence of accent on rhythm : the text has 
been much emended by commentators, in order to obtain a more 
accurate scansion than the song ever, perhaps, possessed. It is easy to 
suggest yet other emendations : for instance in 11. 17, 18 av drj (pepys rt, \ 
pey av rt drj tpepoio seems better than the common reading p.eya 8rj rt. At 
the very best some of the lines (in their present state) seem to have little 
rhythm and not much sense. 

A modern ^fXefidi/ia-p-a, Fauriel, Chants de la Grece mod., i. p. xxviii 
^fXiSoj/a e'p^erai | aV TTJV a&Trprjv 6d\a<T(Tav' | Ka6r)(re /cat XaX?7<re. | Mapr?7, 
Mdprr) p.ov KaXe | Kai <p\i@dpr] <p\if3fp \ K av ^iort'o-7/y, K av Trovricrrjs TraXe 

According to Bent (Cyclades, 1885, p. 434) the Swallow-song is still 
sung in Kythnos (Thermia) and in Macedonia, on March I. Cf. 
Grimm, D. Myth. p. 723 ; Swainson, Prov. Names of British Birds, 
p. 50, &c., &c. Cf. also the Kopdmafxa, supra, s. v. 

A Melancholy Bird. The myth of Itylus. Agath. xii, Gk. Anth. 
IV. 8 d/jLCpiTrepiTpv^ovari ^eXiSoyfy, cs 6' e/xe 8d<pv \ jSaXXouo-t. . . . aXX' 
"\TV\OV K\aioiT Kar oupea, Kal yodoire \ tis enoiras KpavafjV av\iv e'0e^o/nej/at. 
Mnasalc. ix, Gk. Anth. i. 125 rpavXa purvpoft&a, Havdiovl rrap6(Vf, <pa>vq\ 
Trjpeos ov QffjiiToov d^apeva Xe^ecav. | TITTTC jrava/iepioj yndeis dva 5ai/>ia 
X\td6v : Anth. Pal. ix. 57 Uavdiovl xa/z/xope Kovpa, \ p-vpo^fva : Mosch. iii. 
39 ovde TOCTOV dprjvrjcrfv dv wpea paKpd ^eXiScoi/. Nonn. Dion, passim, 
&c., &c. 

The Itylus-myth has been already discussed s. vv. drjEwc and eiro\|r. 
In the association together of the Swallow and the Nightingale, a curious 
feature is the similarity of the poetical epithets applied to both. The 
epithet Ilavdiovis, and the inclusion of Pandion in the myth, whatever 
they may exactly mean, seem to me to have something to do with 
the festival of the Jlai/fita, which took place at Athens /xero ra Aiovvaia 
(Photius) ; that is to say, at or near the Vernal Equinox, and not far 
from the time when the xeXi6cmo>ia is still sung. The statement of 
Photius that Ilavdia is a name for the Moon, is also of great interest, 


XEAIAflN (continued}. 

especially in connexion with the Swallow's relation towards the un- 
doubtedly solar e7ro\^. 

Deprived of Sleep. Hesiod ap. Ael. V. H. xii. 20 ryv Se 
OVK cs TO Trai/reXes dypvirvelv KOI TavrrjV) aTroftefiXrjKevai 8e TOV VTTVOV TO 
fjfjiio~v' Tip.o)piav 8e apa ravrrjv KTLVOVO~I 8ia TO Trddos TO ev QpaKT] KararoX- 
p.rj6ev TO es TO delnvov eKeli/o TO adeo-fj-ov. Cf. Himerius, Orat. iii. 3, p. 432 
d<pir]fj.i de KOL rat? ^eXtSoai raty 'Arrt/cais TOV pvdov fKelvov TOV QpqKiov. 

Other Myths and Legendary Allusions. How the mother brings to 
her young, being blind at first, sight by means of a certain herb 
(xeXidoi/ioj/), for which men have often sought in vain ; Ael. ii. 3, iii. 24, 
Phil. 20. Cf. Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 508 b, VI. 5, 563 TUV oe i/eorroii/ av TLS 
en veaiv OVTW TTJS xeXiSoi/os ra opifiara (KKevTrjay, yivovrai vyieis KOL fi\e- 
nova-iv vo-Tfpov : also De Gen. iv.6. 774 b ; Antig. Mirab. 72 (78), 98 (106) ; 
Plin. viii. 27. On the ^fXiSoi/i'a or ' Swallow-stone,' a cure for blindness, 
epilepsy, &c., see Theoph. Nonn. 36, Diosc. ii de hirundine, Plin. xi. 
79, xxxvii. 56; cf. Evangeline, I. ii. 133 'the wondrous stone which the 
Swallow Brings from the shore of the sea to restore the sight of its 
fledglings ' ; Baring- Gould, Myths of the M. Ages ; Lebour, Zoologist, 
xxiv. p. 523, 1866, c. Hence the ashes of Swallows are a remedy 
for cataract, Plin. xxix. 38 ; Galen, De Fac. Simpl. Med. Ch. Boiled 
swallow, a remedy for the bite of a mad dog, Plin. xxviii. (10) 43. 

How the mother immolates herself over the bodies of her dead 
children : Opp. Hal. v. 579 o>? S' OTTOT' opraXt'^oio-i ^fXt 
vtpQev i>7re 6p6(poio ru^eoj/ o(pis ay^i TreXatra-^ | Kai rot/y p,e 
P.TJTTJP de Trp&Tov p.ev aTvop.(vrj SeSoi^rai | Xoiyta rerptyuta fpovov yoov' aXX 
ore TralSa? | aOpfjar) (pdipevovs, f) 5* OVKTI <pui,v oXedpov \ Si'^erai, aXX' avrfjcriv 
VTral yfvvfffO'i 8pa.KovTOS \ eiXetrai p.eo'fi opviv \rj TraidoKTOvos IITT). 

The twittering of Swallows likened to the speech of barbarous 
tongues, Aesch. Ag. 1050 ^e\idovos dUijv dyi>a>ra (pwvrjv j3ap/3apov KKTT)~ 
pevrj. Ar. Av. 1 68 1 fii) ^a/3pa^et (s. /3a/3aei, /3an'^a, jSav^tt, rtrv^tfn, 
&c.) y axrirfp ai ^tXi5oi'$-. Hence 6 xe\i8a)v = 6 fidpftapos, cf. Ion. ap. 
Schol. Ar. Av. 1680; Ar. Ran. 680. Similarly, Eur. Alcmen. fr. 91 
XeXf8oi>coj/ novaela, explained by Hesych. o>r /3dp/3apa KOI davvfra -noiovv- 
TUP TMV rpayiKad/: cf. Ar. Ran. 93 xeXiSoi/a>i> fiouaeia, XwfirjTal Tf\ vr l f ' See 
also Suidas. Cf. Nicostr. 3. 288 (Mein.) el TO avvex&s KO.L noX\a KOL 
XaXeii/ | rjv TOV (ppovetv 7rapdo~r)uov, ai \e\i86vs \ eXfyovr' av fjfj.a>v 

The Pythagorean injunction ^AiSom cv olida ^ fie'^co-^oi, Pythag. 
ap. Iambi. Adhort., xxi, may be thus understood of foreigners : 
Arist. fr. 192, 1512 b, Hesych. roureWi XdXous dv6pa>7rovs o/jLvpocpiovs fj-f) 
Other explanations in Plut. Symp. viii. 7 x ^ l ^^ v T f] ^>^" ft 
, TraptiSeiy^ca TOV dj3f/3ai'ou Kai d%apio~TOV '. Diog. Lacrt. Viii. I7j 

XEAIAflN 191 

XEAIAilN [continued-]. 

p. 578, Clem. Alex. Strom, v. p. 238, c. Vide Class. Rev. 1891, pp. 
i, 230. 

On Swallows commonly building within the house, consult Darnel, 
Tour through Greece, p. 40, 1819, and recent travellers: on their 
entering ancient temples, cf. Clem. Alex. Protrept. iv. 52. 

How the Swallows restrain the overflow of the Nile : Thrasyllus in 
Aegyptiac. ap. Plut. De Fluv. Nil. ii. 1159 yei>i>>vT<u de KOI a'XXoi Xtfot, 
KoAXa>Tes KoXovfufvoi' TOVTOVs, Kara rfjv dcrefteiav TOU Nei'Xou, o-vXXeyovaai 
^eXiSoj/es', KaracTKevd^ovo'i TO 7rpoo~a.yopev6fj.evoi> ^\tdovtov rei^ofj onep eVe^ei 
TOU vSaros TOV poio/', Kal OUK e'a KaTaK\vo~p.M <pdeipeo~dai rfjv %a>pav. Cf. 

Plin. x. (33) 49. Cf. also Ogilby's Fables of Aesop, 1651, p. 54, tit. N. 
and Q. (7) v. p. 346. 

There is perhaps an allusion to this legend in the story of the building 
of the Tf"ixs in Ar. Aves, in which account we may note the references 
not only to the Swallow but to Egypt and Egyptian birds. This con- 
jecture is partly based on Rutherford's demonstration (supra cit.) that 
there is no distinct reference to mud-^/-building on the part of the 
Swallow in v. 1151. 

White Swallows. Arist. H. A. iii. 12, 519 orav ^vxn yiyvrjTat /LtSXXoj/, 
\evKos yiveTui. Cf. De Color, vi. 798, Theophr. De Sign. vi. 2, Alex. 
Mynd. ap. Ael. x. 34. A White Swallow in Samos (connected with 
the story of recovered sight), Arist. ap. Ael. xvii. 20, Antig. Mirab. 
120 (132). 

Is hostile to bees, Ael. i. 58 (cf. ibid. v. II, Phile, 650) 01 6e [/ueXm-oup- 
yoi] rfjv ^eXiSora aldol rijs p.ov(TiKr)S (cf. Ael. vi. 19) OVK cEarOKrctyoiun, KCIITOI 
paStW av avrrjv TOVTO dpdcravres' aTro^pn &e avrols Ka>\viv rfjv ^eAiSoi/a 
Tr\r)<rlov r5)v <rip.p\a>v KaXiuv vnonrjgai. Cf. also Virg. G. iv. 15 ; Chaucer, 
P. of Fowles, 353, 'the swalow, mordrer of the bees small,' &c. Cap- 
tures Ttrrtye?, Ael. viii. 6, Plut. ii. 976 C, Phile, 713 ; cf. Even, xiii, supra 
tit., p. l86. Hostile to (ri\(pai : Ael. i. 37 al o-iXfpai TO. oi'a d8iKou<nv' OVKOVV 
at nqrepes aeXivov KofJirjv ?rpoj3aXXoj/rai TCOJ> ftpeffxav, Kal eKeivais TO fVTfvdev 
a/3ara eVni/ : cf. Phile, 738, Geopon. xv. I. Is fond of ivy (a Dionysiac 
plant) Eurip. Alcm. fr. 91 TTO\VS 8' di/etp7re KKTO-OS, tv<f>vr)s K\dSos, \ ^eXiSoi/a)!/ 

In Augury. Ael. x. 342 Ti/iarat Se 17 ^eXiSobj/ Qtois fjLV)(iois Kal 'A(ppoSi'r?7. 
Swallows nesting in the general's tent were (very naturally) an evil 
omen, as in the cases of Alexander, son of Pyrrhus and Antiochus, Ael. 
1. c. : but by returning to the citadel foretold the safe home-coming of 
Dionysius (1. c.). See also Ar. Lys. 770 dXX' OTTOTOV TTT^COO-I ^eXiSoj/e? 
ei? ei/a x&pov | TOVS eTronas (f)evyovo~cii ) a7rd(r^aji'rai re (paXrjTcov \ TravXa KCLK)V 
eorai, ra S' VTTf'prepa vepTepa tfqcrei | Zet/s v\^i/3pe/zeVj;9 | . . . fjv de dtao-Ta>o-iv 
KOI dvaiTTOiVTai TTTfpvyeo-criv \ e' tepoO vaolo ^eXiSot/es', OVKCTI 86get \ opveov ovd* 
OTIOVV KaTairvyuvfo-repov clvai : the above passage is entirely mystical 


XEAIAflN (continued}. 

and obscure. How Swallows that had built in Cleopatra's galley were 
expelled by others before Actium, Plut. Anton. Ix, i. 944 a ; cf. Ant. and 
Cl., ' Swallows in Cleopatra's sails Have built their nests.' The Swallow 
that fluttered round Alexander's head as an omen of treachery, Arr. 
Anab. i. 25 rfjv yap ^eXiSoi/a <rvvTpo<pov re elvai opviQa Ka\ evvovv dv0pa>nois 
Koi \d~\ov /iaXXoy rj aXXrjv opvi&a. See Class. Rev. 1891, p. 231. 

A Sign of Rain. Arat. Phen. 944 17 \L^vr]v nepi drjda ^eXiSoi/es' aiWoi/- 
rai | yaarepi TVTTTOVO-CII avras flXevpf^ov iJScop : cf. Theoph. Sign. vi. I, 
Virg. G. i. 377- 

Fables. The Swallow and the Nightingale, vide s. v. drjSwi/. The 
Swallow and Eagle, Plut. ii. 223 F. The Wise Swallow and the Hen, 
Acs. 342 (ed. Halm). The Crow and the Swallow, TO pev <rbv *aXXo? 
TTJV eapivf]V &pav dvdf't, TO fie e/J-ov 0-co/za KOI ^ei/zooi/i TraparetWrai, Acs. 415* 
The Crow (or the Swans) and the Swallow, rl av eiroirjo-as, el rffv y\S>TTav 
ciX f ?) OTTOV TfjiTjdfia-rjs roo-avra XaXety, Acs. 416, 416 b. The Swallow and 
other Birds, Acs. 417, 417 b. The Swallow building in the Law-court, 
ot/zoi rj7 ev?7, on evda ItAvttt diKaiovvrai, \iovt] fyutye rjdiKrjiJiai, Aes. 4^j 

418 b : cf. Babr. 118. The Swallow out of due season, Babr. 131. 

XEAQNO<l>A'roi. A kind of Eagle or Vulture, Hesych. The name 
suggests the Lammergeier. In Sparta the name xf\a>vidprjs is 
said to be now applied to Aquila imperialis, but surely not to 
the exclusion of the Lammergeier. 

The Lammergeier does indeed eat tortoises, as has been mentioned 
above ; and it may accordingly be held that the name x\&vo(f)dyos 
is manifestly so simple a descriptive term as to throw doubt on 
my astronomical interpretation of the Eagle that slew the Serpent 
or the Swan. But it is curious to note that the constellation of 
the Tortoise is placed in very much the same relation to that of 
the Eagle as is that of the Swan : moreover the Tortoise forms 
part of the constellation Lyra, another name for which is the 
Vulture, and to the latter 'bird' the Eagle is said also to be 
hostile. It is only natural that those astronomical ' hostilities ' 
should be the most commented on, which are somewhat akin to 
zoological fact or possibility. 

XE'NNION, s. xmW. 

A kind of Quail, eaten pickled by the Egyptians. 

Athen. ix. 393 c piKpov S' eo-ni/ oprvyiov : cf. Cleomen. and Hipparch. 
ibi cttt., &c. Pall. Alex, xxi, Gk. Anth. iii. 119 fj^ls 6' e<r6iop.v KK\TJ- 
p.VOL a\p,vpa Triivra \ ^fwia KOI rvpovs, ^T/VOS aXiora XI'TTJ/. According to 
Bent (Cyclades, 1885, p. 128) potted or pickled quails are still eaten in 


XENNION (continued}. 

Santorini. Jablonsky, De Voc. Egypt., ap. Steph. Thes., suspects xeWtoi/ 
to have been a locust, Eg. sche. See also Hercher in Jahn's Annal. 
1856, Suppl. i. p. 285. 

XH'N. A Goose. 

Sk. hansa, hamsa, L. (fi)anser. x^ v = X avs or X VS ( c ^ M v = PW) ; 
Ger. Gans. Lat. ganta (the small wild northern species, Plin. x. 
(22) 27 ; also Venant. Fortunat, Miscell. vii. 4, n, teste Keller) is 
a borrowed word ; cf. O. H. G. ganzo (Keller), Engl. gannet. 
The connexion with x^ is doubtful (Curt.). An irreg. plur. in 

Gk. Anth. iv. 258 (A. P. vii. 546) w irrrjvas r)Kpo@6\ie x>ay. Dim. 

\-qvdpiov, Hdn. Epim. 150 ; x^l^ 6 "?, Ael. vii. 47, Eust. 753. 56 ; 
\t\viov, Menipp. ap. Athen. 664 e; x^" ?, Eubul. 3. 211. 
In Horn, frequent ; usually with the epithet apyos : cf. x a P 07rov X ava ) 
Antip. Sid. Ixxxviii, Gk. Anth. ii. 31. The Geese in the Odyssey are 
tame birds, Od. xv. 161, 174, xix. 536, in the Iliad always wild, II. ii. 460, 
xv. 690. Remains of the bird are not known from ancient Troy or 
Mycenae (Schliemann and Virchow, teste Keller, Th. d. cl. Alt., p. 288). 
Description. Arist. H. A. ii. I, 499 t^ouo-i n 8ia pecrov T>V o-^ifr/Liarcoz/ 
. Ael. xi. 37 opvis o-reyavoTrovs KOL 7rAarua>ia>. Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 509 
evpiis KOI TrXarus, drrcxpuaSes' oXiyai Karoo$ez> Kara rrjv TOV evrepov 
rjv, aldoiov (pavep&Tepoj/ orav TJ o^eia Trpo&cpaTOS TJ. Ib. vi. 2, 560 b 
rat KaraKoXvp^oixnv : ibid. 8, 564 ai 6r)\iai eVoaa^bua-i povai, KOI dia- 
8ia TTdvrbs efpfftpcvovorai, oravnep Spfanrrcu TOVTO iroiflv I ibid. 6, 563 
Trept rpiaKoj/^' f]fj.epas: cf. Varro, De R. R. iii. 10, Colum. viii. 
7, I. Their splay feet alluded to, Ar. Av. 1145. The goose's cackle is 
expressed by xyvifav, Diphil. 4. 413, na'mra&iv, J. Pollux, Lat. gingrire, 
Festus ; its splashing movements in the water by TtXaTvyifav, Eubul. 
3. 260. 

Eggs. Eriph. ap. Athen. ii. 58 b <aa \evKa ye | KOI /neyaXa. B. Xn vet> 
earivj &>s y JJLO\ 8oKel' OVTOS 8e (prjai ravra rr]V Arfiav reKelv. (Cf. Sappho, 
fr. 566, ap. Athen. 1. c., Clem. Alex. Homil. v. 14.) Simon, fr. n B 
(I.e.) diov re XTJI/OS weoi/ Maiavdpiov. Were not eaten by the Indians, 
Ael. xiv. 13. The Fable of the Golden Egg, Aesop, ed. Halm 343 b ; 
cf. Keller, Gesch. d. Gr. Fab. p. 346 et seq. 

Migrations. Ael. V. 54 01 de x*l vfs 8iafJ.ei^ovT(s TOV Tavpov TO opos 
dedoLKaai TOVS derouy, KCU yf ai/Twv \iOov eVSaKovres 1 , tva p.r) KXafacriv, 

&(T7Tfp OVV p.jBa\6vT($ CrfplCTl (TTO/JLLOV, dldTTeTOVTCll (rKOTTWVTfS, Kal TOVS 

afToits TO. TroXXa ravrj] SiaXavQdvovai. Cf. Dion. De Avib. ii. 1 8 ; Pint. 
De Soil. Anim. p. 967 B ; Phile, De An. Pr. xv. 

Sacred to Osiris and Isis, Pausan. x. 32, 16 ; cf. Juv. vi. 540; see 
also Philip. Thess. 10 (Gk. Anthol. ii. 197) TroXiov x^ v ^ v &vyos ewdpo- 



XHN (continued}. 

/3iW : whose priests used it as food, Herod, ii. 37 ; as did the 
Pharaohs, Diod. Sic. i. 70, and the sacred cats, ibid. i. 84. 

The Geese of the Capitol, sacred to Juno, Diod. Sic. xiv. 116 ; Ael. xii. 
32 ; cf. Liv. v. 47, Cicero pro Roscio, 20, Virg. Aen. viii. 655, Plin. x. 26, 
xxix. 14, Ovid, Fasti, i. 453. Cf. ref. to the bird's watchfulness, Arist. 
H. A. i. i, 488 b ftpveov alaxvvrrjKov KOI <pv\aKTiKov : also noted in the 
Vedas (Zimmer, Alt.-ind. Leben, p. 90, tit. Keller) ; cf. also Chaucer, 
'the waker goose.' Its wisdom, Ael. v. 29, cf. Ovid, Met. viii. 684, 
xi. 599 canibus sagacior anser. 

Sacred to Venus in Cyprus (Cesnola, Cyprus, pl.,vi) and to Priapus, 
Petron. Sat. 136, 137. 

The Goose was sacrificed to Isis and Osiris in Autumn (Paus. 1. c.), as 
by the ancient Germans to Woden at Michaelmas (Keller, op. c. p. 301). 

An erotic bird ; a goose enamoured of a boy, Ael. v. 29 ; of a musi- 
cian, ibid. i. 6; and of a philosopher, ibid. vii. 41. Cf. Ael. iv. 54 j 
Athen. xiii. 606 c ; Plut. Mor. 972 F. A lover's gift, Ar. Av. 707. 
Hence, in Mod. Gk., a term of endearment, xn va I JLOV J iraTrnLa p.ov 
(TraTTiria meaning a duck, but cf. Ar. Vesp. 297, ,&c.). Portends, in 
dream-prophecy, the birth of a wanton maid, Artemid. Oneirocr. iv. 83. 
Goose-fat as an aphrodisiac, Plin. xxviii. (19) 80, c. On sacrifices of 
the Goose vide Gust. Wolff, Porphyr. De Phil., Ex Orac. Haur. Libr. 
Reliq., Berlin, 1856; cf. Philologus xxviii. p. 189, 1869. On the erotic 
symbolism of the Goose, see (int. at.) Creuzer, Symb. iv. p. 423. 

Tame Geese also mentioned, Soph. Fr. 745 ndavov 8e xn va KC " **pur- 
rcpdv, e<f)CTTiov oiKeTiv re. Eubul. ap. Athen. xii. 519 KOI yap TTOO-O* KO.\\IOV, 
iKereua), rpe(peiv \ avdpuirov ear' avdpconov av exi) /3i'oi/, | ?j X*l va wXaruyioi/ra 
KCI\ Ke^vora: cf. Plut. Mor. 958 E. They were kept in the temples; 
Artemid. I.e. lepol yap oi x*l ves * e> " va is avaTpefpopevoi. Brought as 
gifts to the Indian king, Ael. xiii. 25. 

Fatted Geese, Epigen. ap. Athen. ix. 384 Sxrirep x^va a-irevrbv erpf<pf 
/ze, &C. Eubul. 2re</>. ibid. JJLTJ trv xnvus rjirap 77 tyvxrjv fX fls '- P a ^- Alex, 
xxi, Gk. Anth. iii. 119 x^vbs dXtora Xi-rrrj: cf. Juv. v. 114, Colum. xiv. 8, 
&c. A favourite food of the younger Cyrus, Xen. Anab. i. 9, 26. 
Given by the Egyptians to Agesilaus, Athen. 1. c. Brought from 
Boeotia to the Athenian market, Ar. Ach. 878, Pax 1004 ; kept like- 
wise in Macedonia and in Thessaly, Plat. Gorg. 471 C, Polit. 264 C. 
Cf. Plut. ii. 2 loc, Plin. x. (22) 27, &c. 

They were kept, but not eaten, by the Celtic inhabitants of Britain, 
Caes. Bell. Gall. v. 12 ; very much as at the present day. 

On goose-livers x^i/em fjirara, cf. (int. al.} Athen. ix. 384, Plut. ii. 965 a 
Geopon. xiv. 22, Plin. x. 52, Hor. Sat. ii. 8, 88, Juv. v. 114, Mart, 
xiii. 58, and many Comic fragments. A goose-herd, X^O^OO-KOS, Cratin. 
ap. Athen, 1. c., Diod. i. 74 ; a goose-farm or goose-pen, 


XHN (continued}. 

Varro, R. R. iii. 10, I, ^i/ojSoo-Kioi/, Geopon. xiv. 12, i, xTji/orpo^etoj', 
Colum. viii. i, 3 ; cf. ^"ojScon'a, plat. Polit. 264 C. 

On goose-fat, or goose-flesh, in medicine, Plin. xxix. 38, Nicand. Alex. 
228, Celsus, ii. 18, c. ; the blood, in medicine, ibid. xxix. 33, cf. Diosc. 
Alexiph. c. 30, Galen, Comp. Medic, xi. i. On the use and value of the 
feathers and down, Plin. x. 53 ; cf. Hesych, pvovs' TO XfTTTorarov Trrfpov, 
Kvpi&s Se rS)V xyvav. 

Eubul. UpoKp. i. 5 (3. 247 M), yaXa x'fwfc, ' pigeons' milk,' of an un- 
known luxury. 

Destructive to the crops, Babr. 13, Aesop, 76. 

A weather prophet, Arat. 1021 KOI x*i vs KXayyqSoj/ faety6p**eu Ppapolo \ 
Xtipwvos p.eya a-rjua. Cf. Theophr. Sign. vi. 3 ; Geopon. i. 3, 9 ; Avien. 
Aratea, 432 ; Suid. 

Capture by decoys, Dion. De Avib. iii. 23 : see also Nemes. Cyn. 314. 
Killed by laurel, ddcpvr) and pododdcpvr), Ael. v. 29, Phile, De An. xv. 
Use the herb sideritis as a remedy, Plin. viii. 27. 

The Oath of Socrates, vrj TOV xn va > probably for vfj TOV Zijva. ; cf. Ar. 
Av. 521 ; an oath prescribed by Rhadamanthus (Suid.). Cf. Philostr. 
vi, De Vita Apoll. c. 9; Cratin. 2. 155 (Mein.) ols r\v peyia-Tos opKos\ 
airavTi Xoycp KVOW, eVeira xn v - 

Associated with Aquarius, in a representation of the month of 
February (doubtless with reference to Juno, cf. s. v. raws), Graev. Thes. 
Ant. Rom. viii. 97 ; cf. Creuzer, Symb. iii. p. 626. 

See for a further account of the Goose in classical art and mythology, 
O. Keller, Thiere d. Cl. Alterth., pp. 286-303. 
XH'N* 6 fjiixpos, dyeXaios. 

A wild species, unidentifiable, mentioned in Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 

593 b > I2 > 597 b. 
XHNAAfl'nHE, s. x*)'<&<4, J. x r l l '^M'> Hesych. Dim. x'n^aXwireKiScus, 

Ael. vii. 47. 

The Egyptian Goose, Chenalopex aegyptiaca, Steph. This and 
TTTjveXox//- are both probably renderings of an Egyptian word, cor- 
rupted by false etymology. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 593 b, mentioned among the heavier web-footed 
birds, after 6 fjiiKpbs x*l v aye\alos. Ael. V. 30 e^et fjicv yap TO eldos TO TOV 
s > rravovpyiav 5e diKaioTdTa dvTiKpivoiTO av TTJ aXcoTreKt. KOI tVri /ueV 
paxvTfpos, dvo'peioTepos fie, KCU ^copetf 6/ud(re dcivos. dfjivveTcu yoiv 
KOL dcTov Kal a'iXovpov KCU TO, XOITTO, oo~a CIVTOV dvTinaXd fcrnv. Reverenced 
in Egypt for parental affection, Ael. x. 16, xi. 38 (piXoTewov de apa <ov 
TJV Kal 6 x^vaXcarrr]^ KOI TOVTO. Tols nepdtgi 8pa. KOI yap OVTOS irpb TO>V 
VOTTa)V eavTov Kv\ii } Kal frdi&MTUi fXnioa as Qrjpaaovn avTov r<w eirtovrC 
ol 8e dnodiSpdo-Kovo-iv ev ro> reooy. As an hieroglyphic symbol, meaning 

o 2 


XHNAAiinH= (continued'}. 

' son,' Horap. i. 53 ; cf. Bailey in Class. Journ. xvi. p. 320, and especially 
Lauth, Sitzungsber. Bayer. Akad., 1876, p. 105, who cites from the 

Rosetta stone *fe^ su-ra = vibs'H\iov. Sacred to the Nile, Herod. 

ii. 72. With cognomen Beoyevfjs, AT. Av. 1295. Its eggs second only 
to the peacock's, Athen. ii. 586. vmivepia rucra, Arist. H.A. vi. 2, 5590. 
Mentioned also Plin. x. (22) 29. 

XHNE'Pftl. A small kind of Goose, Plin.x. (22) 29 et quibus lautiores 
epulas non novit Britannia, chenerotes, fere ansere minores. 

XHNOIKO'noi. Name of an Eagle, Phile, De An. Pr. (15) 376. Cf. 

XAfXPEY'Z. An unknown bird, the statements regarding which are 
all fabulous. 

Hesych. opviddptov ^Xcopov. Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 noXeuioi TWV 6pvi6a>v 
iroiKiXides Kal Kopvdaves Kal ninpa KOI xXwpeuy, Tpvywv Kal ^Xwpeus' dno- 
KTfivei yap TTJV Tpvyova 6 xXcopeur. Hostile to rpvyav, also in Ael. V. 48 ; 
to Tpvy&v and Ko'pa, Phile, De An. Pr. 690 ; to corvus^ Plin. x. (74) 95 
noctu invicem ova exquirentes. Supposed by Gesner and Sundevall 
to be identical with xXttpfor, and by Gaza with x^ w pk, q- v - 

XAflPl'Z. The "Greenfinch, Fringilla chloris, L. Mod. Gk. <Xd>, 

(pivpi (Erh. p. 44, Von derMuhle, p. 47), in Attica o-myydpios (Heldr.). 

Cf. It. verdone, &c. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b opvis arKO)\r}Ko(pdyos. Ib. ix. 13, 615 b ra Ka'ra> 
e^et w^pa* TJ\IKOV eVri Kopvdos' TI'KT wa re'rrapa 77 TTfvre' veorrLav Troieirai 
fx. TOV (rvp-cfivTOV e\Kov(ra 7rp6ppiov t (rrpco/xara 8' VTro/SaXXei Tpt'^a? KOI epia. 
The cuckoo lays in its nest, which is placed in a tree, ibid. 29, 618. 

Ael. IV. 47 XXcopty 6Vo/za opvidos, fJTrep ovv OVK av aXXa^o^ev TTOtj^craiTO 
TtjV KctXiav % eK TOV Xeyo/zej/ou arvfjLfpvTOv' e&ri 8e pi'C a T o (Tvp.(pVTOv evpedrjvai 
Tf Kal opvgai ^aXfTTJy. <TTpo>p.vr]V de uTrojSaXXerai rpi'^a? KOI epia. KOI 6 /ueV 
6r)\vs opvis OVTCO KK\r)Tai, 6 de apprjv y ^Xwpicaj/a KaXovffiv avroV, Kal eVri TOV 
(3iov fJLTj^avtKos, paQe'iv Tf trav o TI ovv ayaQos, Kai rX^/ncoj/ inroij.e'ivai Tr)v ev rw 
pavOdveiv /Sacravoj/, orav dXw. Kal 8ta juev TOV x^i-^vos a(perov Kal eXevdepov 
OVK av i'Sot TIS avTov, rjpival 8e orav VTrap^coi/rai TpoTrai TOV cravs, 
av enKpaivoiTO. 'ApKTovpos re eVeTeiXci/, 6 Se dva^oapel es TO. oiKeta, 
Kal ftevpo eVraXij. 

According to Nicand. ap. Anton. Lib. c. ix, one of the Emathides, 
daughters of Pierus, was metamorphosed into the bird ^Xcopty. 

On the plant O-VH<PVTOV see also Diosc. iv. 10, Fraas, Fl. Cl., p. 163. 
Lindermayer, I.e., p. 62, says that the Greenfinch builds abundantly in 
the olive-groves of Attica, making its nest always of the same material, 



XAHPII (continued}. 

the roots of a species of Symphytum (?), lined with black goats' hair. In 
Ael. 1. c. the bird is confused with the Golden Oriole, x\o>piW, which 
migrates in winter, while the Greenfinch does not. 

XAftPl'flN, s. xXwpeloy, Suid. 

Cf. Lat. galbula (galbus = gelb = yellow): oriolus qu. aureolus; It. 

rigogolo, from auri-galbulus (Diez, p. 152). 
The Golden Oriole, Oriolus galbula, L. Mod. Gk. vvKofydyos 

(Von der M.), Kirpwo-rrovXi (Cyclades, Erh.), o-o^Xmos (Kriiper). 

Arist. H. A. ix. I, 609 b Kpe TroXe'/uios TW xXcopiWi, bv evioi p,vdo\oyov<Tt 
yeveo-Qai CK TrvpKa'ids. Ibid. 15, 6l6b ^XcopiW 8e jua0eli> p.ev dya6bs Kai 
, KdKOTreTTjs 5e, KOL xP av ^X L [*ox6ijpdv. Ibid. 22, 617 6 de 

0X09* OVTOS rov ^et/xco^a ov% 6parot,*7repi 8e ras rpoTras ras dfpivas 
(fravepbs /uaXtara yiVerat, aTraXXarrerat Se orav 'ApKroCpoy ririTeXX^j TO Se 
peyedos eVnv ocrov rpvya>v. Cf. Ael. iv. 47, supra S. V. X^ w P l 's : Plin. X. 
(29) 45- 

The Oriole arrives in Greece in April, and appears in great numbers 
among the figs in August (Von der Miihle, &c.). Of the above accounts 
in Aristotle, the first is clearly mythical, and contains a suggestion of 
the Phoenix myth : the second is equally obscure, though Aubert and 
Wimmer see in /Sio/M^ai/o? an allusion to the Oriole's surpassing skill 
in nest-building ; while the third, though undoubtedly referring to the 
Golden Oriole, is far from accurate : cf. Buffon, M. des Ois. v. 351 ' Je 
me contenterai de dire ici que, selon toute apparence, Aristote n'a connu 
le loriot que par ou'i-dire.' 

XPYIA'ETOI. The ' Golden Eagle,' a mystical name, already dis- 
cussed S. V. dT<$9. 

A fabulous account in Ael. ii. 39 ^pvo-deros* aXXot de dare/Hay TOV avrbv 
KaXovaiv. oparat e ov 7ro\\aKis* Xeyet de 'AptororeX^? avrbv Qrjpdv Kal 
veftpovs Kal Xa-ycos Kal yepdvovs Kal xr)vas e^ av\rjs. /Lte-yioros de deraif 
elvai TreTriVreuTai, Kal \cyowri ye KOI els TOVS Kpfjras Kal TOLS ravpois eViri- 
BeffOai avrbv Kara TO KaprepoV, K.r.X. 

XPYIOMH"TPII. v. 11. pva-ofjtrjTpis, xP V(T0 ^ T P r l s ' Transl. Aurivittis, 

The Goldfinch, Fringilla carduetis, L. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 3, 592 b, mentioned with aicavtiif, dpawls. ravra 
yap irdvTa en\ T>V a.K.av6S)V ve/uerai, cna\r)Ka d' ovdev ov' ilft^VJfay ovde'v' 
ev rail 8e Kadevdet KOI ve^erai ravra. It is remarkable that we have 
so little definite record of the Goldfinch, which in Greece is now, 
according to Lindermayer, next to the Sparrow the commonest of birds. 

XY'PPABOI* opvis TIS TTOLOS, Hesych. 


*l/A'P, s. \|/dp : also vj/dpos, s. \|/apos. Ion. ^r\p. \|mpix<>s, Hesych. 
A Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, L. Mod. Gk. tyapovi, fiavponov^i. 
The Etymology is confused and doubtful. Von Edlinger (op. c. 
p. 103) finds in Gk. ^ap, O. H. G. sprd, Lith. spakas, a connexion 
with the root of ncpK-vos, Lat. spar-gere, i. e. variegated, speckled. 
But there also seems to be a connexion of Gk. ^dp or <nrap- 
with the various names for sparrow, Goth, sparwa, O. Pr. sperglo, 
&c., as Engl. starling, stare. Ger. Staar, L. sturnus, form 
another series together with a-rp-ovdos. The Hebr. sippor is 
perplexingly similar. 

In Horn, always coupled with the Jackdaw, II. xvi. 583 tpr)Ki eWoos | 
o>Kei', oar' e(p6{Br)(T KO\OIOVS re, ^jypa? re. xvii. 755 & >a " re ^apo!)j> vefpos, rje 
KO\oiS>v. Arist. H. A. ix. 26, 617 b 6 Se tydpos eVn TroiKiXos' ptyedos S' 
eVrii/ qXtW KdTTu^os. Ib. viii. 16, 600 </>coXei. Antipat. Sid. cv ap. Suid. 
6 Trpif eyo) KOI \/^^pa KCU apiraKreipav epvicav \ (nreppaTos v^in-en; Bi(TTOi>iav 
yepavov. Anth. Pal. ix. 373 tyapas, dpovpairjs apirayas evrropirjs. Diosc. 
ii ^apas opvCu rptyovres. Is killed by o-KopoSoi/, Ael. vi. 46, Phile, 
De An. Pr. 660. Used as food, Antiph. ap. Athen. ii. 65 e. 

On talking starlings, Plut. ii. 972 F, Plin. x. 59 (43), Aul. Gell. 
xiii. 20. Stat. Silv. ii. 4, 18 auditasque memor penitus demittere voces, 
Sturnus, &c. 

^H'AHKEZ- TWV dXcKTpvovav ol voSaycwai, Hesych. Possibly akin to 
creXKes, vide s. v. o-epKos (Schmidt, ad Hesych.). 

WTTA'KH. Also 4/tTraKOS (Paus., Ael., &c.), o-irraKOS (Arr.), 

(Philost.), pirraKos (Ctes.). A Parrot 

Arrian, Ind. i. 15, 8 o-irrctKovs de Neapxos n*v o>s drj TI dapa a 
on yivovTai ev rfj 'ivd&v yfi, KOI oKolos opvis ccrriv 6 O-ITTUKOS, K.CU OKODS 0a)i/;}/ 
lei dv8pu>7rivr)V. eye!) 6e on avros re rro\\ovs O7ra>7rca Kal a\\ovs 67rt(rra- 
fjievovs fjdea rov opvida, ovdev a>s vnep dronov drjdev a7rr] 

Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 597 b (spurious passage, A. and W.) oXws &e TO. 
yafji^l/oovvxa, navra /3pa^urpa^f/Xa KCU TrAaruyXcorra Kal /ui/xTyriKa' KOL yap TO 
'ivftiKov opveov f) 'vJarraK^, TO Xeyo/xevoi/ ai/^pcoTroyXcarroi/, TOIOIITQV eon* Kal 
a/coXao-Torfpov 6e yiWrai orav iriy olvov. (Cf. Plin. x. (42) 58.) 

Pausan. ii. 28, (on animals of restricted geographical range), Trapa 
6' 'Ii/Saii/ /idi/a>j/ aXXa Te Ko/xi^erai, Kai opviQes ol ^iTTa/cot. Diod. Sic. ii at 
Se TTJS Svpi'a? raxariat -^nTTUKOvs Kal Tropfyvpiavas Kal peXeaypidas [e/crpe- 
<pov(Ti\. Philostorg. 3 Kai /iev df] Kal rr\v crtrraK?jj/ eKfWfv i(Tfj.v Kop.iop.evr)v. 

Ctes. ap. Phot. Trepl TOV opveov TOV /SirraKov, on yXoio'O'ai' dv0pa>7rivT]v e^et 

Kal <pavi]v : cf. Plut. ii. 272 F ; Porph. De Abst. iii. 4 ; Stat. I.e. humanae 
solers imitator, Psittace, linguae. 

Athen. ix. 387 d, parrots carried in Ptolemy's procession at Alexandria ; 
ibid. 391 b, mentioned as a mimic, with KiVra and O-K\^. 

WTTAKH (continued}. 

Ael. vi. 19, xvi. 2, 15, its wisdom and vocal powers; xiii. 18, is 
reckoned sacred among the Brahmins ; xvi. 2, is of three species. 

Dion. De Avib. i. 19 rot? \J/-trraKoIy 5e, ovs OVK ev t-vXivocs KXafiols dXX' 
ls (ppovpdv avayKalov, ^XP 1 - Ka * T ^ s yp*T*pas y\(ao-(rr)s utdrjyrja-e ras 
17 (pv(Tis. 
Is friendly to the wolf, Opp. Cyn. ii. 408, 409 ^ITTOKOS avre \VKOS re crvv 

Vfj.ovTaC | aiei yap Trodeovcri \VKOI rroeaixpoov opviv, 
The Indian parrots above alluded to are the common parrots of 
Northern India, Psittacus (Palaeornis] Alexandria L. (Cf. Val. Ball, 
Ind. Antiq. xiv. p. 304, 1885.) The parrots seen by Nero's army at 
Meroe (Plin. vi. (29) 35) must have been another specks, P. cubicularis, 
Hass, and probably all the parrots described by Roman writers (Ovid, 
Amor. ii. 6, Statius, Silv. ii. 4, Apul. Florid. 12, Persius Prologue, and 
even Plin. x. (42) 58) came from Alexandria and belonged to that 
species. They are described as green by Stat., ille plagae viridis 
regnator Eoae ; Ovid, Tu poteras virides pennis hebetare smaragdos, 
Tincta gerens rubro Punica rostra croco, c. Cf. Sundevall, op. cit., 
pp. 126, 127, 

vp|<|>ArON' piKpov opviddpiov, Hesych. 

'aKY'HTEPOI. An epithet of a Hawk, used specifically in Ael. xii. 4. 
Cf. II. xiii. 62, &c. 

'ftPl'ftN, s. wptwK. An unknown and mystical bird. 

Clit. ap. Ael. xvii. 22 : an Indian bird, like a Heron, red-legged, 
blue-eyed, musical, amative. Nonn. Dion. xxvi. 201 &>piW, y\vKvs opvis, 
ofjLouos e/j.(ppovi. KvKVcp. Cf. Strab. xv. 718. 

This bird, always associated with the equally mysterious Karpevs, is 
evidently a poetic and allegorical creation, but what it signifies is 

Also ouris, Galen, Hesych. 
The Bustard, Otis tarda, L. ; including also the Houbara, O. 

Honiara. Mod. Gk. dypi6ya\\os, Erh. ; or/Sa, Von der Miihle. 

Lat. tar da, whence Bustard, i.e. avis Tar da, Plin. x. (22) 29 

Proximae eis (tetraonibus) sunt quae Hispania aves tardas appellat, 

Graecia otidas. 

Description. Arist. H. A. ii. 17, 509 TOV oro/Liaxoi> e'^ei evpvv KOI TtXarvv 
o\ov' a7ro(pvddas e^ei. Ib. V. 2, 539 (rvyKadeio-r)? rrjs QrjXeias enl rr]v yrjv 
eVtjSaiWi TO appev. Ib. vi. 6, 563 eTrwa^et Trepi TpiaKovC? rjpepas (like Other 
large birds, e. g. goose and eagle). Arist. Fr. 275, 1527 b, ap. Athen. ix. 
390 c eVri p,v TWV KTO7Ti.6vTa>v Kal cr^iSaj/OTrdSooj/ KOI Tpi8aKTv\a>v } fjityeSos 
d\CKTpv6vos jueyaXov, XP^^ a oprvyos, K(pa\r) 7rpop.r)KT)s, pvyxos o|u, rpdx^os 
\fTTTos, 6<pOa\p,ol /neyaXot, yXwcraa ocrrcbS^s 1 , vrpoXo/Soi/ 5' OVK \ei. (This 


QTI1 (continued}. 

last description is perhaps taken from the Little Bustard, O. tetrax, 
Mod. Gk. ^a/Lion'So.) Paus. x. 34, I ai Se oori'Se? KaXou/u,ei/ai Trapa TOV 
Kj?(pto~6y (rov eV <J?am'i) rc/toyrat juaXura opviOaiv. 

Capture by Coursing, with horse and dog. Xen. Anab. i. 5, 3 ra? 8e 
wn'Sa? af TIJ TO^U avio~Trj eari \ap.{Bdv(iv' Trerovrai re yap (Spa^u axTrrep ol 
TrepStKfs Kal ra^u aTrayopevouori* ra 5e Kpea avrtov fjdea eo~Ttv (but cf. Plin. 
1. c.). Athen. ix. 393 d, quoting Xenophon, adds from Plutarch, aXrjdrj 
\iytiv TOV SevofpwvTa' (pepeadai yap Tra/ujroXXa TO. a>a ravra els TTJV 
'AXedV8peiai> drro rrjs TrapaKfip.evr)s Aifivr)?, TTJS Qypas avrwv Toiavrrjs yivo- 
fievrjs. Alex. Mynd. ap. Athen. 1. C. Trpoarayopeveo-dai avrov \aya>diav. 
Synes. Ep. iv. p. 165 ^'5/ 5e TLS Ka\ o>ri8a e8a)K6j/, opveov CKTOTTMS f]dv. 

Friendship for the horse. Ael. ii. 28 TTJV con'Sa TO ov opvidav tlvai 
^iXiTTTroraroj/ axoua) . . . ITTTTOV Se orav deda-rjrai, ^Sio-ra Trpoo-Tre'rerdi. Alex. 
Mynd. 1. C. (pa<rl ' avrov Kal rrjv rpcxprjv dvafJiapvKa(r6ai fjSe<rdai re iTTTrw, ei 
yovv TIS dopav tmrav Trepi^otro, drjpeva-fi ovovs av Be\rj' Trpocriaai yap. 
Cf. Plut. Sol. Anim. xxxi. 7 (ii. 981 B) ; Opp. Cyn. ii. 406; Dion. De 
Avib. iii. 8. 

Hostile to the dog, Ael. v. 24, and grossly deceived by the fox, 
ib. vi. 24. 

Buffon and others have supposed from the name wris that the 
Houbara (which is very rare in Greece) is chiefly meant : but the 
etymology is doubtful ; the ' ears ' are not mentioned save by Oppian, 
Cyneg. ii. 407 a>r/6Vy, alert T0r]\v del Xao-itoraroj/ ovas : and besides the 
cheek-tufts of the Common Bustard might suggest ears as well as the 
crest of the Houbara. It is however the Houbara, as the common 
African species, which is alluded to in Plutarch ap. Athen. I.e. 

*QTOI, s. WTOS. 

A Horned Owl, especially the Short-eared Owl, Strix brachyotus 

or Asio acdpitrinus. 

Arist. H. A. viii. 12, 587 b, mentioned along with opriryo/^rpa and 
Ki>xpap,os as a migratory bird, in connexion with the migration of the 
quails. Further (loc. dub., A. and W.) 6 ' eoros O/JLOIOS TOW y\avgl Kal nepl 
rd ojra nrepvyia e%a)v' evtoi S' avrov WKriKOpaKa KaXovcriv (cf. Hesych.). 
O"ri de Ko/SaXo? Kal /u/z^r^s 1 , Kal dvTop%ovfjLfvos dXiV/ferai, Trepif\66vTos 
Qarepov TO>V QrjpevT&v, Kaddirep r] y\av. Cf. Arist. ap. Athen. ix. 390 f 
6 cards' eVrt pev Trapopoios rfj y\avKi } OVK eort de wurepivos . . . peyedos 
TTfpiCTTfpas, K.r.X. 

In Athen. ix. 390 d, a ridiculous story of its capture by mimicry : 
oi 8e (rrdvTfs avr>v KaravriKpv viraXeifpovrat (pappaKco TOVS o^^aX/iovy, 
Trapao-fcevacravre? aXXa (pdppaKa KoXXjjriKa 6(pda\p,S)V Kal /3Xe^)apa)V, aVfp 
ou Trdppo) eavT&v eV \KavicrKaLS (Spatial? ridfaatv' ol ovv aroi Qeupovpevoi 
TOVS inraXeifpofJievovs TO OVTO Kal atrol TTOIOVO-IV, K T&V \Kavid<av Xa/ij3a- 

flTIZ flTOI 201 

iiTOZ continued}. 

VOVTSS' /cat raxecos dXiVieoprat. A less absurd version, ibid. 391 a ; cf. 
Plut. Mor. ii. 961 E. Hence cords-, one easily taken in, a 'gull.' 

Plin. x. (23) 33 Otus bubone minor est, noctuis maior, auribus plumeis 
eminentibus, unde et nomen illi ; quidam Latine asionem vocant : 
imitatrix avis ac parasita, et quodam genere saltatrix, &c. 

Casaubon and others, followed by Lidd. and Sc., state that Athenaeus 
confounds cores with conV. There is indeed a confusion in the text, due 
to the interpolation in 360 d /U/^TIKOI/ cV e'cm, K.r.X., between two state- 
ments referring to con'? ; but the respective statements as to coros and 
con's- are correct. 

The Short-eared Owl is indicated in the following statements : 
(i) as a migratory bird; (2) as associated with the quails, i.e. a bird 
of the open country; (3) as being diurnal and not nocturnal. The 
commentators have often fallen into error from ignorance of the habits 
of the Short-eared Owl : e. g. Gesner, in gallinis, de otide, ' nocturnam 
avem aut noctuae similem nullam migrare arbitror.' (Certain other 
species are, at least, partially migratory ; cf. (int. al.} Giglioli, Avif. 
Ital., 1886, pp. 227, 228, &c.) 

In Arist. H. A. viii. 12, and in Plin. I.e. there appears to be some 
confusion with the Long-eared or Common Horned Owl, Strix otus, L. 



Add the following references, concerning the Eagle in connexion 
with the sacred Olive : Nonn. Dion. xl. 523 tyevriov opviv eXairjs, cf. ibid. 
470 ; ibid. 493 opoxpovov (s. opoxpoov) opviv Am'?/?. The Eagle sacrificed 
to Neptune, ibid. 494. Add also the epithet xP WI/ j Lye. 260. 


Hesychius states that 'AjySco*/ was a surname or epithet of Athene 
among the Pamphylians. The connexion between Athene and the 
Nightingale or the Adonis-myth, lies perhaps in the fact that Athene 
or Minerva was associated, as for instance in the cylindrical zodiac of 
the Louvre, with the sign and month of the vernal equinox. Just as 
Adonis or Attis was, in like manner, a Spring-god and god of the 
opening flowers ; Porph. ap. Euseb. P. E. iii. 11, p. no et seq. 

While I am still convinced of a connexion between the attributes of 
drj8(oi/ and the veiled allusions to the mysteries of Adonis, I am inclined 
to admit that some of the minor arguments adduced by me in support 
of this hypothesis are overstrained : in particular the interpretation 
given (pp. 13, 14) of Thuc. ii. 29, and the suggested connexion between 
Daulis, dao-vs, Duzi. 


In preparing the article dXeKTputuy, I neglected to consult Baethgen, 
De Vi et Signific. Galli in Relig. et Art. Gr. et Romanorum, Diss. 
Inaug., Getting. 1887, in which paper will be found (among other 
matters) a valuable account of monumental and numismatic representa- 
tions of the Cock. 

The Cock on coins of Himera (vide supra, p. 26) is traced by 
Baethgen (p. 35) to an association with Aesculapius ; cf. C. I. Gr. 
Nr. 5747 'Ao-K\a7ricp KOI 'l/uepa Trora^w 6 dapos . . . ^(orrjpo-iv. See also 
Head, Hist. Numorum, p. 125. 

TE'AAIOI, a name for the Hoopoe ; vide s. v. 


The BnpKcuoi (vide supra, p. 49) are probably the RapKavioi (? Parsees) 
of Ctes. xi, Tzetz. Chil. i. I, 82 ; cf. J. Macquart, Philologus, Supple- 
ment-bd. vi. p. 609, 1893. 


The eastern legend of the Woodpecker's imprisoned young is so 
suggestive of the walled-up nest of the Hornbill, that one is almost 
tempted to suspect a dim tradition, far-travelled from Africa or India, 
concerning the extraordinary nesting-habits of the latter bird. 


The following works, in addition to the Natural Histories of Pliny, 
Aelian, and Phile, are referred to merely under their authors' names : 

AUBERT UND WIMMER. Aristoteles' Thierkunde, 2 vols. Leipzig, 
1868 (especially Thierverzeichniss, vol. I., pp. 77-113). 

BIKELAS, O. La nomenclature de la Faune Grecque. Paris, 1879. 

ERHARD, DR. Fauna der Cykladen. Leipzig, 1858. 

KRUPER, DR. Zeiten des Gehens und Kommens und des Briitens 
der Vogel in Griechenland und lonien ; in Mommsen's 
Griechische Jahreszeiten, 1875 (mit Citaten und Zusatzen 
von Dr. Hartlaub). 

LINDERMAYER, DR. A. Die Vogel Griechenland s. Passau, 1860. 

MUHLE, H. VON DER. Beitrage zur Ornithologie Griechenlands. 
Leipzig, 1844. 

SUNDEVALL, C. J. Thierarten des Aristoteles. Stockholm, 1863. 

It is perhaps desirable that I should point out that I have several 
times in this book, quite with my eyes open, quoted authors whom 
scholars now look upon with distrust or even altogether reject. The 
student who is not ashamed to consult Creuzer, nor afraid to peep now 
and then even into Bryant, will not only find there a great useless 
mass of theories now deservedly repudiated, but will also find a great 
store of curious learning and will be guided to many obscure sources 
of useful knowledge. 


Page 1 6, line 20, for etVi readovras 
20, 24, for Scut. razd? Sent. 
44, 6, /0r Trerowai read Trcrtoj/rai 
45> 1$, for avtKpayr] read avaKpayy 
63, 2I t for TreTritrreuerat read TremarevTai. 

For the detection of most of the above errors, and for infinite 
kindness in reading the final proofs of the whole book, I am indebted 
to my friend Mr. W. Wyse. I must record my debt also, for the 
like scholarly services, to Mr. P. Molyneux of the Clarendon Press. 
Lastly, I must pay a debt which should have been acknowledged more 
prominently than here, to Mrs. W. R. H. Valentine, of Dundee, for three 
beautiful wood-cuts, the work of her hands. 




Clarenbon press, rfovb. 



. Page i 


.. 7 


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